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I.— Eleventh Annual Address of the President to the 
Philological Society, delivered at the Anniversary 
Meeting, Friday, 19th May, 1882. By Alexakdvr 
J. Ellis, S.A., P.R.S., P.S.A* 1 


Obituabt of Dr. John Muir and Mr. John Nicol. By 
On the Work op the Philological Society. By the 

xxIBbXUEIiX ««■ ••• ..a ••■ ««« ••• ••« ••• ••• o 

Refobt on the Present State of the Philological 
Society's Dictionary. By Dr. Murray, Editor, 
Vice-President, fonnerly President 6 

Report on Stanford's Dictionary of Anglicized 

Foreign Words AND Phrases 7 

Report on the English Dialect Society. By Re7. 

Prof. W. W. Skeat 10 

On Dialect, Language, Orthoepy, and Dr. G. 

Wenker's Speech Atlas. By the President ... 20 

Report on the Yaaoan Language of Tierra del 
Fuego. Arranged from the papers of the Rev. 
Thomas Bridges, by the President 32 

Report on Researches into the South Andaman Lan- 
guage. Arranged from the papers of E. H. Man, 
Esq., and Lieut. R. C. Temple, by the President... 44 

Note on Prof. Julg's Report on the Present State of 

Mongolian Researches. By the President 73 

Report on the Progress of Cuneiform Research. By 
Theo. G. Pinches, Esq., of the Oriental Department 
of the British Museum ... .: 77 

Report on Phonetics. By Henry Sweet, Esq., M.A., 

Vice-President, formeriy President 100 

Report on General Philology. By the same 105 

Report on Germanic and English Philology. By the 

oaj&js •• ••• ••• ••• ••• ■•• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• XXi/ 

Report on the Philology of the Romance Languages 
FROM 1876 to 1882. By Dr. Edmund Stengel, Pro- 
fessor of Romance Philology at Marburg 120 

Conclusion. By the President 146 



II. — Some Latin Etymologies. By Professor Postgate. . . 149 

III. — Initial Mutations in the Living Celtic, Basque, Sar- 
dinian, and Italian Dialects. By H.I.H. Pbince 


IV. — Spoken Portugueze. By Bto^EY Sweet, M.A. . . 203 

V. — The Boflworth-Toller Anglo-Saxon Dictionary. By 

James Platt, Jun., Esq 237 

VI.-— The Etymology of " Surround." By the Rev. Pro- 
fessor Skeat 247 

VII. — Old English Verbs in -cgan^ and their Subsequent 

History. By Dr. J. A. H. Mitbrat 249 

VIII. — Words Connected with the Vine in Latin and the 


Neo-Latin Dialects. By H.I.H. Prince Loms- 


IX. — Names of European Reptiles in the Living Neo-Latin 
Languages. By H.I.H. Prince Loxtis-Lucien Bona- 
parte 312 

X. — The Treatment of English Borrowed Words in Collo- 
quial Welsh. By Thomas Powell 355 

XI. — The Oscan Inscription discovered at Capua in 1876. 

By G. A. ScHRUMPP 378 

XII. — On TreXwpf TTeXwpo^j TreXivpio^. By R. F. Weymouth, 

Esq., D.Lit 389 

XIII. — Portuguese Vowels, according to Mr. R. G. Vianna, 
Mr. H. Sweet, and Myself. By H.I.H. Prince 
Louis-LuciEN Bonaparte 404 

XIV.— Spoken North Welsh. By Henrt Sweet, M.A. . . 409 

XV. — Italian and Uralic Suflixes Compared. By H.I.H. 

Prince Lofis-Lucien Bonaparte 485 




XVI. — Albanian in Terra d*Otranto. By H.I.H. Peince 


XVII. — Thirteenth Address of the President to the Philo- 
logical Society, deliyered at the Anniversary Meet- 
ing, Friday, 16th May, 1884. By J. A. H. Mtjkbay, 
B.A., LL.D 

SmmABT or Coictekts. 

Introduction. By the President 

Obituary Notices. By the President 

On the Work of the Philological Society. By the 

X^xUSoLUJSM^i ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••■ ••' 

Report on the Philological Society's Dictionary 

JSy tuG JlRESIDENT ••• *• ... >•• ... ••• .. •« 

Report on Slavonic Philology and Literature 
By "W. R. MoRFiLL, M.A 

Report on Recent Hungarian Philology. By A. J 

X A"X'A'B l t o OJf| Ju.^L. ■(■ ... ... ••• .•• ••. ... •• 

Report on the Turkish Language, and Turkish 
Philology. By £. G. Browne 

Report on the Haxitic Languages of North Africa 

Xj Y Xir« xi • \j \} Ox ••• ••• ••■ ••• ••• ••• ••• •• 

- On the Practical Study of Language. By H. Sweet 

JUL* **• ••• ••• ••• •• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• >• 

Conclusion. By the President 

List of Readers and Works Read for the Dictionary 

••• ••• ••■ ••• ••• 

I • •• • 











XVIII. — The Simple Tenses in Modem Basque and Old 
Basque, etc. By H.I.H. Pbince Louis-Lucxen Bona- 
PABTE , . . . 643 

Appendix I. — ''Roncesvalles" and "Juniper," in Basque, 
Latin, and Neo-Latin, and the Successors of Latin 
"J." By H.I.H. LoFis-LirciEN Bonaparte .. (l)-(4) 

Appsin)Ei: II. — On the Delimitation of the English and Welsh 

Languages. By Alexandeb J. Ellis, F.RtS. 5*-40* 

Appendix III. — Neo-Latin Names for "Artichoke." By 

H.I.H. Prince Louis-Lucien Bonapabte . , 41 ♦-4 7* 

• • • 



AppEin)ix IV. — A Word-List illustrating the Correspondence 
of Modem English with Anglo-French Vowel- 
Sounds. By B. M. Skeat 48*-96* 

Appendix V. — One word more on " Artichoke." By H.I.H. 

Prince Loths-Lucien Bonapakte If'^t 

Appendix VI. — Remaxques sur certaines Assertions de M, J. 
Vinson concemant la langue Basque. By H.I.H. 
Prince Loiris-LuciEN Bonapakte IJ-^t 

Index 5t-19t 

Monthly Abstracts for the Session 1882-3 i~xx 

Monthly Abstracts for the Session 1883-4 i-xxii 

List of Members xxiii-xxx 






ING, FRIDAY, 19th MAY, 1882. By Alexander 
J. Ellis, B.A., F.R.S., F.S.A. 


Obitvart op Dr. John ifuir and 
Hr. Henry Nieol. BythePRESi- 

JJdV X«a« ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• 

On the Work of the Philolo- 
gical SociBTT. By the P&bsi- 

Xl£*V S * m • ••• ■•• ••• ••• ••• 

Report on the Present State 
OF THE Philological Society* 8 
Dictionary. By Dr. Murray, 
Editor, Vice-President, formerly 
X resiQeiix .*• .•• ••• ••• .«• 

Report ON Stanford's Diction- 
ary OF Anglicised Foreign 
Words AND Phrases 

Report on the English Dialect 
Society. By Rev. Prof. W. W. 

OJEk.CJVX*» ••• ••• ••• ••• 

On Dialect, Language, Or- 
thoepy and Dr. G. Wenker's 
Speech Atlas. By the Presi- 

AJ C^ X»a« •■• •• ••• ••• ••• 

Report on the Yaagan Lan- 
guage OF Tierra del Fuego. 


Ret. Thohas Bridges, hy the 

X KbDXLIB^^ •• ••• ••• ••• »•• 

Report on Researches into the 
South Andaman Language. 






Arranged from the papers 
OF E. H. Man, Esq., and 
Lieut. R. C. Temple, by the 

X REoIDE^T.. .•• ••• ... ... YY 

Note on Prop. Julo*8 Report 
ON THE Present State of 
Mongolian Researches. By 
the President 73 

Report on the Progress of 
Cuneiform Research. By 
Theo. G. Pinches, Esq., of 
the Oriental Department of the 
British Museum 77 

Report on Phonetics. By 
Henry Sweet, Esq., M.A., 
Vice-President, formerly Presi- 
sioent ... ... ... luu 

Report on General Philology. 
By the same 105 

Report on Germanic and 
English Philology. By the 

SAME .. ... ... ... ... ... X to 

Report on the Philology op 
the Romance Languages from 
1875 TO 1882. By Dr. Edmund 
Stengel, Professor of Romance 
Philolog^y at Marburg 120 

Conclusion. By the President 146 

JiADiES AND Gentlemen, 

Members of the Philological Society, — 

Obituary. Dr. John Muir, Mr. Henry Nicol. 

One by one the older members of our Society are leaving 
us for *' the other side." Last year I had to chronicle the 
death of our original Honorary Secretary, Dr. E. Guest. 
Phil. Trans. 1882-8-^ 1 

2 THE president's ANNUAL ADDRESS FOR 1882 

To-night I have to announce the loss of a very distin- 
guished member of our Society, Dr. John Muir, an eminent 
Sanscritist. Dr. Muir, living in Edinburgh, was very seldom 
present at our meetings, but he always took an interest in 
our proceedings, and frequently allowed himself to be added 
to the members of our Council. He was born in Glasgow in 
1810, and entered the Civil Service in India in 1828, re- 
maining the usual 25 years. He obtained great proficiency 
both in reading and writing Sanscrit, in which he was able 
to compose poetry that could bear Pundit criticism, and his 
great work, " Original Sanscrit Texts on the Origin and 
History of the People of India, their Religion and Institu- 
tions," in 5 volumes, made him thoroughly well known to all 
Oriental scholars, who greatly appreciated his labours and 
worth, as was well evinced by the reception giv^en to him by 
the Congress of Orientalists at Florence in 1878. Nor were 
his efforts in support of Sanscrit studies confined to literary 
work alone ; he actually founded, and contributed largely to 
the endowment of the professorial chair of Sanscrit in Edin- 
burgh, and in every way — by giving prizes and by words 
of encouragement — promoted the study of that language in 
Great Britain. In his later years Dr. Muir wrote many 
English poetical translations of Sanscrit texts, which he 
printed for private circulation only. We must all lament 
that our Society has been deprived of such an eminent 

In addition to the notice of Mr. Nicol in my last year's 
address, you will, I am sure, be pleased to hear the tribute to 
his memory by M. Gaston Paris in his presidential address 
to the Society des Anciena Textea Frangais on 21 Dec. 1881, 
published in the Bulktin of that Society for 1881, No. 3, 
p. 82. After having spoken of Littr^'s loss, M. Gaston 
Paris said : 

" Pendant que Littr^ partait plein de jours, laissant 
derriere lui, avec bien d'autres ouvrages, ce monument du 
Dictionnaire qui immortalisera son nom, un jeune savant, 
qui avait entrepis, sur une partie de I'histoire de notre 
ancienne langue, les travaux les plus importants et les mieux 


con9us, Henry Nicol, presque le seul qui, en Angleterre, 
fit de I'Anglo-nonnand une ^tude vraiment scientifique, 
s'^teignait k Alger, sans m^me avoir trac^ le plan complet 
de son oeuvre, mais non sans avoir fait connaitre des 
^chantillons qui permettent d'en appr^cier le m^rite et la 
solide preparation." 

The Work of the Philological Society. 

The Monthly Proceedings^ under the able editorship of ifr. 
Sweet, give such a complete account of what has taken place 
at every meeting of the Society, that it is only necessary 
here to classify the papers, reports, and statements 

Since our last anniversary on 20 May 1881 we have had, 
exclusive of to-day, 14 meetings, of which one on 24 June, 
1881, was an extra meeting convened to hear a paper from 
Mr. Marshall, which illness unfortunately prevented him from 
presenting, nor has he been able to bring it forward during 
the remainder of our session. Illness also prevented me from 
attending to my duties as president during the month of 

On 2 Dec. 1881 Mr. Gust presented the report of 
himself and Prof. Sayce, the deputation from the Society to 
the Congress of Orientalists at Berlin. 

On 3 February, 1882, after a paper by Mr. Vogin, of 
Holland, had been read on the Partial Corrections of English 
Spelling, which occupied us so much during the previous 
session, Mr. Sweet made proposals, which were adopted, to 
endeavour to agree with the Committee of the American 
Philological Association on the subject. 

Mr. Walter R. Browne gave us a paper on 17 June, 1881, 
on the distribution of place-names in the Scottish Lowlands, 
in continuation of his former paper relating to the same in 
England. And on the same day Mr. H. M. Baynes read 
a paper on the application of the Psychological Method to 

4 THE president's ANNUAL ADDRESS FOR 1882. 

Our treasurer Mr. Dawson gave us two important papers, 
which we printed and distributed at once with the Monthly 
Proceedings, namely, on the treatment of the indefinite article 
cfy an in the authorised and newly revised versions of the 
New Testament (18 Nov. 1881), and on translations of the 
New Testament (17 Feb. 1882), shewing in what great need 
of revision the new revision stood. 

Grammar occupied us for several evenings. There is 
a growing feeling that the old Latin grammars are un- 
suitable for setting the norm for grammars of modern 
languages and for non- Aryan languages, and rather eager 
discussions took place upon some of the points raised. Mr. 
Sweet's papers were read on 16 Dec. 1881, and 3 Feb. 1882, 
and Mr. Brandreth's on 5 May, 1882. These must be dis- 
tinguished from the special paper on some points in Old- 
English Grammar read by Mr. James Piatt, junior, on 
2 Dec. 1881. Mr. Piatt on the same evening read a paper 
on the novel but interesting subject of Old-English " pet- 

In this connection I may name Mr. Sweet's notes on some 
English Etymologies on 3 June, 1881, and his Old English 
contributions on 3 March, 1882, dealing in the first part 
with the influence of stress in sound-changes of Old English, 
and in the second part with the progress of his work on 
the " Oldest English Texts." 

Phonetics occupied a large part of our time. A knowledge 
of the sounds of languages and their relations, as standing 
behind the written symbols and alone giving them life and 
value, is becoming daily more and more appreciated, and it 
may now be said to be recognised that no one can be an 
etymologist if he is not also somewhat of a phonologist. 
Prince Louis Lucien Bonaparte read his exhaustive paper on 
living Slavonic sounds as compared with those of the prin- 
cipal Neo-Latin and Qermano-Scandinavian sounds on 4 and 
18 Nov. 1881. Mr. Sweet on 24 June, 1881, and Mr. Cayley 
on 17 Feb. 1882, dealt with particular points of ancient 
Greek Pronunciation. On 3 June, 1881, Mr. Sweet gave us 
Part III. of his History of English Sounds, and on 16 Dec. 


1881, he read us Mr. Powers paper on English words adopted 
into the Welsh of West Brecknockshire and East Cardigan- 
shire, shewing their phonetic changes. Finally, on 21 April, 

1882, I read my paper on the Dialects of the Midland and 
Eastern Counties, proposing a strictly phonetic classification, 
and forming the second stage of preparation for my I'ho- 
nology of Existing English Dialects. 

The great work of the Dictionary of the Philological 
Society naturally occupied several evenings. Dr. Murray 
gave an account on 24 June, 1881, of his interview with 
the delegates of the Clarendon Press, Oxford, and con- 
sulted the Society on various points of detail ; on 2 Dec. 
1881, he gave from his slips the history and explanations 
of several words under A, and on 20 Jan. 1882, he devoted 
an evening to explaining the actual work on the dictionary 
in preparation for going to press with Part I. in March ; 
and on 5 May he was able to show us some first trial proofs. 
On 17 March, in consequence of a letter from an outsider 
to the Society, Dr. Murray was invited to explain his 
proposed method of marking pronunciation in the dictionary, 
to meet what he considered the necessities of the case. And 
he will now read a short report upon the present state of this 
great undertaking. 

Report on the Present State of the Dictionary of the 
Philological Society. Bv Dr. Murray, Editor, 
Vice-President (formerly President). 

''I had intended on the present occasion to give a somewhat 
detailed account of the results of the work for the Dictionary 
during the past three years. This is, however, not now 
practicable. Although the period which I considered re- 
quisite for completing the reading and examination of books 
expired in March last, the full results have not yet reached 
me, or only so lately that I have not had time to examine 
and tabulate them, which I hope to be able to do before the 
date of another Presidential Address. That will also be the 

6 THE president's ANNUAL ADDRESS FOR 1882 

fitting opportunity for acknowledging the help of the many 
hundred Readers, who have worked so generously and un- 
grudgingly to supply both general and special quotations to 
illustrate the history of words. The most distinguished 
of these have already been referred to in former annual 
reports, and to all I can for the present only express my own 
thanks and those of the Philological Society for the signal 
help which they have given us. The great fact, which 
will be much more interesting to our members and friends, is, 
that the Dictionary is now at last really launched, and that 
some forty pages are in type ; of which forty-eight columns 
have reached me in 'proof/ There have arisen, as was to 
be expected, innumerable questions of form, editorial and 
typographical, which have had to be settled over these early 
pages, necessitating much recasting, and involving consider- 
able delay ; but I am glad to say that these have nearly all 
been settled, and that we have now a fair prospect of pro- 
ceeding uninterruptedly, and of bringing out our first part 
during the present year. At the same time the daily labour 
involved in seeing the work through the press is enormously 
heavy — indeed we cannot vet estimate its actual amount, and 
the rate of progress is therefore necessarily still an unknown 
quantity. I have, however, the pleasure of laying upon the 
table specimens of the work in all its stages, and I trust that 
the members will find that it realizes their expectations of 
what the Dictionary ought to be. I need only add that 
though part of letter A is in the printers' hands, it is not too 
late to send us anything of value, either for that or later 
letters. Many valuable additions will, I trust, still be made 
to our materials, which even now are far from complete in 
reference to the history and use even of common words. 
Thus, in sending to press the articles About and Above, I 
have been painfully disappointed to find how poorly the 
meanings and constructions of these words are illustrated 
from modem English writers, so that after spending hours 
of precious time — when I really had not moments to spare — 
in trying to find them, I have been in too many instances 
obliged to concoct sentences and phrases as illustrations. 


This is Tery unsatisfactory, and I fear that what is true of 
these words will be found to hold good of prepositions, con- 
junctions, and 'particles ' generally; and no more important 
help could now be rendered to the Dictionary than by the 
collection of modern instances of all uses and constructions 
of these little words, which Readers are so apt to neglect 
unless they are specially looking for them. 

''I have also specially to remind the members of the 
Society that the time has now come when their help is 
urgently desired in the arrangement and preparation of the 
materials in hand, and in doing everything that they can to 
accelerate the final work of editing. In response to my 
former appeal, several friends have undertaken parts of 
letters, but there is still room for much more help of this 
kind, and I earnestly ask every one who has the time to 
take at least a small portion of the slips to arrange and 

Report on Stanford's Dictionary of Anglicised Foreign 

Words and Phrases. 

In connection with Dr. Murray's labours on the Philo* 
logical Society's Dictionary, I may mention the bequest of 
the late Mr. John Frederick Stanford, M.A., F.R.S., of 
Christ's College, Cambridge, to his University. This con- 
sists of a mass of papers which were to form the nucleus of 
a dictionary of foreign words used in English, and £5000 
for the purpose of editing and printing it. 

Some of our older members may recollect that several years 
ago Mr. Stanford was introduced to our Society by Mr. H. 
B. Wheatley, and read a paper before it. He was anxious 
that the Philological Society should take over his collection 
of slips, and either work them into its dictionary or make 
them the foundation of a new one. But Mr. Furnivall, who 
was at that time Editor of the Dictionary, reported that most 
of Mr. Stanford's slips were extracts with no date or record of 
their source, and as Mr. Stanford did not propose to pay the 

8 THE president's ANNUAL ADDRESS FOR 1882 

expenses of a searcher for their identification, the Society 
declined doing anything in the matter. Mr. Stanford's 
bequest of £5000, however, for the completion of his 
material, entirely altered the complexion of affairs, and 
made it possible to produce a dictionary similar to what he 
desired. Nevertheless the first Syndicate appointed by the 
University of Cambridge to report on Mr. Stanford's bequest, 
advised that it should be refused, as they considered it im- 
possible to comply with the conditions of the will. On a 
day being appointed for a discussion of this report in the 
Senate, Mr. Furnivall went to Cambridge, to lead the opposi- 
tion to its confirmation, and shew in what way, in compliance 
with Mr. Stanford's will, a valuable dictionary of Anglian 
and Foreign terms and phrases could be compiled, which 
would present a complete picture of English social life from 
the time of Charles II. Our members, Prof. Postgate and 
Mr. Henry Bradshaw, and all the best authorities, were of 
the same opinion as Mr. Furnivall, and when the Grace for 
confirming the Report, advising the University to refuse the 
bequest, was submitted to the Congregation, it was rejected 
by the extraordinary majority of 100 to 2. 

The University then appointed a second Syndicate to ex- 
amine the papers and will, and consider whether the bequest 
could be accepted, taking counsel's opinion if necessary. This 
Syndicate reported on 26 Nov. 1881, that they found the 
papers to consist mainly of undated cuttings from unnamed 
newspapers, alphabetically arranged, and almost useless as a 
contribution to lexicography, but that having regard to the 
wording of the will itself, they were of opinion that Mr. 
Stanford's intentions could be substantially carried out by 
publishing a Dictionary to be called " The Stanford Etymo- 
logical Dictionary of Anglicised Foreign Words and Phrases," 
any material collected by Mr. Stanford being properly dis- 
tinguished by a mark. 

This Dictionary, while excluding purely technical terms, 
would embrace : 

(1) All Anglicised non-European words and phrases found 
in English literature. 


(2) All Latin and Greek words which retain their orginal 
form, and all Latin and Greek phrases in nse in English 

(3) All Anglicised words and phrases borrowed directly 
from modem European languages, excepting French. 

(4) All words and phrases borrowed from French which 
retain the French pronunciation. 

(5) All words borrowed from French, Latin, and Greek, 
since the accession of Henry VIL, but imperfectly naturalised 
and now obsolete. 

This report was confirmed by a Grace of the Senate on 
8 Dec. 1881, and another Syndicate appointed to prepare a 
scheme to carry it out. This Syndicate on 30 March, 1882, 
recommended the appointment of an Editor, paid as the 
Press Syndicate should determine, with power to appoint paid 
assistants ; that the dictionary should be complet'Cd within 
a reasonable time, and an annual report issued, and that 
JB500 should be reserved beyond the expenses for the first 
edition, for supplements. Thus we are likely to have a very 
complete account of the foreign words which we were or are 
in the habit of using to supplement our own tongue, although 
from a desire not to interfere with dictionaries now in the 
market, the full- list of importations introduced since the 
Revolution, as suggested by Mr. Furnivall, and the con- 
sequent picture of social life which he desired, will not be 
given. You will, I am sure, be anxious to acknowledge the 
exertions of our Honorary Secretary, Mr. Furnivall, in this 
matter. He is always to the fore when the interests of 
philology and especially of the history of our language and 
social life are to be served. 

On 13 Feb. 1871, on p. xii of the "Notice" prefixed 
to the third part of my Early English Pronunciation ^ I 
said, " It is highly desirable that a complete account of our 
existing English language should occupy the attention of an 
English Dialect Society," and in my address of 16 May, 

10 THB president's ANNUAL ADDRESS FOR 1882. 

1873, I had the great pleasure of announcing that the Rev. 
W. W. Skeat (since then appointed to be Professor of Anglo- 
Saxon at Cambridge) had actually started a society under the 
name which I had proposed. Eight years havie now elapsed, 
and Prof. Skeat has been good enough to prepare the follow- 
ing report on what this Society has accomplished. He is no 
longer in charge of it, but he still takes the greatest interest 
in its proceedings, and was manifestly the proper man to 
render an account of its work. Even those who, unaware 
perhaps of practical difficulties, think that the Society could 
have done more, and more scientific work in the time, must 
admit that what has been accomplished is a distinct gain to 
the knowledge of our language as it exists. The subject is very 
large and very difficult, and to gain the indispensable support, 
it had necessarily to be treated in the way with which word- 
collectors have been mainly familiar. I trust that what has 
been done will be of great service to the scientific dialectolo- 
gist of the future, although it may not be all he desires. 

Report on the English Dialect Society by the Rev. 

Professor W. W. Skeat. 

"The necessity for the establishment of an English Dialect 
Society had been urged, both by Mr. Ellis and Mr. Aldis 
Wright, for some time before the Society came into actual 
existence. It was generally felt that, whilst we were waiting, 
the dialects were perishing. As it became daily clearer that 
' something must be done,' whilst it was at the same time 
not clear whose business it was to do it, the writer of this 
report resolved to take it upon himself to become the 
Honorary Secretary and Director, and to see what could be 
done in the way of finding out editors and materials. This 
involved, at the first, a good deal of correspondence; but 
the trouble was amply compensated by the discovery that 
a sufficient quantity of work and workers could be obtained 
in order to keep the printers employed for some years. This 
was in the month of May, 1873; and it was not long 


before the Society numbered two hundred subscribers at 
half a guinea each. Subsequent experience shewed that the 
subscription was fixed too low, and that it could be safely 
increased to a pound without the loss of many subscribers ; 
but the low rate originally fixed was a gain, at the outset, 
to secure a considerable number of supporters. As it was 
highly desirable that a start should be made as soon as 
possible, and that something at least should be printed by 
the end of the year, I resolved to undertake the super- 
intendence of the reprinting of some of the most curious 
and scarce glossaries published during the last century or at 
the beginning of the present ; more especially as the works 
containing them are, for the most part, expensive. It was 
not uncommonly the case that writers introduced into their 
works provincial glossaries that had, apparently, not much to 
do with their main subject, and the separation of the glossaries 
from their other work has been a distinct gain. No better 
example of this can be given than that which I have already 
pointed out in the introduction to Part II. of the Reprinted 
Glossaries, p. viii. 

"Professor Mayor actually took the trouble to extract, 
for our benefit, the provincial words which are to be found 
in the Glossaries made by Thomas Hearne to his editions 
of Robert of Gloucester and Robert of Brunne's translation 
of Peter Langtoft. These Glossaries fill 304 pages, closely 
printed in double columns ; yet our reprint, containing all 
that for our purposes is required, occupies only four pages, 
and at the same time disposes of Hearne's four volumes, 
now becoming extremely scarce. 

"The very first glossary reprinted for the Society, from the 
curious old book called *A Tour to the Caves,' is one of 
considerable interest ; and I have since pointed out (in the 
Introduction to our reprint of William de Worfat's * Bran 
New Wark 'j that its author, the Rev. John Hutton, vicar of 
Burton-in-Kendal, certainly afibrded assistance (either by 
correspondence or by means of his printed glossary) to 
William de Worfat, that is, William of Overthwaite in 
Westmoreland, whose family name was Hutton likewise. 

12 THE president's ANNUAL ADDRESS FOR 1882. 

These two publications were printed by the same Kendal 
printer, in 1781 and 1784 respectively. 

"William Humphrey Marshall, the author of several 
works on agriculture, was a great word-collector. His real 
design was, as he himself tells us, ' to confine himself merely 
to such words as relate more especially to rural affairs ; ' but 
his love for old words was, fortunately, sufficiently strong to 
enable him to go beyond his prescribed limits in numerous 
instances. Otherwise, he would hardly have described for us 
the old custom of riding the stang, which ' is used as a 
reproof to the man who beats his wife ; or (when it happens) 
to the wife who beats her husband ; ' and again, he describes 
the barguest as being *a hobgoblin of the highest order, 
terrible in aspect, and loaded with chains of tremendous 
rattle.' From his various works we have collected glossaries 
of East Yorkshire, East Norfolk, the Vale of Gloucester, the 
neighbourhood of Leicester, and of West Devonshire. It 
was my misfortune, in reprinting the provincialisms of East 
Yorkshire, to follow the edition of 1788, in ignorance of the 
fact that the later edition of 1796 contained a considerable 
number of additional words. By way of making some 
amends for this oversight, the additional words were re- 
printed separately, in Glossary No. 22 of the Series of 
Keprints. Whilst speaking of words specially relating to 
rural affairs, I must not forget to record our gratitude to 
Mr. Britten for his excellent collection of * Old Country and 
Farming Words,* gleaned from no less than five treatises on 
agriculture (ranging in date from 1681 to 1863), which was 
printed for the Society in 1880. 

"Amongst our reprints we have also included Dr. Willan's 
collection of words used in the West Riding (1811) ; Lewis's 
Isle of Thanet words (1736) ; Duncumb's Herefordshire 
words (1804) ; Duncan's Lowland-Scottish words (1595) ; 
Kennett's collection of words from various dialects (1695) ; 
Britten's Wiltshire words (1825), from which Akerman's 
Wiltshire glossary was practically copied, with a few ad- 
ditions which have been duly recorded; Spurdens's supple- 
ment to Forby, with its singular revelation of the fact that 


Forby's well-known glossary of East-Anglian words was 
merely compiled, and somewhat mutilated and spoilt in the 
editing, from the MS. collection made by Mr. Spurdens and 
Mr. Deere; and Sir J. CuUum's list of Hawsted words 

"But the most important of this set of books is the 
reprint of the collections of the famous John Ray, who was 
not only the first to gather together our provincial words, 
but in some respects has never been surpassed. I have been 
much impressed, in the course of my work, with the general 
usefulness of Ray's collections ; and few things have ever 
given me greater satisfaction than the pleasure of succeeding 
in reducing his eight alphabetical lists to two, preserving no 
other distinction than the fundamental one of dividing words 
of the North Country from those of the South ; whilst the 
addition of an index again reduces these two alphabets to 
one, and enables us to say, at a glance, whether Ray has 
recorded or omitted any given words ; and, at the same time, 
what additions were made by Thoresby in 1703. 

"Besides the works which are strictly provincial, we 
have also reprinted some lists which partake of a technical 
character, viz. Manlove's * Customs of the Derbyshire Lead- 
miners, with a glossary of Lead-mining terms ' (1653) ; and 
the lists of Derbyshire mining terms made by T. Houghton 
(1681), and J. Mawe (1802). We are looking forward to 
a more complete collection of mining terms, which has been 
undertaken by Mr. Britten. 

" In planning the works to be edited for the Society, our 
first need was to compile a Bibliographical List of all that 
had been done heretofore. Though the list is not very 
extensive, it was nevertheless a work of some difficulty, 
owing to the merely local circulation and, not unfrequently, 
the extremely trivial and even contemptible nature of some 
of the so-called works 'in dialect.' Fortunately, a good 
beginning had been made by Mr. John Russell Smith, who 
printed his * Bibliographical List of the works .... illus- 
trating the Provincial Dialects of England ' in 1839 ; and 
by Mr. Wheatley, who compiled his * Chronological Notices 

14 THE president's ANNUAL ADDRESS FOR 1882. 

of the Dictionaries of the English Language ' for the Philo- 
logical Society in 1865. But many of the counties could 
only be dealt with, bibliographically, by persons extremely 
familiar with the literature of their respective counties ; and 
the names of those who gave us much valuable assistance in 
this matter are entitled to our particular regard. They are 
as follows, viz. Mr. J. Bussell Smith, who allowed us to 
include the whole of his list ; Mr. Wheatley and Mr. Aldis 
Wright, who added several articles ; H. I. H. Prince Louis- 
Lucien Bonaparte, who gave us access to his valuable 
collection of books ; and, for various special contributions, 
Mr. Axon, Mr. Briscoe, Mr. C. C. Eobinson, Mr. Shelley, 
Messrs. Boase and Courtney, the Rev. W^ Barnes, Mr. E. 
E. Morris, Mr. J. P. Morris, Mr. R. "White, and the Rev. C. 
Wordsworth. Many others contributed various useful titles 
to the list, which was at first begun by myself, and sub- 
sequently continued and completed by Mr. Nodal, with help 
from Dr. Murray, Mr. W. Doig, Mr. W. Lawson, and Mr. 
C. W. Sutton. An index was supplied by Mr. Axon. All 
this is worthy of record ; for it is probable that cases are 
extremely rare in which a small volume of 201 pages has 
been compiled by the hearty collaboration of so many 
workers, free from all dissension ; and it shews how well 
Englishmen can 'pull together,' when they are so minded. 
** The reprinting of old glossaries and the compilation of 
a bibliographical list were necessary and useful, but only 
humble labours. All this was but preliminary skirmishing ; 
the real battle began when we had to venture upon original 
work. Here many things combined to put considerable 
difficulties in the way. We had, in fact, to find persons 
competent for the work ; and it is no less true than strange 
that a really good word-collector and glossary-compiler can- 
not possibly be made ; he must be, like a poet, born to it. 
How else can he be really familiar with the speech which 
he professes to illustrate? How is he to discern between 
words which are thought to be classical and words certainly 
provincial, and to recognize the fine distinction between 
dialect and slang P I am convinced that the difficulties of 


word-collecting have been greatly under-rated ; it has even 
been suggested to us that we should employ word-collectors, 
as if we could find them forth-coming upon a mere cursory 
search. We have also received, from some quarters, much 
good advice on the subject of glossary- making, which it has 
been our wisdom steadily and persistently to disregard. 
There is a constant and irreconcileable opposition between 
those who advise us to register everything we can in every 
county, and those who tell us we must register nothing as 
being peculiar to one county which can possibly be heard in 
another. On both sides there is some danger, but we roust 
either cast in our lot with the former class of advisers, or 
else stultify ourselves and perish. As to those who tell us 
to publish only what is peculiar to each county, it is but 
charitable to suppose that they do not know what im- 
practicable folly they are talking. Such talk is the specu- 
lation of a theorist, who wants the work done by some one 
else ; and it is not the talk of a practical man who con- 
descends to consider how he would set about such a work 
himself. No proof of these things need be offered ; for we 
have overwhelming evidence before us, if we will examine 
practical results. Only one method has ever been pursued 
hitherto by every worker who has ever printed a glossary 
for the last two hundred years ; and it will be time to 
consider how we are to make a list of words really peculiar 
to a county, when it can be pointed out that any such 
phenomenal list has ever yet been printed. Those who 
require evidence may read over our Bibliographical List, and 
see if they can find such a publication as, to their narrowed 
ideas, is immaculate. 

** To return to sober and common -sense considerations, we 
can only produce glossaries similar to such as have been pro- 
duced already in the past ; and even to do this is sufficiently 
difficult. We have not only to find word -collectors who 
are, as I have said, fitted for the work by birth, training, and 
long experience, but we have to find them ready to work for 
nothing, and willing to sacrifice their time, in the most 
literal sense, for the good of their country. It is to the 

16 THE president's ANNUAL ADDRESS FOR 1882. 

credit of England that several such have been found ; and 
that, of the numerous glossaries which have been so 
generously contributed, most of them are fairly useful, and 
some of them excellent. I may at once mention some 
which, to say the least, are creditable, and which I believe 
will be found extremely useful to students when many years 
have passed by, and when true provincial dialects have 
become almost indistinguishable. 

'^ Mr. F. K. Robinson has given us a list of words in use 
in the neighbourhood of Whitby. He had previously 
printed a similar collection in 1855 ; but the work which 
he so generously gave to the Dialect Society is a great 
improvement upon the original one, as may well be under- 
stood when we notice that he continued to add to and revise 
his former work during a space of 21 years. We must all 
regret the recent news of his death, which took place at 
a good old age. I remember reading the proofs of this book 
with great interest; it is a very full list, with terse definitions, 
and eminently free from etymological speculation. 

" Messrs. Milner and Nodal have just completed the 
vocabulary of their Lancashire glossary, after several years. 
It happens that I have not yet seen the last published part 
of the work (another is to follow in 1883, containing a 
chapter on the Literature, Grammar and Pronunciation of 
the Dialect, with an Appendix of omitted words), but the 
great importance of the Lancashire dialect has always been 
recognised, and the celebrated Tim Bobbin is, amongst 
writers of dialect, a sort of classic. 

" Mr. C. C. Robinson has given us a glossary of words in 
use in Mid- Yorkshire, abounding with illustrations of 
country talk, every one of which is rendered into * glossic ' 
for the use of phoneticians, and is also given in a ' nomic ^ 
spelling for the use of the general reader. Prefixed to it 
is an Outline Grammar of the dialect, and a discussion 
and explanation of the sounds. Surely this is a thorough 

" A fitting companion volume to the two just mentioned, 
and one which deals with the same county, is the Holderness 


glossary, compiled by Mr. F. Ross, Mr. R. Stead, and Mr. 
T. Holderoess. The compilers tell us that * they have been 
careful to admit no words except such as can be considered 
genuinely dialectal ; technical trade terms, slaug, and exotics 
having been avoided, excepting where they are peculiar to 
the district; and such words as differ but slightly from 
ordinary English have been relegated to the Introduction. 
The Glossic of Mr. A. J. Ellis has been used to indicate the 
pronunciation, and the illustrations are taken from the every- 
day speech of the people.' This is a good description of 
what a glossary should be ; our experience has already shewn 
that the way to deal with words which are merely ordinary 
English with a peculiar pronunciation, is to give a list of 
them in the preface (where they serve to illustrate varieties 
of pronunciation), but to exclude them from the main list, 
the value of which they simply dilute. 

** Mr. Peacock's Glossary of * Words used in the 
Wapentakes of Manley and Corringham, Lincolnshire,' 
is not only a good collection, but abounds with quaint 
illustrations of real speech. The trouble and time required 
for making such a book as this may be gathered from the 
author's statement that he collected materials for it for 
upwards of a quarter of a century, and had, at the same 
time, been assisted by many friends. The truth of the 
illustrations is refreshing ; when he explains that to boon 
a highway is to repair it, we can almost see the expression of 
settled disgust on the face of the marsh- man who said — 
* I'd hev all cheches puU'd doon to boon the roads wi', an' 
parsons kill'd to muck the land.' It is a consolation to an 
English clergyman to know that he can still be put to some 
use, even after he has ceased to live. 

" One of the most complete books on any dialect is that on 
the dialect of Leicestershire by Dr. Sebastian Evans, in 
compiling which he had the great advantage of having been 
preceded by his father, though upon a smaller scale, in 1848. 
The introduction contains 86 pages, and is full of infor- 

PhU. Traai. 1882-8^ 2 

18 THE president's ANNUAL ADDRESS FOR 1882 

" The list of original glossaries is too long to be dwelt 
upon. I can only notice here the names of other counties 
and districts which have so far received attention. We have 
Cumberland words, by Mr. Dickinson, with two supple- 
ments ; Swaledale words, by Captain Harland ; West Corn- 
wall, by Miss Courtney ; East Cornwall, by Mr. Couch ; 
Antrim and Down, by Mr. Patterson; Sussex, by Mr. 
Parish ; Kent, by Dr. Pegge, written in 1735, but published 
by us for the first time from his MS. ; Surrey, by G. Leveson 
Gower, Esq. ; Oxfordshire, by Mrs. Parker, with a supple- 
ment ; South Warwickshire, by Mrs. Francis ; a supplement 
to Mr. Atkinson's well-known glossary of the Cleveland 
dialect ; Isle of Wight, by the late Major Henry Smith and 
Mr. Roach Smith ; North Lincoln (distinct from Mr. 
Peacock's district), by Mr. Sutton ; Radnorshire, by the Rev. 
W. E. T. Morgan ; as well as the valuable book on English 
Plant-names by Messrs. Britten and Holland. 

" The extra Series of Miscellaneous Works, illustrative of 
dialects, is also well worthy of mention. In this we have 
works of such high phonetic value as Mr. Sweet's History of 
English Sounds and the remarks on the dialect of West 
Somerset by Mr. El worthy ; a new Classification of the English 
Dialects, with two maps, by Prince Louis-Lucien Bonaparte ; 
an Early English Hymn, with a very curious phonetic copy 
of it made by a Welshman, edited by Mr. Fumivall and Mr. 
Ellis; and, finally, some notes on the antiquity of many 
dialectal words and on George Eliot's use of Dialect, by Dr. 
Morris and Mr. Axon respectively. By way of textual 
illustration, we have also published an edition of Tusser's 
Husbandry, and reprints of the * Exmoor Scolding ' and 
^ A Bran New Wark.' 

" This account of work done up to the present time has, 
I regret to say, been given in a dry and tedious manner, and 
consists of little more than the titles of books ; but I trust 
it may be accepted as evidence that, if we have not done 
much, we have done something ; and that, if all has not been 
done as well as it might have been done (and my experience 
is that reviewers of glossaries are often rather hard to .please). 


we have yet collected a good deal that may be turned to 
a better account hereafter. 

" We think that we begin to discern an end to our labours ; 
and that five or six years more may really enable us to print 
most of what is valuable for our purpose.^ It must be 
remembered that the work of the Society is, to a considerable 
extent, supplementary. Some of the ground has been 
traversed already ; we are not likely to add much to some 
of the old existing glossaries ; or, at any rate, we shall not 
supersede them. We have Forby's East- Anglian collection, 
Major Moor's Suffolk words, Atkinson's Cleveland glossary. 
Miss Baker's Northamptonshire, and many others. And 
quite lately we have had the Shropshire glossary by Miss 
Jackson, which, considered as a whole, may be taken to be 
the best of the whole series, whether printed by the Society 
or out of it, and may conveniently be taken as a model by 
any one who aspires to add to the number of our county 

" I cannot conclude this notice without remarking that all 
experience has shewn the general wisdom of the rule which 
was adopted at the outset, and which has, to a great extent, 
been adhered to throughout, viz. that we should abstain, as 
far as in us lay, from interfering with the business of the 
Etymologist. We have thus been spared perversions of 
definition, intended to lead up to a supposed false derivation ; 
we have saved some trouble to the printers ; we have left 
fewer blots for the attack of reviewers ; and earned, as 
I hope, the fervent thanks of students who shall work at 
philology in a more enlightened age, when the value of 
vowel-sounds shall at last receive that attention which the 
present age grudges to give them. 

" Further particulars concerning the proceedings of the 
Society may be gathered from the Annual Reports. I may 
remark that the Reports for 1873, 1874, and 1875, were 
mainly written by myself, and that most of the business of 
the Society was managed by me during those years. It was 

* But see the remarks of Mr. Lundell, manic and English Philology below, 
quoted in Mr. Sweet's Report on Oar- p. 117. — A.J.E. 


20 THE president's ANNUAL ADDRESS FOR 1882 

not desirable that, when the materials and names of workers 
had once been collected, the business should long remain 
entrusted to one person only. Hence in the year 1876, 
a Committee of management was appointed, and, at the same 
time, Mr. Nodal was kind enough to undertake the duties of 
Honorary Secretary, which he has punctually fulfilled up to 
the present time. 

"It is highly important to mention the formation of the 
English Dialect Society's Library. After some negotiation, 
the Central Public Library of Manchester undertook to make 
proper provision for the due preservation of our books, and 
kindly consented to our earnest request that they might be 
kept together in one place, instead of being distributed over 
various parts of the building. Our Seventh Report, for the 
year 1879, contains a complete catalogue of our books, up to 
that date, compiled by the Librarian, Mr. C. W. Sutton. The 
collection is doubtless incomplete, but can now be easily filled 
up at leisure by occasional purchases and by donations. And 
it is to be hoped that those who can afford to give us books 
will not hesitate to do so, now that there is a permanent 
home for our library, under proper and efficient care." 

On Dialect, Language, Orthoepy and Dr. G. Wenker*s 

German Speech-Atlas. 

The notice of my own paper on English Dialects, together 
with Prof. Skeat's Report on the English Dialect Society, 
naturally leads me to consider the difference between Dialect 
and Language. After frequent and anxious consideration I 
am unable to find any definite line which can be drawn to 
distinguish one from the other. A word is merely a speech- 
sound, to which (approximatively) a definite signification is 
attached by speaker and hearer. Change the sound, and 
intelligence ceases between say the two first, but exists 
possibly again between two others, or the first speaker and 
another listener. Has not the language changed ? Do the 
words dahn^ doon, down, belong to the same language, all 
having the same signification P It seems to me that these 


words are as distinct as words can be, the first two contain- 
ing clear, definite vowels, one in the middle and the other at 
the extremity of the vowel series, with no phonetic relation 
to each other, and the third having a diphthong (approxima- 
tively) composed of the other two. It is not perhaps till we 
find that dahn is used by the peasants in the neighbourhood 
of Leeds, doon in the neighbourhood of York, and down^ or 
rather (d&un),^ in the neighbourhood of Doncaster (all in 
Yorkshire), that we say they are dialectal forms of the re- 
ceived down — which most assuredly they are not, the original 
form being doon^ from which the generation of the others can 
now be traced with a fair amount of certaintv. But was 
doon a dialectal form P If there are dialects at all, as distinct 
from languages, then I think we may fairly say that it is 
and was, that is, that it was a local word, with a distinct 
district, and that the form varied in other districts. 

I have referred merely to a sound. Let me take a con- 
struction. Are (3'» bi gwo/n u'm, aaz gaan hiara), both 
meaning / am going home, different languages P The words 
and construction are utterly different. There is scarcely any 
greater difference in English and French. But when we are 
told that the first may be heard in North Wiltshire (near 
Chippenham), and the second in North-west Yorkshire (near 
Hawes in Wensleydale), we are content to call them dia- 
lectal expressions, phrases, or forms. Formerly we spoke of 
the original of the first as Wessex, and that of the second as 
Northumbrian, and considered them to be at least as much 
different languages as English and Dutch. Why not now ? 
I can conceive no reason but that there has grown up to be 
a received language, chiefly written, and having an artificial 
and by no means settled corresponding pronunciation, which 
is different from, yet manifestly related to, all the others, 
and of which its merely ignorant users consider the others to 
be "corruptions." Of course this is a most glaring error, for 
the elder cannot possibly be a corruption of the younger. Yet 
there is no doubt that received literary English, such as I am 

* Phonetically written words inclosed in ( ) are in my palaeotype. 

22 THB president's annual address for 1882 

using at the present moment, is considered the English 
language pure and simple, and the other forms used in 
England are considered to be its dialects. It is convenient 
to say so, and to be generally intelligible, I adopt the ex- 
pression — under protest, however. But the distinction 
between language and dialect, if real, must have existed 
from the first, long before any sort or kind of received 
language grew up, and very long before there was such a 
thing conceivable as a literary language. 

This received literary language is a very strange pheno- 
menon. What does it mean, and how did it grow P Origin- 
ally, I believe, it was a mere matter of domination by one 
tribe over another. The conquerors, savages, would not 
think of acquiring the language of the conquered. Why 
should theyp It was the business of the beaten to make 
themselves intelligible to the beaters. In subsequent times 
of course the conquerors, being few in number, often did not 
succeed in imposing their language on the conquered, whose 
vis inerticB was too much for them, though they tried hard ; 
and in England, for example, the Normans did not relin- 
quish the attempt for some centuries. But to return to 
more primitive times, the language of the conquerors, who 
were after all generally only speakers of one particular 
dialect, as we should now say, became the language of 
government, of the powerful, of the wealthy, and was con- 
sidered the language of all the regions they dominated, the 
other poor fellows speaking generally dialects, if their lan- 
guages were constructed on the same principle, or if on 
totally different principles (as in the case of Celt and Saxon), 
different but decidedly " inferior " languages. 

Now this insulting stigmatisation of ** inferiority " came 
in time, after writing was invented, to have a real signifi- 
cance. There grew up a language of refinement, a language 
of literature, and as time went on a language of knowledge, 
which could not from want of opportunity grow up in the 
dialects and crushed nationalities. And thus there came to 
be a received literary language so far as writing was con- 
cerned, or nearly so. But for some time at least the writers 




living in districts with very deficient means of communica- 
tion preserved their local colour. For some time, therefore, 
it is only by forcing the meaning of words that we can say 
there was one written language. Indeed, I do not know if 
we can strictly say so now. In a novel by a Scotch lady, a 
very practised writer, published this year, one of the cha- 
racters, supposed to be an English lady, is made to say : '* If 
you read that paper, I will die." In the mouth of an English 
lady these words could only imply a suicidal intention. All 
the writer meant however was *' I shall die,** that is, "it will 
kill me.'' These shalls and mils are still shibboleths. 

But if we turn from the written language to speech — I 
mean the speech of highly educated people, moving more or 
less in the " best " society — I think it requires a still greater 
forcing of the meaning of words to say there is one English 
language. Personally I do not know any two people who 
speak every written English word they have in common in 
the same way. Where there is a difference, which is " right" P 
and upon what principle is this " right " determined ? and 
when an orthoepist decides, is his judgment explicable or 
Explicable ? The question of orthoepy is a burning one at 
present, when people wish to write phonetically. Some sort 
of notion should be obtained of some sort of principles on 
which it should be founded. Now to me orthoepy is the 
speech of the governing and educated classes, and embraces 
every variety of pronunciation which the people forming 
those classes habitually and intentionally use.^ The limits 

* **L'antorit6, en langage, comme 
en tout le reste, a' attache au prestige 
social et politique. Les plus puissants 
pa.ssent au&si d' ordinaire pour ceux qui 
parlent le mieux. 11 est naturel que 
Paris, qui 6tait le si^ge du gouveme- 
ment, ait fait, pour le langage, la lot 
a la province, moins exclusivement au 
Tvi^ si^le, sans contestation aux xvii« 
et xviiie sidcles, et que dans la capital 
meme la cour ait partag6 la suprematie 
avec la magistrature au XTi^ siecle, Tait 
eue seule au xvii«, et Tait de nouveau 
partagee avec la soci^te parisienne au 
xviii* riiecle. . . . Depuis la revolution 
de 1789 et surtout depuis celle de 1848, 

il est difficile de determiner ce qu'il 
faut entendre par le bon usage, par- 
ticulidrement en matiere de pronon- 
ciation. . . . Aujdurd'hui lt« honntU-s 
gens de la capitale, a deiinir le mot 
comme I'a fait Dumar^ais ['j'entciids 
les personnes que la condition, la fur- 
tune ou le merite 61dvent au dessus du 
vulgaire, et qui ont 1' esprit cultive par 
la lecture, par la reflexion et par le 
commerce avec d'autres personnes qui 
ont ces avantages'] sont tellemeut 
nombreux et partages en groupes si 
isoles entre eux, qu'il ne pent pas se 
former un usa^e commun qui serve de 

type."— CAflrr/t# Thurot 

n qui ser 
, De la 





are very distinct and not very wide, and there are some 
pronunciations which at once stamp a man as illiterate or 
** below the line." Now the business of orthoepists is to 
observe — not dictate. They have to learn what the setters 
of the fashion of speech say, not imagine what it would be 
*' elegant" or "proper" for them to say, or even what they 
should " aim at " saying. Few orthoepists come up, either 
wholly or partially, to this ideal. But " to this complexion 
must they come at last," for what educated speaker would 
adopt on the mere ipse dixit of comparatively obscure 
scholars, such as the best of our orthoepists certainly are, 
a recommendation for him to entirely change the pronun- 
ciation that he has been accustomed to use from childhood ? 
They say, mentally or orally, of the orthoepist, " Who's he ? 
Where was he born ? Oh, he was a Scot (Buchanan, Fulton 
and Enight), an Irishman (Sheridan, and Enowles), an 
American (Worcester, Goodrich), what does he know of 
English ? Or he was a poor scholar (Walker) who never 
mixed in the society whose speech he presumes to regulate. 
Thank you for nothing." Such is the instantaneous judg- 
ment passed. It is only where a word is totally beyond 
the range of polite conversation, that people will look, if 
at all, to a pronouncing dictionary. And then ,a habit is 
growing up (arising from such words being generally ** book- 
words," leaving a visible and not an audible impression on 
the mind) to pronounce in such a way as to recall the letters 

nonciation Fran^aiso depuis le com- 
mencement du xvi* sifecle d^aprds lea 
temoigna^^ des grammairiens, pp. 
IxxxTii, ciii, and civ. I had not seen 
this book till after the text was written. 
The passages intermediate to tht>se 
quotations shew the various authorities 
for what the author says, in France. 
Yet France is but a particular example 
of a general fact. Only the first volume 
of this admirable book has appeared 
(in 1881), and the author (as will be 
seen by Prof. Stengel's Report below) 
is already dead. The book was intended 
to do completely, what I did very 
cursorily in my Early English Pro- 
nunciation (part iii. pp. 819-838) for 

French of the 16th century only. It 
is also curious that M. Thurot had to 
cite mv E. E. P. (pp. 804-814) for 
his olaest authority, Barcley, which I 
have there reprinted, and only knew 
Erondel, which the late Prof. Payne 
had lent me, by my citations (E. E. P. 
pp. 226-8 notes). M. ThuroVs work 
was evidently partly modelled on mine, 
and attempted to determine for French 
much more minutely than I had done 
for English, what has been the pro- 
nunciation from the 16th century, as 
well as can be ^j^athered from the gram- 
marians. It 18 greatly to be wished 
that M. Thurot left his second volume 
in a state fit for publication. 


of which it is composed — such at least seems the practice of 
most of our men of science with the new words they invent 
or come across. 

To sum up these brief remarks, dialects and languages do 
not differ in kind, but only in degree. It \b very hard to 
make English and Dutch two languages, and not dialects 
of a common Low German. But the difference in degree is 
one of great importance, and when it is moderate, groups of 
these sublanguages may be, for practical convenience, dis- 
tinguished as dialects of that particular form which has 
become most prominent, and struggled into an acknowledged 
literary existence. And this received literary form has, at 
any given time, an orthoepy, not settling the exact pronun- 
ciation of every word, but the limits within which the 
pronunciation may vary. So that this language itself cannot 
be represented, at any one time, by one single phonetic 
spelling, but must have several. Thus, the word chance may 
be called (tjaans, tjans, tjaahns, tjahns, tjaeaDUs, tjaens), but 
must not be called (tjaans, tjAAns). 

If ow the above observations, which arose from my own 
studies, are in fact preliminary to an account which I wish 
to give you of Dr. G. Wenker's Herculean undertaking, 
his Sprach'Atlas von Nord- und Mitteldeutschlandy auf Orund 
f^on 8i/8tematisch mit Hulfe dor Volksschullehrer gesammeltem 
Material aus circa 30,000 Orfen bearbeitet, entworfen und 
gezeichnet (Speech-Atlas of North and Middle Germany, 
based, designed and drawn from materials systematically 
collected by the help of elementary school teachers from 
about 30,000 places). Nobody but a German could have 
conceived the idea or have had the courage to attempt the 
work. And an organisation of elementary instruction like 
that in Germany was necessary to enable him to obtain 
information from 30,000 school-masters, who were ordered 
by the various governments to answer his circulars. Dr. 
Wenker, like myself, found it necessary to do away with 
old conceptions, and the assumed areas of dialects ancient 
and modern, and to turn to the speakers themselves, 
registering what they said. But how P It was obviously 

26 THE president's annual address for 1882 

impossible for him to visit these 30,000 places. It was 
therefore necessary to collect the information by writing. 
To do so he gave up all very precise phonetics, in fact 
everything which could not be readily expressed by the 
High German alphabet. This alphabet of course has a 
great advantage over the English, because each writer was 
at once able to express with very fair correctness the sounds 
used. In this respect his attempt falls short of mine, because 
I aim at the utmost possible phonetic exactness, and indeed 
by the help of so many whom I have personally examined, 
and so much excellent work done for me by Messrs. Good- 
child, Hallam, and many others, I have in very numerous 
cases been able to give a remarkably accurate account of 
peasant speech in different places. My attention, in short, 
was directed principally to the sounds, and in a very subor- 
dinate way to the construction. 

The mode of obtaining information was also different, and 
I own that Dr. Wenker's seems to have been much better 
than mine. With the help of Dr. Murray, I wrote some 
years ago a comparative specimen, containing a continuous 
narrative, supposed to be related by one countryman to 
another, about some fellow who was found drunk at his own 
door by his wife. In this I endeavoured to insert turns of 
phrase and words which would if properly rendered be of 
excellent service. But, alas ! almost every one, no matter 
from what part of the country he hailed, complained that his 
countrymen would not tell a story in that way or use such 
words, and the friends who helped me often showed a marvel- 
lous aptitude for substituting a word I didn't want for one 
I did. Nevertheless I have much more than a hundred 
translations, some exceeding good, some absolutely worthless, 
of this lengthy specimen. To supplement the result I issued 
a number of word lists (arranged according to the Wessex 
vowels). About 1700 were sent out. I never heard any- 
thing of a 1000 of them, and perhaps 200 of the rest are 
good. Then I tried a smaller paragraph, but still unfor- 
tunately a story, of about 70 words, introducing the chief 
points I wanted information about. This was a better 


saccess, but it was often most Inefficiently and carelessly 
translated. Still I got some good things. Then I tried, in 
isolated quarters, short unconnected sentences. These have 
generally done good service, but not unless I could get to 
the informants myself or through Mr. Hallam and others. 
Our clergy and their schoolmasters and educated men gener- 
ally are so supremely ignorant of phonetics, and seem so 
incapable of beating any notion of it into their brains, that 
I have often been in utter despair, till I could catch a native. 
Now Dr. Wenker could not do this, but the German alphabet 
and the Lautir-Methode, or phonic method of teaching to 
read, which is universal in Germany, seems to have stood 
him in good stead, and to have enabled the 30,000 elementary 
schoolmasters to give him Satisfactory information. He gave 
up word lists at once, and concocted a series of 40 short 
unconnected sentences, of which I give the first two and last 

1, Im Winter fliegen die trocknen Blatter dureh die Lnft 
her urn. (In winter dry leaves fly about through the air.) 

2. Us h'drt gleich aiif zu schneien, dann tcird das Wetter 
wieder besser. (It will stop snowing directly, and then the 
weather will be better again.) 

39. Geh nur, der braune Rund thut dir nichts. (Go on, 
the brown dog will do nothing to you.) 

40. Ich bin mit den Leuten da hinten ilber die Wiese ins 
Korn gefahren, (I went [or drove] with the people behind 
there, over the meadow into the corn.) 

Then he made an alphabetical verbal index, referring each 
word as it stood to its sentence. Next he made a systematic 
index of 274 points which these sentences would illustrate. 
This index is most important for shewing the scope of his 
work, and hence must be described at some length. 

I. Stem syllables. 1. Initial consonants (as 6-, 6/'-, ft/-, 
Pf'if'9 ^'f 6tc., Nos. 1-34). 2. Medial and final consonants 
(as 'b, -rb^ -lb, -p/, etc., Nos. 35-85). 3. Vowels, under 
which he includes, as well known to his elementary school- 
masters, in high German, a Apfel, a Aepfelchen, e Bett, 
d Abend, ae Schafchen, {t genug, ue miide; i Blickchen, e 

28 THE president's annual address for 1882 

sprechen, ei (o.h.g. i) bleib, et (o.h.g. et, ai) Seife, i raehr ; 
u luft, iJL zuriick, o trocken, o konnt, eu each, ie liebes, au 
(o.h.g. a) auf, da Hauser, au (o.h.g, ou) glaube, du Baumchen> 
d Brod, oe hoher, from which it is evident what a much greater 
store of phonetic knowledge he had to draw on than would 
be possible in England (Nos. 86-109). 

II. Prefixes atnd affixes (as he-^ ^-, er-, -t^, -ei, -«, etc., 
Nos. 110-122). 

III. Verbal flexion (Nos. 123-169). a. Regular verbs, 
present, preterite, past participle, b. Praeterite-praesentia 
(as mil, mussty darfst, etc.). c. The verbs stehen, gehen, thun 
(stand, go, do), present, imperative, infinitive, preterite, parti- 
ciple, d. The verb aein (be), present, imperative, preterite, 
participle, a. The verb haben (have), present, infinitive, 

IV. Inflections of nouns (Nos. 170-192). 1. Declension 
of substantives, a. strong masculine, b. strong and weak 
feminine, c. strong neuter, d. weak masculine, e. weak 
neuter. 2. Declension of adjectives and pronominal adjec- 
tives (Nos. 193-216). a. strong declension, b. weak declen- 
sion, c. uninflected adjectives, d. comparative, e. superlative. 
3. Pronouns (fTos. 217-265). a. sexless personal pronoun, 
b. possessive, c. sexed personal pronoun, d. demonstrative, 
e. article {devy die, das), f. interrogative, g. other pronouns 
{solche, man, ein-), 

V. Numerals (only zwet, drei, mer,funf, seeks, neun, zwdl/=z 
2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 12, Nos. 266-272). 

VI. Adverbs and conjunctions (No. 273). 

VII. Prepositions (No. 274). 

Each of these 274 cases is illustrated by words out of the 
40 sentences, and the sentences in which they occur are found 
at once by the alphabetic index. If, then. Dr. Wenker is 
fortunate enough to get each word or construction reduced to 
its local form, each answer from each of the 30,000 places 
•would supply him with 274 facts. But how to make this 
enormous mass of information available was an extremely 
difficult question, which Dr. Wenker solved in one word — 
graphically. This, however, required a number of expedients. 



The plan, so far as I have been able to understand it from 
the small specimen I possess, which I lay on the table for 
your inspection, is this. 

The whole of North and Middle Germany was divided 
arbitrarily into 13 divisions of nearly equal size, containing 
about 3° of longitude by 1^° of latitude. Each division is 
to have about 36 maps, so that on the whole there will be 
about 468 maps when the work is complete, which the pro- 
spectus promises will be certainly (besfimmt) in 5 or 6 years 
— 10 or 12 years will be a short time.^ Each division is to 
be sold separately, with maps, text, and portfolio, at 50 
marks, or £2 10^?., making the complete price £32 lOs. — a 
wonderful price for any complete German work. But then 
any division is to be sold separately, so that persons are 
intended to be able to possess their own districts only. The 
publication began last October. Wishing to give you an 
account of this wonderful work, I subscribed for the first 
division in February, and obtained only one part of it, con- 
taining sheets 1, 2, 18, 19, 27, 28. Referring to the systematic 
index, sheet 1 deals with initial consonants Nos. 1-34 ; sheet 
2 with medial and final consonants Nos. 35-44; sheet 18 
with the verb aein (to be) Nos. 151-152 ; sheet 19 with the 
same Nos. 150, 153, 154 ; sheet 27 with the pronouns Nos. 
223-226 ; sheet 28 with the same Nos. 227, 228, 235. Thus 
this part gives a general idea of the construction of the work.^ 

Each sheet comprises the same district and set of names. 
The rivers, especially the Rhine, are drawn boldly, all the 
principal names are written in, and the host of small villages 
are reduced to their initial letters, explained in a separate 
printed sheet referring to the rectangles of 10^ longitude and 
5' latitude into which the map is divided. (Remember that 

* It has been calculated that if Dr. 
Wenker took 3 seconds for every entry 
from his documents, and worked 9 hours 
a day, it would take him 32 years to 
complete the work ! Hence he will have 
to obtain much skilled assistance. 

^ On referring to the German pub- 
lishers, Messrs. Karl Triibner, in Strass- 
burg, I find that unforeseen difficulties 
have prevented the appearance of more 

parts as yet, but that negotiations are 
going on with the Academy of Sciences 
at Berlin, for giving Dr. Wenker an 
office there with a sufficient staff of 
assistants to complete the work. It is 
very desirable that something of this 
kind should be done, and I much hope 
that the Berlin Academy will see their 
way to give this necessary help. 

30 THE PRESIIJENt's annual address for 1882 

the longitude is east from Ferro, and apparently about 
17° 40' greater than our longitude east from Greenwich.) 
The map of this first division pursues the Rhine from Worms, 
through Mainz, Goblenz, Andernach, to Remagem, with a 
wide district to the east (including Franckfurt, Hanau, 
Qiessen, and Schlitz in Darmstadt) and to the west (in- 
cluding Saarbriicken, Trier, and Malmedy). The maps 
being thus arranged, coloured lines are drawn on them 
marking boundaries, which sometimes unite and form islands. 
Thus, sheet 1 gives the boundaries (always initial) between 
No. 4 /?- and pf- ; No. 8 w- and 6- in xoer^ was, wem, me, ico ; 
No. 9^- and g- (with an island in which they are mixed); 
No. 12 j' and A;- in kein ; No. 18 d- and t-; No. 19 dr- and 
tr- (the two last boundaries are by no means the same) ; 
No. 28 schiC' and s- (in Schwester) ; No. 33 w- and 6- (in 
mit) ; or eight different boundaries, which cross one another 
in various directions, but are clear enough. The numbers 
refer to the systematic index. 

In sheet 2 the results relate to medial and final consonants, 
and are not quite so easy to seize. Thus No. 35 between 
-w~ and w in iiber, aber, oben, Abend, geblieben (which words 
have different boundaries), an island of -w- for -6- in Abend, 
between -/and -6 (with islands of -w and -f, which I suppose 
means entire omission). No. 36 between -r/* and -rb in Korb; 
No. 38 between -p and •/, -ft and -/ in AJfe, and between -/> 
and -/in auf; No. 40 between -r/*and -rp in Dorf, and No. 41 
between -?(?- and -/- in Ofen with an island of the entire 
omission of/. This suffices to shew the kind of phonetic 
boundaries aimed at, which resemble those which I have 
drawn between (som, sum) and (ho'us, huus) in England. 

When we come to grammatical points in sheets 18 and 19 
the confusion of the boundaries and the number of islands 
greatly increases. The number of shades of the same colour 
in different senses is also an especial cause of difficulty. In 
sheet 18, for No. 151 bist, the forms 8eM, sets and wist, west, 
we^at are distinguished, and the boundaries between -5 and 
-at ; -5, 'Ht and -scht ; -scht and sch for the final consonants. 
For No. 152 ist, the finals -s and -«A and -r before vowels, are 


marked off. Then an attempt is made, which to my eye is 
very confusing, to distinguish the vowels in bist, ist or both, 
as i, e, e^, e together with o, o alone, o, a. 

This is sufficient to give a notion of Dr. Wenker's Graphic 
Method. He endeavours to draw the line sharply between 
different usages, as the translations of his 40 sentences given 
by the elementary schoolmasters indicate. But when he has 
gone through his 36 sheets in this way, unless he gives in 
his text some of these translations for typical places, the 
reader will not know much of the actual speech of the place. ^ 
As it is, to find the usages for any one particular place, we 
have to pursue it through all the maps, and note within 
what limits it exists for every case required. This is very 
laborious, and might easily lead to error. I have here en- 
deavoured to determine the language used at Andernach, a 
well-known place on the Rhine, a little below (that is, north- 
west of) Coblenz, so far as the six maps which I possess will 
allow. But I feel by no means certain that I may not have 
sometimes mistaken the side or the colour of the boundary- 
line. I have found the determination of every point from 
the map exceedingly laborious. After all, this only spells 
out portions of words, and to put the whole word together 
properly one would have to refer to the maps for all the 
vowels and consonants. Thus, we find below that -pf- in 
Ap/el is called -bb-, but how is a called ? do they say abbl or 
obbl ? and so on. 

High German in Roman letters, dialect at Andernach in Italics. The numbers 

refer to the points in the systematic index. 

Sheet 1. Initial Consonants. Sheet 2. Medial and Final Consonants. 

"So. 4 pf-, /;-. Xo. 35 -b-, -u;-, in iiber, aber, oben, 
No. 8 W-, b', in wer, was, wem, wie, geblieben ; -b-, -»i-, in Abend ; 

wo. and -b, = -/ (? bleib, bit if) . 

No. 9 g-, J and g mixed. No. 36 -rby -r/*, in Korb. 

No. 12 k-, k- in kein. No. 38 -pf-, ^bb- (in Apfel?). 

No. 18 t-, d-. No. 39 -If-, -/, in Atfe; -f, -/, in 
No. 19 tr-, tr-. auf. 

No. 28 schw-, sehw', in Schwester. No. 40 -rf, -r/*in Dorf. 

No. 33 m-, OT-, in mit. No. 41 -f-, -m;- in Ofen. 

* Since this was in type, Dr. "Wenker places from which he has received in- 

has informed me in a private letter that formation and have the respective trans- 

this suggestion agrees fully with his own lations written down on the spot with 

plans, and that he intends to make a phonetic exactness, to be subsequently 

personal visit to a large number of the incorporated with his text. 

32 THE president's annual address for 1882 

Sheets 18 and 19. Verb wiVi, present Sheets 27 and 28. Pronouns. 


No. 151 -St -», in bist. No. 223 du, dau dou.- 

No. 152 -8, -« in ist; -i, -f, in bist No. 224 dir, dir, order. 

iat {?=bea es). No. 225 dich, deck. 

Nos. 150, 153, 169, sind aein (npure). No. 227 ihr, ir. ^ ^ ^ ^ 

I cannot see whether bin or ben is No. 227-8 euch (dat. and ace), eteh, 

indicated ; I think ben is right, but No. 235 euer, eier. 

the lines seem to have been omitted. 

Of course these are but a small part (say a sixth) of the 
peculiarities of the local speech, and, essentially interesting 
as they are, they fail in giving a general view of the speech 
actually used. Still it is difficult to see how the enormous 
mass of information, applying in this one map to about 3000 
places* could have been otherwise given. But I venture to 
suggest that many improvements are possible in drawing and 
colouring the boundary-lines, and determining with ease and 
certainty the parts they exclude and inclose.* 

I have given a very detailed account of this wonderful 
book, because I consider it the greatest, the best-designed, 
and the best-executed attempt hitherto made to determine 
the peculiarities of local speech, and compare them with the 
artificial literary language of a country. I sincerely hope 
that Dr. Wenker will live to complete his gigantic under- 

Report on the Yaagan Language of Tierra del Fuego, 
arranged by the president from the papers of 
THE Rev. Thomas Bridges, Missionary at Uoshuoeia, 

From the consideration of variations in two of the most 
cultivated languages of modern times, with millions of 
speakers, I turn to languages of a few naked savages in the 
New World and the Old, numbering less than 3000 speakers 
a piece. Yet these are distinct languages, with by no 
means small vocabularies or deficient in number of sounds, 
and both excessively complicated in grammar by the minute 

* Dr. "Wenker also informs me in the with in the necessarily small resources 
letter already mentioned that he will of the town of Marburg, where he re- 
have particular attention paid to the sides, but hopes that the nc^gotiations 
drawing and colouring of the boundaries. now on foot will remove these among 
Hitherto he has had much to contend other difficulties. 


differences which in cultivated languages we have come to 
overlook. Complication is by no means a mark of a good 
language. It harasses thought, and prevents proper gene- 
ralisation. Earlier languages, or those of savage tribes, 
present complications which, to my mind, are a mark of 
inferiority. The languages of modern civilisation tend more 
and more to simplicity, to the expression of general thoughts 
by general terms, which are then limited by additions, and 
not by making these additions part of the original word, 
which would render generalisation impossible, just as if we 
had words for to go in, to go otity to go over^ to go by, etc., but 
none for to go simply. The two languages with which I 
proceed to deal are one in Tierra del Fuego, and the other 
in the South Andaman Island. 

Soon aflter the invention of the English Phonetic Alphabet 
by Mr. Isaac Pitman and myself in 1846 (used in printing 
the Phonetic News), the Rev. Pakenham Despard, of Redland, 
near Bristol, (recently deceased), started on a mission to Pata- 
gonia, and particularly to that southern archipelago known as 
Tierra del Fuego, or the Land of Fire. He had been much 
struck with the alphabet then invented, and he employed it 
as most convenient for teaching the natives to read. But it 
was both redundant and defective for his purposes. It sym- 
bolised English sounds which did not occur in Fireland, and 
it had not symbols for sounds which did occur there. The 
former was not of much consequence, as many English 
words, or English pronunciations of biblical names, had to 
be introduced by the missionaries, for which these letters were 
required. For the others, new signs were invented. Until 
last year nothing had been printed in it. But in 1880 the 
Rev. T. Bridges, one of the missionaries who had been living 
in TJoshuoeia,^ in the midst of the pure native Yaagan race, 
and had translated the Gospel of Luke into their speech (which 
is one of the three principal but entirely unrelated Fuegian 

* For a reason explained further on, The name of thisplace is usually written 

I write all Yaagan words in Glossic Ooshooia^ and I find even Uahuwia. 

explained presently. Here it should I adopt the pronunciation furnished in 

be noted tnat aa rhymes to English the date of Maiakaul's letter at the end 

' papa/ mmA to *pusQ/ and ei to pie, of this report (p. 43). 

Phil. Trani. 1882-3^. 3 



languages, Yaagan, Aiakuloof, and Anna), came to England 
for the purpose of passing it through the press. This he 
did, and immediately returned to Tierra del Fuego. But 
while in England, he sent to Mr. Robert Oust, a member of 
our council, a brief account of some of the particulars of the 
language. This was to have been used in Dr. Murray's 
address in 1880, but it required more time to put in order 
than Dr. Murray had at his command. The same reason 
obliged me to pass it by last year. But from the language 
being written in an alphabet which I had a chief hand in 
inventing, I have cherished a kind of parental feeling to- 
wards it, and have therefore endeavoured to put Mr. Bridges's 
account into a suitable form. The first need was to change 
the alphabet, so as to avoid his new letters. The phonetic 
alphabet of 1846, which was the one Mr. Bridges adopted, 
was founded on the English vowel analogies, and though, as 
was proved by much printing and teaching, exceedingly well 
adapted for the English language, was not suitable for mis- 
sionary purposes. But to preserve the character of the 
writing I here transliterate it into Glossic, from which any 
one could immediately recover the symbols used by Mr. 
Bridges, according to the account given below. There is also 
no difficulty in finding Glossic signs for the new letters, 
so that Mr. Bridges's paper can be duly represented.^ 

* The following gives the alphabet 
in Glossic and Yaagan as explained by 
Mr. Bridges in the paper given to Mr. 
Gust, following his oraer, and using his 
examples, the figures (1) (2), etc., re- 
presenting his new letters. The ex- 
amples are the italic letters in the 
words cited. The glossic in italics 
forms a separate column. 



oi boy 

oa boat 

u but 

eu few 

ou out 



Qlostlo. BngUah. 



































ch j 

P b 

k g 

t d 

f ^ 

n ng 

s z 

ih th 

th dh 

I Ih 

r rh 

y y^ 

w ivh 

h kh 

m nh 









wish your Fr. 
thin then 
/ack Zlajielly We. 
nm hrh 
yes hy 
we whi\A 
he \eh Ge. 
me hr 



(1) M is an 1 with a loop in the 
mid(U6 on left, whether it is the real 
Welsh II or not is donhtful, it occurs 
in aalheena, Luke xiv. 29. 

(2) rh is r with a loop in the middle 
and to the left of the stem ; the sound 
may he the same as the Welsh rh as 
here assumed, the only examples given 
are first the letters hrh and next a 
Yaagan word »eerh. 

f3) yA is y with a loop in the middle 
ana to the left of the thick stroke. The 
only example given is a Taagan word 

(4) trA is Y with a loop in the middle 
and to the left of the thick stroke for 
the capital, and an inverted a with a 
loop to the right in the thick stroke for 
the small letter. 

(5) hA is n with a loop in the first 
thick stroke. But the example hr is 
perplexing. The Yaagan word given 
IS Anhan. The nh is quite conjectural. 

In the printed Gospel of St. Luke 
several important changes have been 
made in this alphabet and its use. The 
letter iu= oo is abolished alto^ther, 
and is replaced by i^, which in Mr. 
firidges's MS. = Glossic eu. An acute 
accent is used to mark the aspirate, 
and a grave accent to mark a preceding 
y, thus eian ouan for heian houan, and 
dmana for yamaua ; and a long mark 
means a tr, as uoru for touoru. All 
these accents require new types to be 
cut for the new letters, and are very 
expensive. They also add much to 
the complexity of the printing, and 
were quite unnecessary. This alphabet 
is therefore not mine at all, ana could 
not be printed with the types I had 
cut. One of these types a, the roman 
modification of a, is not used, but in 
its place the italic a is employed, and 
as the letter is of frequent occurrence, 
the page has a disagreeable dotty look, 
as may be seen by a copy of the Gospel 
of Luke, which I lay on the table. 
An entirely new type is also intro- 
troduced, looking litce italic «, with the 
t<>p hook bent round to a circle. This 
is used for the English sound of er in 
the English words introduced, as chap- 
ter, Pet^r, supp^, s<frvant, and in 
Mary (quasi me-er'%)^ and also with a 
grave accent over it stands for the 
word y^wr (ch. xiii. v. 11). The con- 
seouence is that the printed book has 
a oif erent alphabet from that used for 

30 years in teaching the natives. 
When I saw Mr. Bridges on his first 
coming over I told him that my alphabet 
was not well fitted for his purpose, but 
a very great mistake has been made I 
think in altering and patching it up 
in this extraordinary manner. In this 
report I follow the MS. exclusively. 
Dr. Bridges had prepared a dictionary 
of 30,000 words (what a wealth of 
language for a naked barbarous tribe 
now omy 3000 strong !) all in the old 
spelling, without the A, y, u^, accents. I 
have a copy of an explanation of the 
Yaagan alpnabet left by Mr. Bridges for 
Miss Gouty (to whom and her father, Mr. 
D. Gouty, chairman of the Finance Com- 
mittee of the South American Mission- 
ary Society, 11, Serjeant's Inn, Fleet 
Street, I am much indebted for valu- 
able information), in which the old 
forms are used, and I have a facsimile 
copy of a letter from a native to Mr. 
Bridges written as late as 5 Aug. 1880 
with the old letters. Hence the change 
seems to be a very unnecessary break of 
old associations. Mr. Bridges has just 
sent the MS. of his version of the Acts 
of the Apostles to be printed, pre- 
sumably in the new way. How any 
one could have been so ill advised as 
to use accents like a d a for A<i, ya, way 
it is difficult for a philologist to con- 
ceive. To me it is an inscrutable 
riddle, though I have a glimmering of 
how the change arose in this particular 
case. For when m was changed to q, 
a single character was wanted for the 
Glossic eUj because it was a frequent 
Yaagan sound, and had been repre- 
sented by the single character q in the 
old alphabet. What was easier than 
to put a grave accent over the q re- 

fardless of the consequences ? But y 
eing commonly joined to other letters 
the use of this grave accent had to be 
extended. It lessened the number of 
types in a word. What a great advan- 
tage ! Then w and A were found to be 
related to y and followed suit. And so 
perhaps this great alphabetical blunder 
was committed. Mr. Bridges says he has 
used my alphabet in printing. Against 
this assertion I protest most earnestly 
and vehemently. I refuse to be mixed 
up with the representation of A, y, u;, 
by an acute accent and a grave accent 
and a macron or long mark, as a, a, a, 
for ha, yUf wa. 

36 THE president's annual address for 1882 

What follows is a re-arrangement and transliteration of 
the Rev. Thomas Bridges's paper. 

The language is called Yaagan because Yaaga is a district 
in the centre of the land, and the dialect spoken by the 
people inhabiting it, is that which Mr. Bridges has learned, 
and which he considers to be the best standard, because it is 
central, and differs less from the extremes than they do from 
each other. The name Yaagans includes all the Yaagan-speak- 
ing people who occupy both shores of the Beagle Channel and 
the shores of all the islands south of it. But the natives do not 
use the term. They call themselves simply Tamana or Man, 
and their language Ydman* hdasha ^ or Man's Voice. Ydmana 
literally means sound, whole, healthy, well, living, and 
ydmandna to live, be living, recover life or health, recover 
after sickness, or to heal as a wound, weedmandna v. tr. to 
make well, bring to life, heal, recover, save life, give life to, 
raise to life, deliver life in danger, ydmanaamoota to be 
alive. Yamanaasina^ alive, living though in a suffering 
state, hence not readily dying, having a strong life, not 
yielding quickly to the ravages of disease. Yamanaaki, the 
living one, the sound healthy one. 

Doubled letters are really doubled in speech, as in English 
meanness, thus annoo sorry, kin-nUom silly, kit-td to creep, 
dttd to pare, wur-ri to wade, y^r-ri to flow, is-sd to produce 
fruit or seed, nus-sd to chip, mum-md to break, rend, iim-md 
what do you say ? iil-ld sores, uol-ld to come ashore, il-li to 
bathe, iiosh'Shdo upward, luk-kd the thigh, uk-kd! oh dear 
me ! dp'pi a paddle, wiip-pi to sit by a fire, etc. 

M attracts b and p, n attracts d and t, as cumbeibi two, 
umba together up in the hand, lumbi black, unda to gather 
mussels, tuntookoo dust, tekindika to put one's foot upon, etc. 

When a word ending in kh, rh, sh or /is inflected or takes 
an affix beginning with a vowel, these sounds mutate 1. kh 
to k or g, 2. rh to t, 3. sh to r, 4. / to p, as — 

1. hukh an egg, hukaaki with an egg, houa haaguon my 
egg, haagoopei for or with respect to an egg. 

* The acuto accents used in this employed whenever they were written 
report, imply stress only, and are in Mr. Bridges's MS. 


2. seerh a thing, houa aietuon my thing, sMoopei with 
regard to the thing. 

3. «(/* a hearth, aapuon on the hearth, aapoopei into or 
towards the hearth or fire, yif narrow or ridge, t/eepuonatft 
to get narrow ; hakoo yeeptMn the other ridge. 

Conversely when 1. A;, ^, 2. t, d, 3. r and 4. p are followed 
by a vowel, but in course of inflection become final, they 
mutate back to 1. kh, 2. rh, 3. «A, and 4./. Thus {k or A«« 
being the pronominal prefix) the infinitives 1. tdagoo to g^ve, 
dakoo to rake out, 2. dautoo to run, 3. wra to cry, weep, and 
4. aapoo to pluck up, become in the 3 p. s. of perf. indie. 
1. kutdakh, kaakh, 2. kuddarh, 3. k*uo8h (where ' is simply 
an apostrophe denoting the omission of n in ku), 4. kaaf. 

PREPOsmoNS. The relations usually expressed by prepo- 
sitions in Aryan languages are indicated by a composition of 
one verb with another, as follows : 

1. By suffixes : tnuc/n to go or come in, eelina to feel (tran- 
sitive), to put one's hand out; but eeli-muchi to put one's 
hand in, as into a pocket, eiyi to call, ^iyi-miichi to call in. 
dta to take, tu-muchi to take in. tstdagata^ to lead by the 
hand, tstukh fniichi, to lead into, ddatoo to run, durh-muchi 
to run into. 

mdanaatsikuriy to go or come out, is used in the same way, 
as durh-manaatsikuri, to run out. 

ookeia to go or come up. hateiyakeidai cunjima I called 
him up. 

meena to go or come down, hateiyi-meennodai I called down. 

oot^ka to put one thing, and wusella to put several things, 
out of the hand, in composition answer to the prepositions 
on, upon, across, over, down on. Thus, tekila to tread, put 
one's foot, tikindeka to put one's foot upon, eelina to reach 
out one''s hand, eelind^ka to put one's hand or finger upon. 
eelaana to build, eeland^ka to build upon, as a house upon its 
site, aaguoloo to leap, aaguond^ka to leap across or over 
and so on ad libitum, diipa to take ofl* oneself a single 
article of clothing, duof-tika to do so and also to put it down 
on any place, dup^auasella to do the same for several articles 
of clothing. 

38 THE president's annual address for 1882 

2. By prefixes. 

muta or mutj to go or come in. mufata to go or come in 
and take. muVeiyi to go or come into and call, mut eelina 
to go or come into and feel, mutaamdotoo to go in and sit 
down. muCeea to go or come in and lie [down, from tciea to 
lie down. 

man or manaa to go or come out, are prefixed to these 
several words, thus man^ata, maneiyiy man^eelina, manaamootoo, 

koopa, koopaa or koop' to go or come down, as koopaa-Utukh- 
muchinna cunjima ukaatoopei go down and lead him into the 
house, hakoopatuodai sin* halichin I went down and took 
your axe. 

ku* or kaag before a vowel, to go or come up, as ha kuag^ 
eiyi-manaatsikurooa skeia, I will go up and call you out. 
lmknag*atuodai sin* halichin I went up and took your axe. 

These prefixes have also still more definite meanings, and 
with some others, indicate exactly in what direction motion 
takes place, as East, West, North, South, up towards the head 
of a creek or valley, or further out, or down from the shore 
or from the head of a valley or bay. 

a) ku, or kaag before a vowel, implies : 1. to go or come 
westward, 2. to get up from a sitting or prostrate position, 
3. to go out or come up, that is, higher up, as up a beach, or 
up further from the shore, or up- stairs, or higher up a hill, 
as : kaag* at* heia hukh go or come up (as 1. and 3.) or get 
up (1.) and get me the egg. 

fi) mut or mutUy 1. to go or come eastward, 2. to go or 
come into a house from any direction, when the house is 
near, 3. to go or come home, 4. to get to do thoroughly, as 
mut* at* heia hukh, go (in any of the above meanings) and 
fetch me an egg. 

7) koapa or koop*, 1. to go or come down, that is, lower 
down as from a higher room to a lower, or down a hill or 
towards the sea, 2. to go or come when the direction is East, 
and the distance great, 3. down towards the earth. Thus 
koop* at heiah hukh go down and get me an egg, 

h) ma, maat, or mei, 1. to go or come northward, 2. to go 


or come ashore to do the action stated by the verb with 
which it is conjoined, 3. from off the fire, and then position 
close to the fire. Thus maaV at heia hukh, go (northward) 
and get me an egg. Thus if there were two henhouses, one 
to the North and the other to the South of the house, the 
above phrase would very clearly state to which of the two 
the person sent was to go. maatootik heia eian, come bring 
my fuel and put it on the shore, mdatoomootreen h4ia sampan, 
put my saucepan, which is on the fire, on the hearth by the fire. 

€) koot or koota, 1. to go or come southward, 2. to go or 
come towards the end or edge of any cliff, or out to the end 
of a yard or boom, or branch of a tree, 3. to go or come to 
the fireplace in the centre of wigwam from either side of the 
wigwam, 4. to go or come out into deeper water and further 
out from the shore. 

§) koo^ or before verbs beginning with eu or y, kto, 1. to go 
or come when the direction is west and the distance not 
great, 2. to go or come towards or to the door of a wigwam 
from the upper end, or from either side of the wigwam or room. 
3. it conveys the idea of coming to an end or being spent. 

rj) kaap, 1. to go or come up towards or to the head of any 
creek, cove, bay from the outer parts, 2. to go or come to- 
wards the head of any valley from the lower parts of the 
valley, 3. to go or come from the door end of a wigwam to 
the upper or inner end, or to go or come from the mouth of 
a cave to the upper part of it in order to do any action the 
combined verb may declare. 

"Whenever we use our phrase, " go and do this or that," 
one or other of these prefixes must be used to indicate the 
nature and direction of the going, they cannot be used pro- 
miscuously. There is a proper verb answering to our verb 
** to go," but when " go " is conjoined to some other verb, 
then one or other of these seven prefixes must be used, and 
'* these prefixes," adds Mr. Bridges, " are a source of great 
beauty and perfection to the language." 

3. By both suffixes and prefixes. 

waana to pass, used as a suffix, with man or manaa used as 
a prefix as in 2, thus daatoo to run, durh-wdana to run past. 

40 THE president's ANNUAL ADDRESS FOR 1882 

mana'durhwaana to run right through, ookoo to shoot an 
arrow, man-uok-wdana to shoot an arrow right through and 
thus past. 


Besides the peculiar mode of comhining verhs to express 
relations of place, just explained, the Yaagan language has a 
series of verbs referring to a single object only, and another 
series referring to several objects as distinct from a single 
object. These are singular and plural verbs, and they save 
the necessity of expressing the plurality of nouns. But 
these verbs, whether single or plural, are also inflected to 
agree with a single, dual, or plural subject. Such verbs are 
of course transitive, but there are also neuter verbs which are 
inflected for the subject. Mr. Bridges seems to consider the 
singular verbs as rather an *' inflection " of the plural, than 
conversely, quoting gdoloo pi. tr. v. to pull out, as arrows 
from the body of a seal, but giiolata to pull out one (arrow e.g.). 
ooseu to pluck a bird, that is to pull out many feathers, but 
oosata to pull out one feather or one hair, g^ia to put several 
logs on end, ook4ia to put a single log on end. The singular 
and plural forms sometimes difier materially. 


a) transitive verbs. 

atupeueen' out put the stone on board, wagupeueen out put 
the stones on board. 

Mian chkindecaua blangket we will spread the blanket (as 
on a bed), h^ian chkiwusellana we (more than two) will spread 
the blankets. 

Mian ikeemooa out we (more than two) will put the stone 
in, ha-teiyigooa oui I will put the stones in. 

mdagoo to bear or have a child, kumukh moot a wulaiwa she 
has one son, kulmhshaamoota wulaiwa she has sons. 

/8) intransitive verbs. 

hakoochidai I went abroad, hipa-koochidai we (two) went 
abroad, heian toomupidai we (more than two) went abroad, 
toomupi being the plural form of koochi. 


aanan kugaaraf uoahsha there is a canoe up at the head of 
the creek on the water, aanan kaaP uoshsha there are canoes 
at the head of the creek on the water, from cuna a single 
object to be on the water and aaho several objects to be there. 

kunna kootang kunuodai what single person spoke on the 
water, that is when aboard the canoe, kunnai-i kootang kunaa- 
pikindai what two persons did so, kunneian kooian-aaluoda 
what three or more persons did so. 

unda kaatakara did he or she go P unda kaatakaraapei did 
they (being two persons) go ? und^ ootuoshura did they (being 
more than two persons) go ? ootuoshoo being the plural form 
of kdataka. 

idea to lie down, sing., oopeiashana pL, motoo to sit down, 
sing., toowaagoo pi., mimi to stand, sing., paldna pi., ikinieea 
to be in a thing, as a bag, sing., teiyigoora pi. 

The Yerb "To Take. 


The principal form is ata, but this conveys the idea of 
taking with the hand, paw, or claw, ittata to take with the 
mouth as a dog, from ^ua to bite, gaatnata to take some- 
thing upon something else, as a joint of meat on a dish, a 
corpse on a stretcher, or anything in a spoon, ikeemata sing., 
teiyeegata pi. (from the verbs ikeemoo and teiyigoo) to take 
anything inclosed in something else, that is, taking both the 
thing and what holds it. kusi to stuff, ata to take, kusaiata 
to take anything (as grass) stuffed into a bag or pocket 
together with the bag or pocket, kilina to put boots on one- 
self, kilinata to walk off with a pair of boots, while wearing 
them, maagoo to wear round one's neck, kumugatuodai hou 
mpuoshka she took my shell necklace (not in her hand or 
pocket, but) by wearing it. dupa to wear or put on oneself, 
said of any shawl, cloak, mantle, jacket, coat, blanket, etc., 
cunna who doopatura took away by wearing hoiia meiaka my 
guanaco mantle ? at^ga to paddle or row and hence to go by 
canoe or boat either by paddling or sailing, tatoogata to take 
away any canoe or boat by going in it and paddling it away 
to some other place. 

To the above indications, the fragmentary character of 


THE president's ANNUAL ADDRESS FOR 1882 

which is very tantalising, I am able by the kindness of Miss 
Couty to furnish a rather interesting specimen of the lan- 
guage itself. It consists of the first 13 verses of the gospel 
according to Luke in the original draft in the old notation, 
with what Mr. Bridges considered to be a literal rendering 
back of the same into English. This rendering follows the 
original draft and not the printed edition, with which there- 
fore I shall not trouble you. As before, I transliterate into 
Glossic. The place of the stress is marked by an acute 
accent in the first 8 verses only. The Yaagan is printed in 
Italics. The literal rendering is added in Roman letters 
opposite to each verse. 

Luke, chap. i. w. 1-13. 

1. Wuoroo ydmana kookuna»htda»i- 
yaageidai heian ouwiin toomuoahuorh' 

2. Kookiinjita hiiandnima koomuri' 
sinddi yundoulitom dlagoomootcuhin too- 
tnooeianunashin yaageiipei, 

3. Bei yundSuhtom tvuVeiaualenO' 
tdaki hdla kuoruodai ake'ia Idimarh 
yaagiia Theeofiius ouwiin makuorooa. 

4. Ouwiin tkeia hawiiV ookitnaihtaa' 
8aanaa-kuort4odai »a t6omeeaageiashin. 

5. Her ad yatstSueenashin Joodeea 
keiya-ydmrtnaa-mdoluodai Zakar^ias, 
matweedagi-muni-way Abiaudoulumna^ 
ktetdoktwn kuwdapa-mdotuodai Eeliza' 
beth Airanehee-ukan'douluom'keepa, 

6. Kunddi matdokoopei kutoomooteki' 
pikindai Oaudnchikeia hiima outcunaa' 
wdapan kuwuV -tutroomoomootoo-pikin' 
dai Tdueenmdotooaakinchikeia. 

7. Kunddi keiyooaV dpiayoodapeis E^' 
lizabeth auaieieldakin-daagiay kunddi 
baav ehila ydaruoma ydmanaapei. 

8. Zakareins wushtukhmunidaara ki' 
china wushtdagoo keetoo toomoogdalikh' 
munishin kichina mushtdagoo-ddara, 

9. Kook* hakwmdeian wuahtukh' 
munishin kunjin hakuon kula gdama 
murhida Toueenaakinchi ukaatoopei 
kuon hapntuoshkooa matootoogntaaki. 

10. Kunjin tukhmunidaara kuon 

Many persoiu have made plainly 
manifest the things which we truly 
have heard and received. 

In the selfsame manner as they re- 
vealed them to us, who from the he- 
ginning constantly saw (them) and 
were sent to declare them. 

I^ who have from the he^nnine 
heen thoroughly acquainted with all 
things, have desired to orderly tell 
thee, Theophilus, truly beloved. 

I have honestly desired to make all 
things plain unto thee that thou 
mightest believe the truth of these 
things which thou hast been taught. 

when Herod lived and ruled in 
Judea, there lived a man Zacharias, a 
man who was an appointed teacher 
(Priest or Officer) in the course of Abia, 
his wife was named Elizabeth, a 
woman of the family of Aaron. 

These, the man and his wife did 
both so live as to be seen by God to be 
good, they did both truly comply with 
all the commands of Him who lives 
the Ruling one (the Holy God). 

They were both without children, 
because Elizabeth was barren ; and 
they were no longer young persons. 

As (whilst) Zacharias was occupied 
in his duties, which had been appointed 
him to do, in the regular course of his 

Even as others fulfilled their duty, 
he also bore in the house of the Lord 
the sweet oil in a burning state (in his 
turn burnt the sweet oil). 

Whilst he was offering the burning 



nuUootoogntaaJn yamanaad€Mra kutoo- 
v^aaguodai tuin Oaud* nehikeia kaamuO" 

11. KuUlekidai ToueenaakineM too- 
mooeiamimunia toamunithin kuon UUhh 
malukhmuni uonigocpei. 

12. Zakareia* tekiahin kufijima ku- 
thaapuoruodai kumaiakunatwjdai. 

13. Toolwneiammaakin kunjima ku- 
kootaanuodai : oola yingganika Zaka- 
reias, m mamuaroomunaaki sa munit' 
atrmuothashinf »a tookuon Eelizabeth 
skeia ktoomukh' taagooaamuoih wulaiwa 
ta UtooapunauamtMsh kunjima Jon, 

oil all the people were 
without praying to God. 


At this time he saw a messenger of 
the Lord, who was standing on the 
rifipht hand side of the place (structure) 
where the oil was burned. 

When Zacharias saw him he was 
dismayed (distressed), he was afraid. 

He (the Messenger) who was sent 
said to him. Don't be sifraid Zacharias, 
thou art one who is heard in the 
prayers thou art in the habit of asking, 
thy wife Elizabeth bearing shall give 
thee a son, whom thou art to name John. 

While we cannot but admire the ingenuity with which 
Mr. Bridges has endeavoured to reduce this very difficult 
passage to the comprehension of savages who can have 
formed no conception of the usages of Je^^rish life at that 
time, yet one cannot but feel that as no native Fuegian 
could have thought out such a history, so no native Fuegian 
could have used such phrases. It is therefore gratifying to 
have in the letter of Stirling Maiakaul, from XJoshuoeia, 
5 Aug. 1880, a native Fuegian expressing himself in his 
own language. I conclude this Report therefore by giving 
the commencement of this letter (transliterated into Glossic), 
wit^ the translation, which is printed after the lithographed 
facsimile in my possession. The pointing follows copy. I 
should say that the writing would be good for an average 
English elementary schoolboy of twelve to fourteen, but I 
may easily have made some mistakes in transcribing. 

Mr. Brijit, houa tugaktwloo oca. 
Met hatoomuraah abagoodadai skeia haa 
pit, kuonji daara aa mooeiatMlang- 
geiata akuom. apa sin Yamalim unda 
haap is kundeian tuola God tkeia mu- 
tawukhmuni annoo. skeia. ha chila 
istekiskabagoodaua hex hatannoongeiata 
skeia toomaa geiatoosh abagoodoopei 
ejaudnchi — goota heibaavouwun eiaunla 
hotioosi goota eekamamupei hei skeia 
hachisinayak tvoota Godnchikeipei son- 
daugta. mukuorooa wttoroo Yamana 
skeia kutai nuok. moota hei skeia ha- 
thabaguor Teloodai kuokun hei sa Ye- 
lashin sa taa goodai heia reis, annoo 
hataamoonatamoodai hatiwwushtukala' 
moodai kuvje rets hatoom ouitooatn-. 
moodaipign ehi keiai kulluom /uiwaim 

Mr. Bridges, my friend man, I am 
made glad by the news of your good 
health. At what time do you think of 
coming here ? How are your peo])le ? 
Are they in good health? If God is 
gracious we shall have the happiness 
of seeing you again. I lone after you, 
that you may rejoice us by making 
known to us &od. I do not correctly 
understand how to write the language 
of my country. I have great comfort 
in your instructions concerning God, 
seeing you are a man worthy of love. 
Many persons are waiting to see you. 
I was grateful to you when you left 
us for the rice you left for me : I used 
it up in feeding men whom I employed 
to do some work for me, and some of 



ou sttMkgeiat a gimlit sau bag tiamaa- 
ffoosee oundai Joondaara ooapig kupti^ 
uoodai heiannoo hateelenatoodai see 
outoowuseluk ou eian avoaidtndai. 

it I gave to my pigs. Of the things 
you gave me I nave still gimlets, a 
saw, a bag, and a file. In June my 
male pig died. I have built a store- 
room for packing away my tools, and 
for storing fuel and swedes. 

Report on Eesearches into the Language of the South 
Andaman Island, Arranged by the President from 
the Papers of E. H. Man, Esq., Assistant Super- 
intendent OF THE Andaman and Nicobar Islands, 
AND Lieutenant R. C. Temple, of the Bengal Staff 
Corps, Cantonment Magistrate at Ambala, Panjab. 

Proceeding from Sumatra northwards into the Bay of 
Bengal, we find first the Nicobar, and then the Andaman 
group of islands. The latter is composed of the North, 
Middle, South and Little Andamans, with numerous smaller 
ones adjacent. In 1858, Port Blair, an inlet on the south-east 
of South Andaman, was selected as a penal settlement for the 
Sepoy rebels, and it was there that the Indian Viceroy, Lord 
Mayo, was murdered by a fanatic prisoner in 1872. Mr. E. 
H. Man went to the Andamans oflBcially in 1869, and in July, 
1875, was put in charge of the Andamanese Homes, which 
threw him into immediate and close connexion with the 
natives, and gave him an opportunity of studying tlieir 
language, habits and customs. In several most interesting 
communications to the Anthropological Institute this year, 
Mr. Man has described the physical and social condition 
of these tribes. I may mention in passing that the Anda- 
manese are almost entirely naked ^ and totally uncivilised, 
but seem to have many good qualities, and are very moral 
in respect to marriage, being strictly monogamous. They 
are dwarfish in stature, the average height of men being 
4 ft. lOf inches and of women 4 ft. 7\ inches.^ The accounts 

^ The women af tongs wear an o'bu- 
tjgada or apron, consisting of one or two 
leaves of the mimusfps Indica^ in front, 
as well as a bo'd'ia or girdle with an ap- 
pendage hehimd like a bustle, and tne 
men sometimes wear a waistbelt and 
girdle of shells {Dentaltum octogoftum). 
Soth men and women also frequently 
paint their bodies with white and red in 
patterns, and tattoo themselves more 

or less, and wear necklaces and other 

* The maximum and minimum height 
of men are 6 ft. i\ in., ^uite a giant, 
and 4 ft. 6| in. respectively. Those 
of women bemg 4 ft. 11 1 in. maximum, 
and 4 ft. 4 in. minimum. The average 
weight of men is 98J lbs. or 7 stone, 
and of women 93| lbs. or slightly over 
64 stone. 



of travellers in former times were not only very meagre, 
but have been found to contain important inaccuracies both 
as respects the language and customs of the natives, (p.47, n.l). 

The Andamanese have no means of writing, and no notions 
of religious worship. The tribes which inhabit the Anda- 
man group are Negritos and seem ta have all descended from 
a common source. They are entirely distinct from the in- 
habitants of the Nicobar Islands, who are allied to the 
Malays. There are at least nine Andamanese tribes speak- 
ing mutually unintelligible languages, all of which are, 
however, formed after a common type of construction, and 
althouorh in two of them an occasional resemblance in roots 
can be traced, the relational words and particles, postpositions, 
prefixes and suffixes which form the principal peculiarity of 
the language, are totally different for the different tribes. 

Between July, 1875, and April, 1876, Mr. Man had 
prepared a vocabulary of from 1800 to 2000 South Andaman 
words, with numerous illustrative phrases, and this he had 
intended to incorporate with his report to Government. But 
before doing so, about May, 1876, Lieutenant R. C. Temple, 
who was at that time in the 1-2 1st Fusiliers, was transferred 
from the head- quarters of his regimenj^ in Burmah, to do 
duty with a detachment then stationed at Port Blair. Mr. 
Temple had already worked at the Burmese language, and 
published a transliteration of it.^ Hence, on becoming 
acquainted with Mr. Man's collections, he took the greatest 

hk^ hty hp, hs for the postaspirates, 
which would here be written >t', ^*, 
p% «*, the * representing the Greek 
spiritus asper. He also uses au for 
the sound of unaccented English an m 
authority, and ato for the accented aw 
in rtM;ful. He likewise distinguishes 
e in md;, e in French pere (which he 
identities with at in Euj^lish p^n'r) and 
e in French fete. He also uses ou for 
the English sound of ou in mound. 
These are his chief deviations from Dr. 
Hunter's Indian system, and it will be 
seen by a subsequent note (p. 48, n. 1) 
that he bases his Andamanese system 
upon this, although, not having a 
native orthography to deal with in the 
present case, he has modified it in part. 

^ Notes on the Transliteration of the 
Burmese Alphabet into Roman Cha- 
racters, to which is attached a Note on 
the Vocal and Consonantal Sounds of 
the Peguan or Talaing Languages. By 
Lieutenant R. C. Temple, 21st R.N.B. 
Fusiliers. Rangoon, printed at the 
Central Jail Press, 1876 ; folio, pp. 
viii. 21. iv. In this transliteration 
Mr. Temple endeavours to combine 
" literal " with " phonetic ** transcrip- 
tion on the basis of Sir "William Jones's 
system for Sanscrit as modified by Dr. 
Hunter. But as Burmese has the 
sound of English th in Min, as well as 
the postaapirated t ort^aa here written, 
and has a postaspirated « or «*, but not 
English th in «Ae, Mr. Temple employs 



interest in them, and proposed an improved system of speU- 
ing, which Mr. Man adopted, and they then agreed to 
work together. One consequence of this was that Mr. Man 
translated the Lord's Prayer into South Andamanese — a 
natural but rather an unfortunate selection perhaps, as the 
Andamanese have scarcely a proper word for God,^ and could 
only call prayer ' daily repetition ' ^ from observing the habits 
of the imported Mussulmans — ^while Mr. Temple wrote a 
comment and introduction, based entirely on the facts 
furnished him by Mr. Man. The result was published in 
Calcutta and London (Triibner, 1877), in a little book of 81 
pages, called " The Lord's Prayer translated into the South 
Andaman Language by E. H. Man, with preface, intro- 
duction, and notes by R. C. Temple." The preface is dated 
September, 1876, only four months after Mr. Temple had 
become acquainted with the language. To have written such 
a precis in so short a time (seriously diminished by his being 
engaged in studying for the higher standard examination in 
Hindustani, which he passed while at Port Blair) evinces 
great powers of appreciation and coordination in Mr. Temple. 
It was the first book which gave any trustworthy account of 
this language, the nature of which I shall endeavour to 
explain in this report. 

Messrs. Man and Temple then determined to work together 
for the purpose of compiling a complete grammar of the 
language, Mr. Man collecting the data, and Mr. Temple 

^ Fu'luga (the system of spelling 
will be explained on p. 49) "is," says 
Mr. Temple, "as near an equivalent 
for 'God' as can be found in the 
language, and conveys nearly all the 
ideas we attach to tbe word * God * 
likely to occur to a savage mind. 
Fu'luga is a spirit, who dwells in 
md'tOy the sky {Fu'luga li'a i'rda md'ro 
koktd't'len, 1*. of dwelling-place sky 
middle-in, and Fu'luga md'ro koktd'rlen 
pol'ike P. sky middle-in dwell -does) ; 
he is the Creator of all things and 
supreme over all, he was not bom, has 
existed from time immemorial and 
cannot die ; his house is of stone {i.e, 
of the most magnificent materials) and 
invisible; he is the cause of rain, of 

thunder, of natural death (Fu'luga Ira 
pai'chatek (or e'rtek) ywmla pd'ke^ P. 
his lap-from (or house-from) rain fall- 
does, Fu'luga ijiri'lkej P. angry-is ! (an 
exclamation used when it thunders). 
Fu'luga is distinctly the embodiment 
of goodness and power ... in contra- 
distinction to the idea of evil embodied 
in ^e'rem-ehdwgalaf the Evil Spirit of 
the jungles or land," {i'rem jungle, 
ehdwgala ghost). — Lord's Prayer, p. 48. 
' Hence ' the Lord s prayer * is trans- 
lated as Fu'luga Ira d'rlalikyd'bf P. 
of daily-repetition, from d'rla day, i 
euphonic, ikgd'b repetition, where ydb 
means speak, and ik or »7 is a modify- 
ing prefix, thus 51 yd'bnga Vigyd'p that 
wora repeat I 


arranging the results. Mr. Man also endeavoured to obtain 
as much information as possible respecting the other tribes. 
On account of the narrow limits to which I must necessarily 
confine myself, and the fragmentary nature of these latter 
collections, I shall deal exclusively with the South Andaman 
language, at which these gentlemen principally worked. 
But the arrangements for joint authorship were un- 
fortunately interfered with by Mr. Temple's being ordered 
off on duty to different stations in India in Oct. 1876, so that 
all the manuscript and all correspondence between him and 
Mr. Man had thus to pass through the post, entailing great 
delay, and preventing the possibility of personal communi- 
cation, which would have been so valuable. Nevertheless, in 
the two years ending July, 1878, when Mr. Temple (who 
was then in the Ist Goorkhas) was ordered off on active 
service, and all papers were returned to Mr. Man, Mr. 
Temple contrived to put together and make a fair copy of 
a very copious grammar, of which a short specimen of 
11 pages, containing the first section, "On Nouns," was 
printed for private circulation at Calcutta in 1878. On the 
MS. being sent back to Mr. Man, he went over it carefully, 
to bring it up to his advanced knowledge in a series of 
voluminous notes. These and the MS. were returned to Mr. 
Temple after the war. But he was then appointed a Canton- 
ment magistrate in the Panjdb, and the great press of 
business prevented him from obtaining privilege-leave, and 
thus having an opportunity to correct his grammar by the 
help of these additional notes. In the vain hope, however, 
that he might find time to do so, he retained the MSS. till 
July, 1881, when, with great regret and reluctance, he re- 
turned them to Mr. Man, who was at the time on leave in 
England. The "specimen" and the "Lord's Prayer" are 
the only papers that they have printed on the South 
Andaman language. Those which Mr. Man has read before 
the Anthropological Institute only touch incidentally upon it.^ 

^ It would be really more correct to language. For Colebrooke's vocabulary 
say that these are the only papers that {Asiatic Researches^ iv. 393-4), quoted 
have been printed on any Andaman by Crawfurd, is certainly unintelligible 


48 THE president's annual address fob 1882 

In January of this year Mr. Man was introduced to me 
through Mr. Brandreth, a member of our Council, in order 
to settle the alphabet before printing it in his Anthropo- 
logical papers. I was then quite ignorant of the facts just 
detailed, and merely endeavoured to complete the alphabet on 
the lines which Mr. Man had used. These had been laid 
down, as we have seen, by Mr. Temple, and were to some 
extent Anglo-Indian, especially in the use of a, not only for 
a in America, but for a, u, o in the colloquial pronunciation 
of asst^mption. A minimum of change was thus produced. 
The alphabet was extended to the Nicobarese language, 
which has all the Andamanese sounds and several others, 
and among these a peculiar double series of nasal vowels. 
The following is the alphabet finally settled by Mr. Man and 
myself, with examples in Andamanese and Nicobarese. This 
scheme is found to work well, and will be employed in all 
Andaman words used in this report.^ It will be observed 
that the South Andaman* language is very rich in vowel 
sounds, but is totally deficient in the hisses/, th, 8, sh, and the 
corresponding buzzes t?, dh, x, zh. Of course this alphabet 
has been constructed solely upon Mr. Man's pronunciation 
of the languages, and hence the orthography might require 
modification on a study of the sounds as produced by the 
natives themselves. This refers especially to the distinctions 
</ d, d d, au du, o d, 6, and the two senses of i, e, according as 
they occur in closed or open syllables. But as the natives 
understand Mr. Man readily, his pronunciation cannot be far 

to six of the Andaman tribes ; Tickeirs e eyce and e, ^ ^, i t, 1 1 and t, o o and 6, 

(Journal of Asiatic Society of Bengaly 6 o and o, 6 6, aw ^, u u, ii t< and «, ai 

No. ii. 1864), though referring to Soath at, an nu, uu du, oi ot, b b^ ch ch, d d, 

Andaman, is coriously incorrect, trans- g ^, h A, j y, k Ar, 1 /, m m, n n, ng 

lating, for instance, ' yAd d6* as^ much ng n n^, p ;?, r r and f, t /, t ^*, w u;, 
fish,' and giving separately y4</ * much,' y y. In Mr. Temple's writing, short 
d6 ^fish,' in place of yiid ' fish,' do'gaya a e % o um. open syllables were not dis- 

tish,' and giving separatelyj(4</ * much,' y y. In Mr. Temple's writing, short 
* much * ; and de Eoepstorff's is also tinguished from tne long sounds, and 

full of error. See Mr. Temple's pre- the position of stress was rarely marked, 

face to " The Lord's Prayer.' I adopted his short a e % o u and made 

* In the following comparative list Mr. the long of them 5, c, 7, o, u. Then 

Temple's symbols stand first (and, with adopting his * eI, 6,' I made their short 

one exception, are roman), those here and long sounds respectively, d, 6y and 

adopted stand second (and are all in thus got rid of the exclusively English 

italics) : Ka^aa^kd and a, a & and d, symbol aWk 



Alphabet for 





• (2) 














• • 









idea cut 
CUT (with un- 
unmlled r) 
Ital. caM 








Germ, konig 



Germ. «ber 



Germ, haws 


Fr. UH 

Fr. vm 
Port, aim 
Fr. on 




Oral Voweis and Biphthongt, 

al'oba kind of tree yang without 

ba fmall, pa'ba not 

ald'kd region 
dd'~k$ don't (imperatiye) 
Jar'awa name of a tribe 
i'mej name of a tree 

pwd'r$ bum-did 
i'ia pig-arrow 
iff'bu'dig're see-did 
yA'd'i turtle, pid hair 
.boi-goli European 
j^ basket 
p6l'i'k$ dwell-does 
to'go wrist, shoulder 
not found 

bu'hura name of a tree 
pu'd-re bum-did 
not found 

dav'k$ understand -does 
ehopawa narrow 
ehdu body 
.boiyoli European 


kdn wife 

li'dt finished 

anyd'h (A heard, see note 8) after 

(in time), heng day, sun 
Irbare book 
Hang word 
ifd' sweep 
u^f make 
yo'kolai bathe 
laro'm Pandanus Mellori 
omto'm all 
16-0 cloth 

kdto- remain, dols come 
ho'la-rue landing place 
hwya c^ 
ehu'a I 

taiyd'k cocoanut shell cup 
kareaw a charm 
odw vomit 
enloi'n wallow 

Natal VOW0U and Diphthongs, 

not found holran spinster, imgvhanh (6) wood 

not found midh' spear having prongs, mom'dii ya 

two pronged spear, ko-ydnh'wa guava 

not found hen' ha otherwise, h%nu?enh' harpoon spear 

not found koin'ha scrape, aminh (5) rain 

not found haronh' stalk game 

not found shin-kmi- -hata knock down, oiiA fuel, 

not found tanain' five, iain-ya white 

not found om-Aoi'ii tobacco 


bud hut 

ehdk ability, mieh'nlen 

,ruch Ross Island 
do'ga laree 
not founa 


gob bamboo utensil 

he ho ! dweh' {h sounded, see 

note 8) etcetera 
j'a'bag bad, e-mej name of a tree 
kd'gal'ke ascend-does 
log navigable channel 
mu'gu face 

ndu'ke walk-does, rd'pan toad 
Fr. gainer otnd'ba another, one more 

PMl Trans. 1882-8-4. 






U'bare book 

ehakd' face, raieh micturi- 

kamin'do rainbow 

i/'e you ^said of three or 
more) J fdp thick 

kog-nare be off ! 

hu'ya eg^^ paiyu'h married 
or widowed person 

ehij abstain 

kd'nedl last quarter of moon 

ie'ang word 

omto'm all 

not pig 

manU'na exorcist 


THE president's ANNUAL ADDRESS FOR 1882 








r (10) rest 








ngl'ji friend, erki'dnng-k^ in- pang without 

trees-search-does (14) 

ngd more not found 

p^dhair paiyu-h (8) married 

widowea person 

r&b necklace of netting, r&*td karw large 

wooden arrow 





fd'ta sea water 

not found (12) 

not found 

ti blood 

t*t tear (from the eye) (13) 

not found 

not found 
sd'la anvil 
shO'ho-ng west 
to'ak toddy 
not found 
ben-whd'va ashes 

tpo'lo adze, »bal'awa name of toot don*t (imperative) 

a tribe 

not found bett'wM'va ashes 

yaba* a little yang without 


The syllable under stress in any word is shown by placing a turned period (*) 
after a long vowel, or the consonant following a short vowel, in every word of 
more than one syllable. 

As it is not usual to find capitals cast for the accented letters, the capital at 
the' beginning of a word is for uniformity in all cases indicated by prefixing 
a direct perioo, as .bal'awa. 


(1) a accented before a consonant, 
is tlie English a in mat, as distinguished 
from d, which is the short of d or 
Italian a in anno. 

(2) e accented in closed syllables, as 
in W ; in open sjllables unaccented as 
in chaotic or Italian padr«, amor^. 

(3^ No vanishing sound of i as in 
English say. 

(4) No vanishing sound of m as in 
English know, 

(6) "Where nh is written, as in anh^ 
t'liA, the nasal is followed by nasalised 
breath, remitting the voice, but re- 
taining the position of the vocal 

(6) In dn the sound has more of the 
d in it, than the French aw, and in on 
it has more of the o than the French an. 

(7) In the diphthongs am, om, the 
nasality principally affects a and o, but 
it is retained tnrough the whole diph- 
thong, that is, the nasal passages 
remain open. 

(8) k IS sounded after a vowel by 
continuing breath through the position 
of the mouth, while remittmg the 

(9) n^ is a palatalised ng^ and bears 

the same relation to it as n bears to n. 
To pronounce n attempt to say n and 
y simultaneously ; to pronounce ng do 
the same for ng and y. 

(10) This r is soft and gentle, with 
no sensible ripple of the tongue, as very 
frequently in English, but not merely 

(11) This r is strongly trilled, as r 
in Scotch or Italian r, or Spanish rr. 

n2) The Andamanese cannot hiss, 
and hence they substitute ch for «, thus 
Jiuch for SuSf the Hindi corruption of 

(13) This ^* is a post-aspirated t, 
like the Indian M, quite different from 
English thf and hence to prevent con- 
fusion the Greek apiritus atper is 
imitated by a turned comma. The 
sound t^ is common in Irish English, 
and may often be heard in England. 

( 1 4) When ng is followed by a vowel, 
it must run on to that vowel only, and 
not be run on to the preceding vowel 
either as in * finger * or in * singer,* thus 
be'-ri-nga-da * good,* not bi'-ring-a-da^ 
be'-ring-ga-da, or be'-Hn-ga-da. It is 
only when no vowel follows that ng is 
run on to the preceding vowel. 



All the papers mentioned above have been placed in my 
hands for the purpose of drawing up this report, and Mr. 
Man has also given me much personal instruction and 
looked over the whole of what I have written to guard 
against any error of fact or language. I have examined the 
grammar drawn up with such care and acuteness by Mr. 
Temple, and the vocabulary of Mr. Man, and I shall 
endeavour to give an account of the results at which they 
have arrived. 

The following, written by Mr. Temple in July, 1881, on 
finally returning the MSS. to Mr. Man, sums up his opinion 
of the nature of the South and other Andaman languages : 

" The Andaman languages are one group. They are like, 
that is, connected with no other group. They have no 
affinities by which we might infer their connexion with any 
other known group. The word-construction (the * etymology ' 
of the old grammarians) is two-fold, that is, they have affixes ^ 
and prefixes to the root, of a grammatical nature. The 
general principle of word-construction is agglutination pure 
and simple. In adding their affixes, they follow the prin- 
ciples of the ordinary agglutinative tongues. In adding 
their prefixes, they follow the well-defined principles of the 
South African tongues. Hitherto, as far as I know, the two 
principles in full play have never been found together in any 
other language. Languages which are found to follow the 
one have the other in only a rudimentary form present in 
them. In Andamanese both are fully developed, so much so 
as to interfere with each other's grammatical functions. The 
collocation of words (or * syntax ' to follow the gld nomen- 
clature) is that of the agglutinative languages purely. The 
presence of the peculiar prefixes does not interfere with this. 

^ Mr. Temple, following the usual un- 
etymological definition given in diction- 
aries, here uses ajix in place of sujix. 
In what follows I shall adopt the prac- 
tice of Prof. S. S. Haldeman in his 
* 'Affixes in their origin and application/ 
Philadelphia, 18C5, p. 27. ''Affixes 
are additions to roots, 8tems,«Rnd words, 
serring^ to modify their meaning and 
use. They are two kinds, prejixes^ those 

at the heginning, and st^fixesy those at 
the end of the word bases to which they 
are affixed. Several affixes occur in long 
words like in'Cotn'pre-hen-s-ib-il-it'yf 
which has three prefixes and fivesuffixes." 
Affixes also include injixeit (or, as l*rof. 
Haldeman calls them, inler/ixea)^ where 
the modifying letter or syllable is intro- 
duced into the middle of the base, as in 
the Semitic and other languages. 

52 THE president's annual address for 1882 

The only way in which they affect the syntax is to render 
possible the frequent use of long compounds almost poly« 
synthetic in their nature, or, to put it in another way, of 
long compounds which are sentences in themselves. But the 
construction of these words is not synthetic, but agglutina- 
tive. They are, as tcords, either compound nouns or verbs, 
taking their place in the sentence and having the same 
relation to the other words in it, as they would were they to 
be introduced into a sentence in any other agglutinative 
language. There are, of course, many peculiarities of 
grammar in the Andaman group, and even in each member 
of the group, but these are only such as are incidental to 
the grammar of other languages, and do not affect its general 
tenor. I consider, therefore, that the Andaman languages 
belong to the agglutinative stage of development, and are 
distinguished from other groups by the presence in full 
development of the principle of prefixed and affixed gram* 
matical additions to the roots of words." 

The South Andaman language, called by the natives 
ho'jig-ngVji'dUy^ consists in the first place of a series of base 
forms, which Mr. Temple reduces to roots. These forms 
may answer to any part of speech, and in particular to what 
we call substantives, adjectives or verbs. These forms do 
not vary in construction, and are not subject to inflexion 
proper. Hence there is nothing resembling the grammatical 
gender, declension or conjugation of Aryan languages; but 
the functions of such Aryan forms are discharged by prefixes, 
postpositions, and suffixes. It is only in the pronouns and 
pronominal adjectives that there is anything which simulates 
declension. And it is only by the use of the prefixes that 
anything like concord can be established. 

The Andamanese have of course words which imply sex, 

^ The word bo'jig appears to mean bo'jig dd-kar* our make of bncketB, 

our-make-of, according to our habits. bo-jig btrj' our make of cooking-pots, 

Mr. Man only knows it in the names of etc. The M'jig-yA'bda inhabit the 

the tribes. ^oy/^-ft^'V't- and. 3o;;tiQr-^(l*3-, Southern portion of Middle Andaman, 

oiu-'make-of friends, our make of speech, and most closely resemble the South 

and in such expressions as bo'jig kd'' Andamanese in speech. 
ramu' our make of bows to shoot with, 


but they are in general quite unrelated forms ; thus : dbu'iada 
man, dpai'lda woman; dkdkd'dakada boy, aryd'ngida girl; 
dro'dingada father, dbetingada mother. * Male ' and ' female ' 
are represented even for animals by the above words for 
'man' and 'woman,' without the affixes, which are usually 
omitted in composition,^ as bu'la, pail, and when the animals 
are young by the names abwd'rada bachelor, or abjad'yo'gda 
spinster, rejecting the affixes as trd'ra, jad'ijd'g, see letter to 
Jam'buy p. 63, sentences 15 and 16. Even in the Aryan 
languages ' gender,' the Latin ' genus,' means only a ' kind,' 
and as it so happened that the kind with one termination 
included males, with another females, and with a third 
sexless things, the time-honoured names masculine, feminine 
and neuter arose. But the classification thus formed has, 
properly speaking, nothing to do with sex, as may be seen 
at once from sentinel being feminine in French {la senii)ielle) 
and woman neuter in German (das Weib). We may see 
from the discussions in Grimm's grammar how difficult, or 
rather impossible, it is to recover the feeling which led to 
that grouping in German, and the same difficulty is felt in 
other languages. The Andamanese grouping which takes 
the place of gender is, on the contrary, clear enough in the 
main. The Andamanese consider, first, objects generally, 
including everything thinkable. Then these are divided 
into animate and inanimate. Of course the vegetable king- 
dom is included in the latter. The animate objects are again 
divided into human and non-human. Of the human objects 
there is a sevenfold division as to the part of the body 
referred to, and this division is curiously extended to the 
inanimate objects which affect or are considered in relation 
to certain parts of the body. These group distinctions are 
pointed out by prefixes, and by the form assumed by the 
pronominal adjectives. So natural and rooted are these 
distinctions in the minds of the Andamanese that any use of 
a wrong prefix or wrong possessive form occasions unintel- 
ligibility or surprise or raises a laugh, just as when we use 

^ This expression includes both prefix suffix -da is occasionally retained at the 
and suffix, see foot-note, p. 51. The end of clauses, p. 54, 1. 15. 

54 THE president's annual address for 1882 

false concords in European languages. I shall give ex- 
amples on p. 57, which have been drawn up for me by Mr. 
]SIun. These prefixes are added to what in our translations 
become substantives, adjectives, and verbs, and which for 
purposes of general intelligibility to an Aryan audience had 
better be so designated. But we require new t^rms and an 
entirely new set of grammatical conceptions which shall not 
bend an agglutinative language to our inflexional trans- 
lation. With this warning, that they are radically incorrect, 
I shall freely use inflexional terms, as Mr. Temple does 
throughout his grammar, meaning merely that the language 
uses such and such forms to express what in other languages 
are distinguished by the corresponding inflexional terms, 
which really do not apply to this. 

Substantives, adjectives, and adverbs, generally end in -da, 
which is usually dropped before postpositions and in construc- 
tion ; hence when I write a hyphen at the end of a word, I 
shall mean that in its full form it has -da. Subs, and adj. also 
occasionally end in -re for human objects, and this -re is not 
dropped before postpositions. This same suffix ~re is also 
extensively used in verbs, for our past tense active, or past 
participle passive. A common termination is also -la, which 
as well as -re implies human, and -o/a, which is also honorific. 
What answers to our verbal substantives denoting either actor 
or action, is expressed by the suffix -nga added to verbal bases, 
both active and passive. What corresponds to the Aryan 
declension is carried out entirely by postpositions, as in fact 
it might be in English by prepositions, if we had a pre- 
position to point out the accusative as in Spanish. In 
Andamanese these postpositions are generally ia of, or more 
usually Ad of (where the /, as very frequently, is merely a 
euphonio prefix to vowels) ; len, to, in (but len also frequently 
marks oat the objeot) ; tat to^ towards ; iek from and by ; ia 
by meant of (instrument). 

The p is expressed by the addition of iO'ng-kd'iak ^ 

f when the distinction is considered necessary, 

ImUj * their,' 4th person, see CI. 6, p. 69. kd'Uk is 



which is not often, as the plural is left to be implied by the 
context, or is indicated by a prefix. Abstract subst. are 
formed from adj. by adding yo'ina- quality, or property, as 
Id'pangada long, Wpanga-yo'mada length. Negatiye subst. 
are formed by adding ha, an abbreviation for yd'ha, as 
abtl'gada child, abh'gaba not a child, but a boy or girl. 
Active verbs use the suffixes -ke for our gerundial form of 
infinitive,^ for our pres. part., pres. ind., and occasionally 
future ; -re for past time, -ka imperfect, -ngabo for future, -nga 
for verbal subst., actor and action ; with numerous auxiliaries 
answering to our *may, might, shall, should, will, would.' 
Passive verbs use -nga for the gerundial infinitive, the future, 
and verbal substantive, ^ngaha for pres. and imperf. indie, 
-ngafa for perf. and entd'ba — ngata pluperf., and -re for past 
participle.^ Certain verbs distinguish the subject and others 
the object, as human and non-human, by change of prefix, 
but no rule can be given as to when a verb does one or the 

1 In his glossary Mr. Man uses the 
fonn in. 'ke (just as we say gerundially 
* to exist ') to shew that he means a 
Terbal form. H6 says that if you ask 
an Andamanese the name of any 
action which you shew him, he will 
gire you the form in -ke. But it 
remains to be established that this 
corresponds to our gerundial infinitive, 
at least I hare not detected it in any 
example which Mr. Man has furnished, 
nor could he recall one. In Latin dic- 
tionaries audioy amoy are Englished ^ to 
hear, to love,* which they certainly do 
not mean. But as it is usual to give 
Latin verbs in this form, so it may be 
usual to give Andamanese verbs in the 
form in -**, which would be like usins 
audit, atnat in Latin. Our gerundial 
or supine infinitive answers to the Latin 
ad audiendum, auditwn. Dr. Morris 
prefers calling it the * 'dative infinitive" 
(Hist. Outlmes of Engl. Accidence, 
1872, p. 177). It is frequently used 
for the pure infinitive in English. The 
pure infanitive is properly only a verbal 
Bubst., and most nearly corresponds to 
one of the senses of tne Andamanese 
form with the suffix -n^a, but in point 
of fact there is nothing in Andamanese 
identical with the Aryan infinitive. 

' Mr. Man * conjugates' a verb thus. 

using the inflexional names. I translate 
the suffixes -ke do, does, -ka -ing -was, 
-re did, etc., as the nearest inflexional 
representatives, but they do not give the 
true feeling of the original, to which 
we have nothing which corresponds in 

AcTiVB. Inf. md-mi'ke sleep-to. 
Pres. dol md-mi-ke 1 sleep-do. Imperf. 
dolmd'mi'ka I sleep-ing-was. Perf. dol 
md'ini-'re I sleep-did (I slept). Pluperf. 
dol entd'ba md'mi-re I already sleep- 
did. Fut. dot md'tni-ngabo I sleep- 
will. Imperative do md-mi-ke me 
sleep-let, md'mi sleep ! , o tud'tni-ke 
him sleep-let, mo-eho mdmi-ke ua sleep- 
let. Optative dol md'tni-nga to'guk 
I sleep- (verbal subs.) might. Con- 
tinuative participle, md'mi-nga be- dig 
sleep -(verbal subs.) while = while 

Passive. Inf. A;o*p-«^a scoop (ed)- to- 
be. Pres. kd'rama do.l-la ko-p-ngaba 
bow rae-by scooped-is -being. Imperf. 
kd'rama do'l-la dchi'baiya ko'p-vgaba 
bow me-by then scooped-was-being. 
Perf. kd'rama do'l-la kd'p-ngata bow 
me-by scooped-has-been. Pluperf. 
kd'rama dol-la ento'ba kop-ngata bow 
me-by already scooped-had-been. Fut. 
kd'rama do'l-la ko'p-nga bow me-by 

56 THE president's annual address for 1882 

other, 80 that this is a mere matter of practice. There are 
also reflective verbs formed by pronouns. 

The greatest peculiarity of the language is the treatment 
of the personal and possessive pronoun. All the pronouns 
are sexless, but the forms used for the so-called dative seem 
to vary with the group. The normal form is that for the 
third person, * he, she, it,' for which I will use * it ' only for 
brevity, and * they ' for the plural. We have then sing. Ol 
it (subject), ia of it, en, ul, at, ik, eb to it, in different forms, 
en it (object), and in it ; pi. dl'oichik they, 6'nta of them, 
et, u'lat, at'at, dental, d'lkt, eh'et to them, in different forms, 
et them, o'llet in them. These relations may also be ex- 
pressed by the postpositions answering to case. Then for the 
first person d^ sing, and m- plur., and for the second ng- sing, 
and plur., are prefixed to these forme ; as 6l it, d6l I, ngol 
thou, mol'dichik we, ngdl'oichik you. There is also what 
Mr. Temple calls a " fourth person," obtained by prefixing 
/ to those forms of the third person, which are not the 
subject of the sentence, and these give common postpositional 
forms, as li'a of a or the (or English possessive 'a), len to 
or in a or the, and also the object of a verb, lat, leb to a, or 

These preliminary explanations will serve to make in- 
telligible the following examples which have been furnished 
by Mr. Man, and will shew the structure of the language 
better than a long series of grammatical explanations. 
Observe that in all these examples a hyphen at the end of 
a word means that the suffix -da (applied to all things) may 
be added, but that it is omitted in construction, and heard 
only in isolated words or at the end of a clause. The 
hyphens between parts of a word separate the prefix, the 
suffix, the postposition and the parts of which the word is 
compounded, and are used merely for the purpose of assisting 
the unaccustomed reader, generally they should all be 
written together in one word without hyphens, just as in 
German ereifern and not er^ei/er-ny though the latter shews 
the approximate oomposition. 



Prefixes Illustrated. 

CiUd at No, 

No. 1. be'ri'ttffth' good (animate bat 
non-human, or inanimate). 

No. 2. jh'bc^' bad (ditto). 

No. 3. d-be'ri-nga- ^ood (homan). 

No. 4. ab-ja'bag- bed (ditto). 

No. 6. ad-bi'ri'nga' well, that is, not 
sick (animate^. 

No. 6. ad-ja'bag- ill, that is, not well 

No. 7. un-be'ri-nga^ clerer (that is, 
hand-good, un referring to ong 
its, applied to k6'ro' hand^ see 
CI. 6, p. 69), 

No. 8. un-Ja-bag- stupid (that iS) 
hand-bad, ditto). 

No. 9. ig-bi'ri'figa- sharp - siehted 
(that is, eye-good, ig its, being 
applied to dal- eye, see CI. 4, 
p. 68). 

No. 10. f^-^a ■30^- dull-sighted (that is, 
eye-bad, ditto). 

No. 11. d'kd^be'ri-nga' nice -tasted 
(that is, mouth-good, d'kd its, 
applied to bang- mouth, dtli-ya- 
palate, see CI. 3, p. 58). 

No. 12. wi'tig-be'ri-nga- good "all 
round" (that is, un hand and 
ig eye, good, t beine euphonie). 

No. 13. tif»-%-yaia^- a "duffer "(that 
is, hand and eye bad). 

No. 14. ot'be'ri-ngtt' virtuous (that is, 
head and heart good, ot its, ap^ 
plied to ehtta- head and kiig' 
neart, see CI. 6, p. 59). 

No. 16. ot'ja'bag- vice, evil, vicious 
(that is, head and heart bad). 

No. 1-16. Example: d-rtdm .dd'ra 
ab-ja'bag Veda'rCj dona d'chidk 
d-be'ri-nga (or d'he'ri-nga-ke). 
Free translation : DA*ra was for- 
merly a bad man, but now he 
is a good man. [Analytical 
translation : d'rtdm formerly, 
.do'ra name of man, ab-ja'bag 
(human) -bad, Vedii're exist- 
did, do^na but, d-ehitik now, 
d'he'ri'nga- (human) -good [or 
d'bS'ri-nga-ke (human) -good- 

1, 2, etc. 

is]. The *is' generally un- 
expressed, in Veda' re the /* is 
the common euphonic prefix, «<iS* 
V. exist, -repast time ; which may 
be expressed as * exist-did,* the 
verb being always put in the 
infinitive (properly unlimited, 
undefined) form, and the suffix 
-re being expressed by * did,* as 
'ke may be oy *does,' etc., as 
the simplest way of expressing 
present and past time, see the 
conjugation of the verb in note 
2, p. 66 ; the simple copula is 
never expressed, but in the 
second form dbi'rwga is treated 
as a verb, and ke being added 
makes it present, so that there 
is an apparent expression of the 
copula. Mr. Man believes the 
termination -da as applied to 
anything which exists, to be 
derived from the partially ob- 
solete V. edd' exist. 

No. 16. ifn-ld-ma- one who misses 
striking an object with hand or 
footy see Nos. 7 and 8 above. 

No. 17. ig-id'ma- one who fails to tee 
or Jiiid an object such as honey, 
a lost article, etc., see Nos. 9 and 
10 above. 

No. 18. ot-ld'tna- one who is wanting 
in headj that is, tente, see 
Nos. 14 and Id above. 

No. 19. a*-/<3'ma- onewhoisa^duffer" 
at getting turtles after they are 
speared, that is, by diving and 
seizing them, where nb his, refers 
to chdu body, see CI. 1, below. 

Na. 20 . rf • ko' Id -ma- applied to a weapon 
which fails to penetrate the 
object struck through the fault 
of the striker. 

No. 21. d'kd-ld'ma- who uses a wrong 
word to express his meaning 
{d'kd its, bcmg applied to ban<f 
mouth, and teg-ili voice, see CI. 
3,\p. 68). 

This will suffice to show the curious action of the South 
Andaman prefixes, which it will be seen presently refer 
especially to the different forms of the possessive pronoun 
when applied to different parts of the human body. The 
following table was drawn up by Mr. Man, and has only 
been sligbtly rearranged. 


THE president's ANNUAL ADDRESS FOR 1882 

The forms of possessive pronouns are arranged according to 
the alphabetic order of the word signifying Aw, her, or its, 
singular and plural, from which the forms for the first, 
second, and so-called fourth person, can be deduced by pre- 
fixing c?, nQy r for the singular my, tht/y — 's, and m, ng, V for 
the plural owr, yowr, — «'. 

The Seven Forms op the Possessive Pronouns in re- 

{Cited as CI. 1, 2, etc.) 
Glass 1. Sing, ahy pi. at. 

chdu- body, gu'dur- or Idn- back, 
gorob- spine, pai-cha- thigh, lap, 
chd'lta- shin, ch&'lta-dam'a- shin- 
(fleshy part), calf, pe'ke^ groin, ko-po' 
elbow, ko'pfi'dam'a- fore arm- (fleshy 
part) , ku'rupi-dam'a- upper arm- (fleshy 
part), /o-knee, 6'pita- nollow of knee, 
pd'retd' rib, er- navel, dpa-chdu- belly. 

abdominal walls, u'pta' stomach proper, 
jo'do' entrails, bowels, mug- liver, 
primU' spleen, fiS'tna- gall-bladder, 
rj-nga» womb, jrri' supra-renal fat 
and omentum, d'wa- armpit, pd'dik- 
ma- shoulder-blade, yvl-nya- tendon of 

Class 2. Sing, ar, pi. arat. 

ehdg- leg, chS'rog- hip, i'te- loin, 
gTid-win- os coccygis, mifga- rectum, 
tu'tnur- anus, m'/m- urine, u'lu-lra-e'r- 
bladder (urine -of-abode), kol'am- me- 
sentery, mdl'wit' large intestine, d-ta- 
testicle, to-, 6'iio-j or dam'tf- buttocks. 
Example : uied'a (or mol'oichik) jar'- 
awa Var'at chd'glen ahlu're, we saw 
the legs of the Jdr'awa. [tned'a we, a 
contracted form frequently used instead 
of the regular mol'oichik . .far' awa 
the South Andaman name for a tribe 

inhabiting Little Andaman, and having 
settlements in South Andaman, where 
they are much feared by the natives. 
Par- at (/ euphonic) their, agreeing 
with ehdg le^, which is made 
plural by the preceding plural form 
I* arat. len marks the ooject on to 
which the action passes, ab-lu're 
(human) -see-did, the ^ human ' ab 

* agrees ' with the ' human * subject 

♦ we.'] 

Glass 3. Sing, d'kdy pi. akat. 

hang- mouth, deli-ya- palate, d'dal- 
chin, pai' \iy^pai'-la-p/'d- moustache, 
that is, lip- (/a euphonic) -hair, e'tel- 
tongue, del'ta- gullet, ormo' throat, 
drma-bd wind-pipe, i.e. throat-small. 

Glass 4. Sing, ig^ pi. ii'igi contracted to f, it'i with the words 

marked *. 

ted'imo' uvula, e'kih^ jaw-bone, i'kib^ 
p'i'd' beard, that is, jaw-bone - hair, 
go'd'la- collar-bone, ehd-qa- side, 
tu'bal' saliva, chai'od' breath. 

*dnl' *d6J' eye, ^dal'-dr-pi'd- and 
*ddl'-dr'prd' eyelash, that is, eye- its- 
hair, *dal- 'dl-i'd' or *d6l' -ot-e'd' eyelid, 
that is, eye-its- (t.^. belonging to the 
head) -skin, pH'-ngur- eyebrow, di'ti- 
ya- gum, mi/'^M-face, forehead, ;?m*A:m- 
ear, ehS'ro-nga- nose, db- cheek, 
d'b'p'rd' whiskers, that is, cheek-hair, 

tt'tnar' temple (of head), tug- tooth, 
tdgo' shoulder, gud- arm, ku'r^tpi" 
upper arm, ko'pa- forearm, go-ta' 
biceps of upper arm, kdm- breast, kdm 
Vot che'ta- nipple of the breast, that is, 
breast-its-heaa, see ot^ Class 6, ^*i- 
tear (of the eye). 



Class 5. Sing. 5»^, pi. i^i'ot. 

k6'ro- hand or finger, el' ma- palm of the 
hand and sole of the foot, ko'ro'vnu'-gu- 
ehdl' middle finger, that is, hand- (third 
of fiye), [the fourth of fire is mwguehal 
tdro'lo ; the first is o'tolu'- and the 
second (general) dro'lo-y bat (animate) 
u'rtondu-'' ; the last but one S'toti-r' 
tdro-lo' ; and the kst tdro-lo ; there are 
only twocardinal numbers u-ba-tu'l- one, 
ana Ikpd'r- two, beyond that they can 
in general only tap tneir nose with their 
fingers, commencing ^th the little 
finger, or say drdwru- several, 10 to 
20, jeg'chdu' (human) many, say 50, 
jrbaba- very many, u'baba- (non- 
human) but ot 'U'baba (lower animals) 
and aiu'baba- (human^ countless, a 
few of the most intelligent natives, 
however, occasionally use words for 
numbers np to 7, though different 
speakers aiffer as to their precise 
meaning.] i'ti-prl' little finger, 

k6'r(h-do'ga' thumb, that is, finger-big, 
tSgO' wrist, ku'tur- knuckle, b^'do- 
nail of finger or toe (in this sense 
the of b^'do is inordinately lengthened, 
to distinguish it from bo- do sun, in 
which the 5 is rather of medial length 
than long, hence we may distinguish 
bo'dc'f nail, and bo-do- sun), pdg- foot, 
ro'kBma- toe, tu'chab- great toe, i'lam- 
small toe, gu-ehuU heel, idr- ankle, 
eMg- kidney, tiiya- peritoneum, td'ba- 
nga- small mtestine. Example : dottg 
koro ugo'ngtek ke'tia-f my hand is 
smaller than thine, [ddng my, ko'ro 
hand, ngo'ng-tek thy-n'om (that is, thy 
hand- from = than thy hand, correspond- 
ing precisely to the ablative case after 
comparative in Latin), ketia- small in 
size (not in quantity, for which ba or 
do'gaba not much, is used). No mark 
of second degree of comparison is 
added, as that is implied by tek.'\ 

Class 6. Sing, fl^, pi. 6'tot. 

^A^'to-head, /o*ft^o/a- neck, ehdl'tna" 
chest, mun- brain, yd' occiput, Idp'ta^ 
nape, kd'kd- scalp, d'wa- lung, tu'lepo- 
phlegm, »i^- prostate gland, kltg- the 
seat of the affections and passions, also 

the bosom, the heart, kit' kid- bona- the 
heart itself. Example: .mo'da Vot 
ehe-ta bo'dia- Moda*s head is large. 
\.mb-da a man's name, Vot his, cheta 
head, bo'diada large.] 

Class 7. Sing, and pi. 6'to. 

krnab- waist, this is apparently the pronoun is used ; it also means * nar- 
only part of the body for which this row,* see 48, p. 68. 

From this determinate use of possessive pronouns arises 
the custom of omitting the name of the part of the body 
referred to after a possessive pronoun, where it is clear what 
it must be. This is especially the case when the word could 
refer to many parts of the human body, sufficiently distin- 
guished by the form of the possessive pronoun, as pid- hair, 
ed' skin, td- bone, tl- blood, mu't^iuii- gore, gu'mar- sweat, 
yi'lnga- vein, muscle, wainya- cuticle, dtkia- pulse, mun- pus. 
When any doubt is felt, the full phrase is used. 

{Cited as Om. 1, 2, etc.) 

Omission 1. mo'tot che'la pld- the This is contracted into mo'tot p'fd-, as 

hair of our heads, [md'fot our, see 6t out of the Class 6 above, it is only 

No. 6 above, and hence che'ta heads the head to which j9/e/- hair applies, 
must be taken as plural, pid- hair.] Omission 2. ngak-ai pai id- the skin 



of yonr lips [npak'at yonr, plural in 
Class 3, pai lip must therefore be plu- 
ralised, ed- skm], might be contracted 
to ngahat ed'j but this would be 
slightly ambiguous, as d'dal' chin 
belongs to this class. 

Omission 3. dig gud td- the bone of 
my arm [dig singular of Class 4, gud 
arm, td bone], might be contracted, but 

not with much certainty, except the 
arm were stretched out, to dig td-. 

Omission 4. ngar ekdg tU the blood 
of thy leg [ngar thy, in Class No. 2, 
ehdg le^, ti blood], might be con- 
tracted mto ngar ti- with considerable 
risk of ambiguity, unless the leg had 
been preriously referred to, or was 
otherwise indicated. 

As it is neither possible nor desirable to expand this 
report into a treatise on the South Andaman language, 
I looked about for some genuine native utterances, not 
translations, which might illustrate the natural speech of 
the country. Fortunately, Mr. Man was able to furnish me 
with precisely what I wanted* When he was sent officially 
to the Nicobar Islands, he took with him several young native 
Andamanese,^ and in order to keep up their connection with 
their friends, and especially with their head-man, Jam'bu (as 
he was always called, though that was not his real name), 
Mr. Man wrote letters for them at their dictation. He had 
to treat them quite like children for whom one writes letters, 
suggesting subjects, asking what they would say if they saw 
Jambu, and so on. It was laborious work, which, however, 
Mr. Man did not regret, as it often furnished him with new 
words or phrases. These letters were then sent to the British 
officer in charge of the Homes at Port Blair, who did not know 
the language, but, from an explanation furnished, read the 
phonetic writing to jam^bu, sufficiently well to be under- 
stood, but to assist this officer Mr. Man furnished a free and 
an interlinear translation. I give two of these letters, 
which certainly, if any exist, are genuine specimens of South 

^ Their names and nicknames (in 
parenthesis) were .Ira {.kd'to- hana), 
.brela {.I'dal" eye, as he had large 
saucer eyes), .16- ra (Henry, his name 
when at the lloss orphanage), .wo'i 
(Tom, the name Mr. iMan gave him 
when he first came to Viper Island^, 
.i-ra {.jo'do- entrails, so called from his 
protuberant belly when a child). These 
names may be preserved as those of the 
unwitting originators of Andaman 
literature. One other name of a native 
should be added, although he was not 
taken with Mr. Man to the Nicobars, on 

account of illness, and indeed he died 
shortly after Mr. Man left. This was 
.bi'a {.pd'g- foot, so called from his 
large leet). He was the elder brother 
of the above-named ,16- r a (Henry). 
All the time that Mr. Man was in 
charge of the Andaman Homes, about 
four years, M-a worked with him. 
He was the most intelligent and helpful 
native Mr. Man met, and was his 
Drincipal informant throughout. Mr. 
Man often told him that he would 
bring his name to notice, and thus re- 
deems his promise. 




Andaman literature, but to make them as instructive as 
possible in showing the nature of the language, I divide 
them into numbered sentences, putting the text first, the 
free translation next, and afterwards, in square brackets, an 
analytically literal translation in the order of the original, 
in which, with the help of Mr. Man's translation, vocabulary 
and personal assistance, I endeavour to shew or explain the 
meaning and composition of each word and its parts, and its 
grammatical connection, occasionally adding other notes. 

First Letter to Jam*bu. 
Cited hy the simple numhers of the sentences. 

1. .mdm Jam'bu. Worshipful Jam'bu 
[mam is a term of respect by which 
chiefs or head men are addressed, 
perhaps * honourable ' or * your honor ' 
would be a nearer translation, .jam'bu 
was only a nickname, but as he was 
always so called, Mr. Man cannot recol- 
lect any other. See his song below, 

p. 70]. 

2. Med* drdfrru adbe'ringa. We 
are all in good health, [med' we, a 
contraction for med'a^ the final -a being 
lost before the following d of drdu'ru 
all. The full form for * we * is 
mol'oichik. For ad-be'ri-nga well, 
see No. 5.] 

3. bi'rma-ehi'lewa tdro'lo tek tnij'i* 
at yed ya'ba. Since last steamer no one 
has been ill. [btrma funnel, ehe'lewa 
ship, not one of their own boats ; the 
Andamanese prefer if possible making 
a new word to adopting a foreign one, 
the present compound is more original 
than the modem Greek krfxSfwXoioi^, 
which is a mere translation of * steam 
TesseL' tdro'lo last, see CI. 5 under 
kd'ro ' muyu • ehul. tek from, since, 
postp. tniJ'Vat a contracted form oif 
m'j'ia at, properly a plural possessive 
interrogative, 'whose?' but used idio- 
matically in negative sentences, for an 
indefinite personal pronoun, correspond- 
ing to English * any.' yed sick or ill. 
ya'ba- not, always placed at end of 
a sentence.] 

4. .mar .lo'ra A'chitik igbd'digngalen 
dd'kar'bo'dia nai'kan. Master .lo-ra 
is now like a tub in appearance (so fat 
is he), [.mar applied to a young un- 

married man, or a man who remains 
childless for the first 4 or 5 years after 
marriage, after which time, he is 
called mai'a^ the ordinary name for 
a married man who has children, of 
which the honorific form mai'ola is 
applied to chiefs only. ,l6'ra (Henry) 
the name of the youth, d'chitik now, 
dehi'haiya then, ig- bd'dig-ngo'len ap- 
pearance-in, see Kos. 9 and 10. (This 
IS one of the verbs which change the 
final letter of the base according to the 
suffix, but the law of change is not yet 
fully ascertained. In this case g is 
apparently inserted before -re and -w^a, 
but on the other hand it may be simply 
omitted before -ke). dd-kar a tub or 
bucket, bodia big. dd'kar-bo'dia^ big 
as a tub. (There are five words for big, 

1. bo'dia- which when * human' be- 
comes dbo'dia-y but here has no prefix 
on account of being in composition, 

2. do'ga-, 3. chd-nag-, and 4. td'ba- 
nga-f which are * humanised * by ai, 6. 
ro'chobo' * humanised ' by <i. Without 
the prefixes bo'dia-, do-ga-j and 
ehd'nag- are applied to any non-human 
objects, and rd'chobo-, td-banga-, to 
ammals only.) naikan like.] 

5. ngd'ka o'llen ed'a did'dirya y&ba. 
He as yet has had no fever, [ngd'ka 
as yet, ngd simply meaning 'then.' 
ol-l€n him-to, the 3rd pers. pron. with 
postpos., ien to. ed'a ever, did'dirya 
fever, that is, ague, trembUng. ya'ba 
not, see 3.] 

6. .mar .tod' i un-to6t'tai'jnga td'pa- 
ya. Master .wo'i is a great flying-fox 
shot, [.mar see 4. ,wd'% the name of 



a youth (about 16 years old), of the 
trioe that the South Andamane&e call 
,oko-ju'wa%'day who came in a canoe 
from Middle Andaman to Port Blair, 
where he made an important statement 
concerning the manners and customs of 
his tribe, which was reduced to writing 
by Mr. Man, and is published, chiefly 
in English, in the Journal of the 
Anthropological Institute, vol. xi. pp. 
280-2. When he arrived at Port 
Blair, his language was unintelligible to 
the natives there, but he quickly learned 
their language, and as he was a very 
nice fellow, he was induced to remain 
by marrying him to a pretty girl 
(named in 2G), who was still very 
young. As they had at that time no 
lamily, he was still called mar. un 
refers to skill, see Nos. 7, 8, 16. u?^rf- 
or w6t in construction, flying-fox. tay 
shoot with an arrow, nga sign of 
verbal subst. The whole word is, 
therefore, skilled shooter of flying 
foxes, td'pam excellent (human only), 
marks superlative degree.] 

7. arat dil'u di'laya d'kdrd'mga 
hi' dig y 51 ij'ila bud long -pd' ten wSi leb 
erke'dangke. While the others are 
finishing their evening meal with 
dainty morsels, he goes alone and 
searches among the trees for flying 
foxes near the hut. \arnt their, see 
CI. 2. dil'u rest or remainder, d'rla^ 
ya evening-at. d'kd referring to 
palate, see No. 11. rd'r-tiga tasty 
things, which conclude a meal, from 
rdry V. taste, determine flavour of. 
bf'dig while or during, as a postposition 
to the whole preceding clause, so that 
it means : tne rest of-them in-the 
evening tasty - bits - finishing while. 
ol 3rd pers., hence * he* in this case. 
y ila alone, unaccompanied, bud- an 
occupied hut, ir- an unoccupied hut. 
{td'rdod' hut belonging to a married 
couple: kdtd'go' bachelor's hut; chdng' 
hut, or roof, jfor the huts are almost all 
roof, chdng 'te'pinga- best kind of hut, 
with well plaited roof, to last 2 or 3 
years; chdng -to-rttga- next best hut, 
formed of leaves bound together with 
cane, lasting a few weeks or months ; 
chdng-davanga' a temporary shed, roof 
of loose leaves, to last a few days. 
The species of palm leaf ordinarily usied 
for these roofs is called chdng- ta-). long. 
pd ' l«n near an inanimate obj ect. (Other 
terms are d'kd'pd'len or oUpavcha-len 
near to an animate object; eb-e-r'teg^ 

iUn near a tree or post ; yapd'Un near 
as one place to another, ya giving 
indefiniteness of object, compare ba and 
yaba' little.) w6( flying fox. Ub for, 
postp. er'ke'dang''ke search in-trees- 
-does, {e'rem jungle), dta v. search on 
the ground for an inanimate object, 
ab-d'tO' V. for an animate object.] 

8. en lu'ftga bi dig ol Id'kdehl'ke 
ya'bada. On seeing one he does not 
miss it. [en it. lit' "nga see (verbal 
subst.) ss seeing, be' dig while, conse- 
quent on, see 7. ol he, Id-kdehi'-ke 
(euphonic /, CL 3), miss-does, yaba^ 
da not, see 6, where final da is not 
added to ya'baJ] 

9. kd'rin eho'wai ro'ehoboda. There 
are enormous clams here, [kd'rin 
here, eho'wai clam, the plural is not 
indicated, ro-choboda big, applied to 
animals, see bo'dia in 4. This shell- 
fish in the Nicobars is the Tridaena 
giganteOf and measures 3 or 4 feet in 
length ; in the Andamans, they have 
only the small species Tridaena eroeea 
ana T. squamosa.l 

10. u'bado'galen ydt atu'babaleb 
du'rumada. There is sufficient food 
in one for a great number of persons. 
[Hba-dd-ga' one, u'ba-tu'l" is atso used, 
out H'ba-do'ga- is the emphatic form 
like our * a single one,* see CI. 6, under 
mu'gu'chdl', len in, postp. ydt in 
construction, ydd' final, food, at- 
u'bnba countless numbers, see 01. 6. 
leb for, postp. du'rumada sufficient.] 

11. mo'dn ngol met atted'inga lHake^ 
,pd'di'i ehdb .rUeh-ya pol'% yd'te 
bu'dkn li'rtiga bi'dig, d'kd-td igbd'di- 
ke. If you don't believe us, go to 
the Padre sahib's house at Ross, and 
see the shell (we are sending), [mo-da 
if, ngol you. met us, obj. pi. at-ted'i- 
nga (human) -lie-telling- (verbal subst.). 
at is plural ab. Iwa-ke consider-do 
(present time), lu v. look or see. 
.pd'dri Italian padre, father, but 
applied as **Rev.'^ to all clergymen, 
here the chaplain was meant, ehdb 
Andamanese attempt at pronouncing 
the Hindi sci'hib. .ruch Andamanese 
attempt to say Rub^ the Hindi corrup- 
tion of Ross, an island at the entrance 
of the inlet of Port Blair, -ya at, 
postp. pol'i dwell, yd'te that, the 
relative, bud hut, see 7, but here 
meant for house, len postp. to. li-r-nga 
go, verbal subst. bi'dig while, or conse- 
quent upon, see 7. The phraJse means : 
upon going to the house of the chaplain 



who dwells at Boss, d-kd see No. 11, 
in relation to taste or month, td bone, 
that is, taken together, u'kdtd bone 
coTering food i.e. shell, ig^bd'di-ke 
lee-will, see 4, pres. for fnt.] 

12. ngol 5' lien igbd'di yd'te wai'kan 
ngab-ped'inga kieh'ikan-nai'kan tdr" 
ehl'ke ; bad'i ireha d-kdtd'da! On 
seeing it we are sure you will slap your 
side and exclaim: what a whopping 
big shell ! [ngol you. oU-Un it, obj. 
igbd'di see, see 4. ydte who, see 11 ; 
tiiat is, you who-see it. wai'kan cer- 
tainly, ngab your, see CI. 1 and Om. 
4 for the omission of ehdu- body, or 
some such word, ped'i-nga slap 
(yerbal subs.) = slapping, kich'ikan 
and nai'kan both mean ' like ' and to- 
gether, * just like.* tdrehl'-ke say- will. 
bad'i exclamation of surprise, ii'eha 
this, d-kd-td shell, see 11.] 

13. med* drdu'ru .pu'lo-pildw el-d'r- 
jana bud lo'gaba yd'te len d'kangai're. 
We all went to .pA'lo-.pildWy which is a 
Tillage a long way off to the. north. 
\me^ drdu'ru we all, see 2. .pu'lo' 
pilaw name of a place in the Nicobar 
Islands, el'd * ryana north, el-igla * - south 
(district), el-d'rmu'gu- (appearing-face) 
east (in these words el stands for e-r- 
country), tdr-mu-gu- (disappearing face) 
west. bud hut. Tillage. Id' y aba 
distant, yd-te which, len to, postp., 
affecting the whole phrase, which 
means: to P. P. whicn is a distant 
Tillage to the north, d'kan-gai- go a 
short 1 ourney by water, 6 • to-ju'tnii is used 
for a long journey, -re past time.] 

14. ku'to d'rUi jl'baba pol'ire. W^e 
stayed seTcral days there, [kd-to there. 
u'rla days, plural indicated by the fol- 
lowing word. Ji'baba seTeral, very 
many, see CI. 6. poH-re dwell-did, 
see 11.] 

16. charkd'r leb ro'go jad'ijo'g dr- 
du'ru Jgal're do'na mo'to-kukli're 
ya'bada. We bargained for a lot of 
young female pigs for Government, but 
did not forget ourselves, [charkd'r 
Andamanese attempt to pronounce the 
Hindi Sarkd'r government, leb for, 
postp. ro-go pigs, plural indicated by 
the loUowino; drdu'ru^ ro-go- is a female 
pig, reg- either male or female. Jad'i- 
jb-g spinster, implying a full-grown 
sow -pig which has not littered, see the 
mode of expressing sex mentioned on 
p. 53. drdu'ru several (see CI. 6) or 
all, as in 2. Igal'-re barter did. do'na 
but. tno'to ourselves, kukli're for- 

get-did. d'to'kiikll'-ke oneself forget- 
does {md'to is only the form of the 
first person plural, see p. 68), was one 
of the new words discoyered by Mr. 
Man from the dictation of these letters 
to Jam'bu. The common verb for 
forgetting is ot-kuklrkey which is re- 
flective, as do d* ol-kukli're, 1 forgot, 
where do d* or dol d* answers to French 
je me {inje m* en eouviene) and similarly 
ngo* ng* or ngol ng* ot- kukli're you 
forgot. The relation of d'to-k. and 
ot'k. is similar to that in otrd'jke de- 
fend-does, 6'tord'jke oneself defend 
does. * Selves* is also expressed by e-kan 
See examples in 40. ya'bada not, 
see 7.] 

16. kmnehd' reg-tod'ra go'i ji'baba 
mo'yut-te'mar leb o'more. We accord- 
ingly fetched several prime young 
male pigs for our own use. [kianchd' 
therefore, reg pigs, either male or 
female, see 15. wd-ra bachelor, 
young but full grown, see p. 63. go'i 
iresh, and hence in good condition. 
Ji'baba several, properly * very many,' 

see CI. 6, but as there were really 
only five or six, Mr. Man translated 
the word *■ several ' at the time ; he 
supposed that the young men wished 
to surprise their friends at Viper by 
leading them to suppose by this term 
that they had got many more pigs than 
was actually the case, tnoyut-te'tnar 
ourselves, the meaning of the separate 
words is not known, but we have 
do'yun-t. myself, ngo'yun-t. thyself 
and o'^un-^ himself, o-yut t. themselves, 
ngo'yuM. yourselves, leb for, postp. 
omo-re fetch-did.] 

17. med'a ngd'kd m'dk'nga-ba yd'te 
len ehl'lyuke. Those we have not 
eaten yet we are fattening, [med-a 
"we. iigd'kd as] yet, see 6. mak'-nga 
eat- (passive participle, p. 65, n. 2) = 
eaten, ba not. yd'te which, len postp. 
pointing out object, meaning: we are 
fattening those which have not been 
eaten as yet. The construction, though 
common, is somewhat involved, and 
would be, in English order, as boys 
** construe" Latin: med'a we, chrlyuke 
are fattening, len (mark of accusative 
relation), yd'te (those) which, ngd'kd 
as yet, mdk'nga-ba (are or have been) 

18. d'kdlo'dongalen med'a d'kd^ 
/ai'ngke tdro'lolen othd'ba rb'go lo'inga 
be'dig .bai'par lat mit'ik-7'kke. These 
we will slaughter one by one, and 



afterwards ^et some more pigs to take 
with us to Viper, [d'kd-lo'do-nffa one 
by one, idiomatic expression, origin nn- 
known, len postp. marks the object. 
med'a we. c2'ii:<i-^'af'n^-Ar« slaughter-do, 
this expression is used for pigs only. 
tdro'io-len\a8t''ix>f afterwards, see CI. 6. 
ol'tid'ba other in addition to the former, 
see CI. 6 for o/, this prefix also occurs in 
ot-pag'i once more, ro'po pig, see 15. 
lo'i'ttga ^t-(Terbal subs.; s= getting. 
brdtg while, or consequent upon ; 
meaning: afterwards on getting ad- 
ditional pi^. .bai'par Andamanese 
mispronunciation of Viper, an island 
within the inlet of Port filair. lat to, 
postp. mit'ik in company with us, 
m- us, it'ik in company with, vk-ke take 
away-will, see 20.j 

19. ,mar .rra-.Jo'do .mar .ioo'i lot 
py • Ifn Ja'bag tAla-tirn're, Master 
,rra-Jd'do has tonsured Master .too'i 
very badly, [.mar see 4.'do 
is the suoject of the verb, .ioo'i lot 
pTj is the object, as .wo'i's hair, lot 
his (head understood), see CI. 6, and 
Om. 1. pij hair, the usual form of 
pJd in construction, thus'ba' 
his (head)-hair-not=bald. ^ postp. 
obj. j'd'baff hadly. td' la-tim' -re ton" 
sure-did. This shaving of the crown of 
the head is the business of the women 
and especially of the wife, but in this 
case tne women were left behind. 
The razors used are extremely fine 
chippings of glass.] 

20. mo-da .d-ra-^brela abrk-pA'te 
d'chitik igbd'dike ngdicai'kan d^'i'mga- 
len igp*d'ike 61-be'dig abto'goke. If 
.tt'o-t*s wife .d''ela were now to 
see him, she would certainly box the 
barber's ears and abuse him. [tno'da if. 
ab'Vk (female)-take away, yd'te who, 
that is, who is wife. For Ik see end of 
18, where, but for the mit'ik^ there 
would have been the prefix ab as 
abrkke take-away-does (present), an 
animate object. But en *t is to take, as 
ablvga Id'kd-bang teh paip en'ike child 
its-mouth from pipe tuke-do = take the 
pipe from the child's mouth, "ke being 
also used for the imperative. Now in 
marrying, the chief who unites the 
couple tot-gd'p'ke their (persons, CI. 6) 
•speak-docs, the man ad-en- ike (ani- 
mate, see No. 6) -take-does, the woman 
ab'1-k'ke (human, No. 4) -take-away- 
does. The husband is spoken of as 
ad'i'k'y&'te-f and the wife as ab-rk- 
ydte-t as here. For the first few weeks 

the young couple are called ong-tag' 
gb'i- their-bed-of-leaves-fresh, and 
after that for the first year un-jdui^ 
go'i'f where un refers to the hands. 
No. 7) and go'i is fresh, but j'd'ti is 
not known. d'chUik now, see 4. 
tO'bd'di'ke see-does, see 4, pros, time, 
tliough in English it becomes past 
subjunctive, after mo'dm if. iigd 
then, see 6. wai'kan certainly, dt* 
je'r^nga his (head understooo, see 
Om. 1) -shave- (verbal subst.), that is, 
his head's shaver, len postp. marking 
object, iff'ped'i'ke face (see Nos. 9, 
10 and 17, and CI. 4), (in anger) 
slap (see 12) will, ar-ped'i-ke would 
be, *leg (see CI. 2) -slap-will,' as 
women do when delighted. ol-U'dig 
it-while or it-after, used for 'and.' 
or * as well as.' ab-fo'oo-ke (human 
prefix No. 4)-abuse-will.J 

21. .mar ,wo*i ottek'tknga bi-dig 
py-go'l len enotji'rke ya'ba. Master 
.tro't is so ashamed of his appearance, 
that he is letting the new hair grow. 
[ot-tek'ik-nga for-his-head (CI. 6), 
-ashamed- (verbal subst.), te/e'lk be 
ashamed, but t*e'ktk weep, bi'dig 
consequent on, see 11. pij-go't hair- 
fresh, len postp. marking object. 
en-ot'je'r-ke cause-head-shave-does, en 
prefixed gives a causal signification to 
the verb = causes his head to be shaven. 
ya'ba not.] 

22. med'a ydt ba ngol ititd'n yd't$ 
len 6'rokre. We duly obtained the 
few presents you sent, [med'a we. 
ydt properly nsh, food, see 10, here 
presents, ba few, little, a father or 
mother having one or more little ones 
is called uhbwda. ngol you. ititd'n 
send away any animate or inanimate 
thing, entitd'n send away a human 
object, en'itdn shew (v. refl.), itd'n 
permit. yd'te which, len postp. 
marking the whole phrase as an ooject. 
6'rok-re obtain-did.J 

23. ngot pai'ehalen mln drdu'ru 
ofjeg-nga Vedd're ngd ititd'nnga ya*- 
balen med'a mo'tot-kukja'bagire. As 
you have so much in the ** go-down" 
(store), we were much disappointed at 
your not sending more, \ngdt your, 
CI. 6. pai'cka-len lap-to, that is, in 
your possession, min thing, plural only 
mdicated by following word, drdwru 
several, see 16. bt-jeg'-nga^ CI. 6, collec- 
tion of shell-fish, meat, jack-fruit seeds, 
iron, fiint, or anythins^ in a heap, but 
bt-pu'j-nga is used for honey, fruity 



jams, fibre, and ar-ngavj'nga for bows, 
anows, and other implements or orna- 
ments, and also animate objects. 
fedd're because of, i.e. because of your 
haTing many things collected in your 
possession, ngd more (see 6 1 ) , as well as 
' then ' (see 5) . ititd 'nnga sending, see 22. 
fSrha-Un not-to, without, tned'a we. 
fad'tot-kuk'ja'bag-i-re our (poss. from 
Class 6) -heart-bad- was, we were dis- 
appointed, t seems to be a euphonic 
insiertion to separate g and r.] 

24. til'ik brrma-ehe'lewa k&'gal 
yu'te ngd mtn met d'kdwi'rke. Per- 
haps the incoming steamer is bringing 
more things for us. [til'ik perhaps. 
bi'rma-ehe'tewa steamer, see 3. kd'gal 
arriving, this and yo-boli are said of 
the amyal of a boat or ship only, or of 
going to an elcTated spot, yd'te which. 
ngd more, see 23. mln thmg, see 23. 
met to us, one of the forms answering 
to the dative of pers. pron. d'kd, see 
CI. 3. d'kd-tae'r and un-tdr-teg'i are 
said of conreying any animal or inani- 
mate objects by boat only ; Ik is used 
for conreying either by land or 
water, and for human objects becomes 
abrk, see 20. -ke future time, not 
distinguished from present.] 

2o. med'a tdrtrt idavre an'a d'chitik 
ngol barai'jbo lo IJ'a otyu'burda. We 
have learnt that you are now the head- 
**bos8*' at the JBrigade Creek home. 
[med'a we. tdrtvt news, idai'-re 
know-did. an'a that, conjimction. 
d'ehttik now. ngol you. barai'j old- 
established encampment, whether occu- 
pied or not, otherwise er-, er-drlu-a- 
are unoccupied, and bud-^ biid-ldrdU'ru- 
occupied encampments, d-bo'lo- is a 
human orphan, omitting^ the prefix 
barai'j-bo'lo- is an orphan encamp- 
ment, or one of which the old chief is 
dead and the new chief not yet ap- 
pointed. This was the case with the 
Brigade Creek Andaman Home, which 
is the one here meant. Ira of, postp. 
di-yu'bur-da head (CI. 6) -chief, from 
yH-bur govern.] 

26. kd'to ngong jo'bo ol-be'dig kd'r- 
ttpta ehd'pikok ! May no snakes or 
centipedes bite you there, [kd'to 
there, ttgong your, CI. 5, one of the 
words in that class being understood. 
jobo snake, plural unindicated. ol-be'dig 
and, see 20. kd'rapta centipedes, from 
ku'rap bite as a stinging insect, ehd-pi 
bite in any way. kok would- tjiat-they- 
may-not, dd'k§ and ngb'ke are used 

Phil. Trans. 1882-3-4 

as the imperative don't ! kd'to 5'yu 
Irr-kok there permission go-I hope may 
not=I hope they won't let you go 
there ; ngo pd'kok I hope you won't 
fall. As to the wish expressed see the 
farewell in 29.1 

27. dl'raptek ngd yd'bnga ya'ba. 
There's nothing more to say at present. 
[di'rap lately, tek from, postp., the 
whole meaning, * at present, ngd more, 
see 23. ydb-nga say, verbal subst.= 
saying, ya'ba not.] 

28. med'a drdii't-u len ij'imd'gu- 
en'inga ititd'nke. We send salaam to 
to all. [med'a we. drdU'ru all. leu 
to, postp. ij'i a common prefix, im- 
plying apparently * separation,* but its 
signihcation in compounds is lost, it 
is frequently omitted in this word. 
mii'gu face. en'i-nga take- (verbal 
Bubst.]. The natives mean by the word 
to bend the head and touch the fore- 
head, that is, to salaam, as they were 
taught to do by the Rev. Mr. (Jorbyn, 
the first person who had charge of 
them ; it is a case, then, of a new 
word, which may be advantageously 
compared with the Greek vpocKwuif 
to piay the dog to ; sometimes chiltd'my 
a mispronunciation of salaam, is used. 
ititd'n-ke send-do, see 22.] 

29. kam wax mdl'oichik ! Good-bye ! 
[kam here, tvai indeed, mol'oichik 
we, full form. The ceremony of taking 
leave by word of mouth is rather long. 
The host accompanies his visitor to the 
landing-place, or at least to a con- 
siderable distance. On parting, the 
visitor takes his host's hand and blows 
upon it; after the compliment is re- 
turned, the following dialogue ensues. 
Departing Visitor: kam wai dot, 
here indeed I. Host : 6 aye (a con- 
traction for 6' no yes), d'chik wai 
on, hence indeed come, tain Id'lik 
kach on yd'te? when again hither 
come who ? = very well, go, when will 
you come again ? Dep.Vis. : ngd' tek 
do ngat mln l-kke^ then-from (pre- 
sently) I for-you thing take -away -will 
= I will bring away something for you 
one of these days. Uost: jo'bo la 
ngong chd'pikok ! snake (euphonic la) 
you bite-may not=I hope no snake 
will bite you, compare 26. Dep. Vis : 
taai do ergelepke, indeed I on-the- 
land (er) -watchful-be-will. They 
then repeat the ceremony of blowing 
on each other's hands, and part shout- 
ing invitations and promises for a 



fatare date until beyond earshot. 
There are no Andaman words of greet- 
ing. Relatives on meeting throw their 
arms round each other and weep for 
joy. When any other persons meet, 

they simply stand looking at each 
other in suence for a long time, some- 
times as mach as half an hour, before 
one of them Tentures to speak.] 

Second Letter to Jam'bu. 
The sentences are numbered in continuation of the former. 

30. .mdm Jam'bu, Worshipful 
Jumboo [see 1]. 

31. mid' drdU'ru adbe'ringa. We 
are all in good health [see 2]. 

32. ngd'kd mar*du'ru tek o'gun .mar 
.I6'raabyed'r$ya'ba, Up to the present 
Master J6'ra is the only one of us who 
has not been ill. \ng&kd as yet, see 5. 
ma'r*du'ru contraction for mavat- 
drdwru our (Class 2) -all, the whole 
of us. tek from, postp. o'gun only. 
,mar .16'ra see 4. ab-yed'-re human 
(No. 4) -sick-was. ya'ba not.] 

33. ol kichikaehd' Stoid'laire meda 
idai'nga'bat til'ik ydt mdk'nga do'ga 
redd' re. We don't know how he has 
escaped (being ill], perhaps it is be- 
cause he eats so much, [oi he. kiehi- 
kaehd' how, in what manner. Sto-id'- 
lai-re (CI. 7) escape-did. tned'a we. 
idav-nga-ba know-(verbal 8ub8t.)-not = 
we are knowers not ; ba at the end is 
a contraction for yd'ba, and never be- 
comes bd (meaning * small '), but is 
kept short and unaccented, til'ik per- 
haps, see 24. ydt food, see 10. mak'-nga 
eat • (verbal subst.) -eating, see 17. 
do'ga much. Vedd're by reason of, 23.1 

34. mar'ot dil'u abyed* yd'te d'chitii 
b'told nai'knn dpd'tada. The rest of 
us who have been ill, are now in as 
eood condition as before, [marat our, 
Cl. 2. dil'u remainder, see 7. abyed- 
(human. No. 4) -sick, yd-te who. 
d'ckitik now. b'told first, see Cl. 6. 
futi'kan like. dpd'tn-da (animate. 
No. 3) •fat-(thin^ generally). The 
natives grow rapidly thin when ill, 
hence to grow fat is to regain health.] 

3d. o'gar Vditer'ire med'a .kdt'chu 
ten yo'boiire, Isst month we visited 
Katchall Island, [b'gar moon, o'gar- 
i<i*rrXra-|rada*-moon-baby-small, or new 
moon, ab-di'reka- human baby, o'gar' 
di'rtka- the moon two or three ^ys old, 
b-gar-ehd-nag' moon-big, first quarter, 
b'gtir^hdu'- moon-body, full moon, 
(so bo'd^^kdu' sun-body, is noon, and 
gu'trug-chdu' night-body, is midnight). 

o'gaT'kvnab' moon -thin, last quarter, 
iO'Wal'aga'nga' waxing, ldr-o'dou>d'- 
nga waning. Vd- human. No. 3, with 
euphonic /, because apparently they 
regard the moonasamale, ,mava .d'gar-^ 
Mr. Moon, and seem to look upon it 
as more like a man than any other 
inanimate object. The sun is regarded 
as female, and is hence called .eXdii'a- 
,bd'do'f Mrs. Sun. So also in German 
and Anglo-Saxon,the moon is masculine 
and the sun feminine, itdri-re extin- 
guished-was, like any other light. 
med'a we. .kdt'chu Katchall Island, 
one of the Nicobar group, len to or at, 
yo'boH're disembark -did, see 24.] 

36. kd'to d'rla Ikpd'r len pbl'inga 
be' dig reg i^drdU'ru leb igal're mU'rgi 
be'dig. During the few days we stayed 
there, we bartered for a lot of pigs and 
fowls, [kd'to there, see 26. d'rla 
day, pi. indicated only by the following 
word, ikpd'r really two, but often 
used for a few, especially with d'rla, 
see Cl. 5. ^ to or tor, postp. pdl'i-nga 
dwelling, see U- bi'dig consequent 
on, see 11. reg pigs, male or female, 
see 15 and 16. PdrdU'ru several, leb 
for, postp. igal'-re barter-did, see 16, 
the subject is meda we, in preceding 
sentence, mii'rgi fowls, an adoptea 
Hindustani word, be'dig also, when 
placed last, see ol-bS-dig in 20.1 

37. kd'to igbU'dwa-ldngkd'lak M*- 
ringa-Vigld' drdil'ru unrd'nda. The 
people of that part are the best of all, 
they are all liberal, [kd'to there, ig- 
Nos. 9, 10, 17. bH'owa dweller in a 
hut or village, fellow-countryman, see 
7. long-kd'Uk sign of plural, used 
because there is nothiiu[ else in the 
sentence to indicate plurality, be'ringa 
good. Vigld' {I* euphonic) used alone 
means * distinct,* but when joined to a 
word of quality it shews the highest 
degree, superlative, most good, best, 
mai'a igld'" hoad ohiof. drdA'ru all. 
uH-rd'H-i^ (Not. 7, 8, 12, 13, 16) 




38. .mw .wd'ij .t''do he' dig 
k&rU re^pd'tm igh&'dignga be' dig mu'- 
§um len poi'ehatnga V edd're reg-gumul 
le-re. While there, Masters .wo-i and 
A'ra .Jo-dOf seeing the fat pigs for 
which their stomachs crayed, broke 
their pig-fast, [be'dig also, see 36. 
ry pd-ta pig fat, that is, fat pig, not 
pig's fat, see 34. ig-bAdig-nga seeing- 
(Terbal snbst ), see 11. hedig conse- 
quent on. mu'gum inside or belly, 
tArmu'gum beneath, len to, postp. 
poi'ekat-nga fond of (any kind of fooa) 
-(verbal subst.) . redd- re because of (see 
23), f.#. feeling fond of food to their 
innde. reg-gu'mui pig-ceremony. We 
haTe no corresponding word to gu-muf, 
it belongs to the pecmiar institutions of 
the Andamanese. Mr. Man says :** Al- 
though .woi had been recently induced 
to marry, he was only a youth of 
about 16, and had not yet gone through 
the ceremony of * young man making ' 
known as gwrnul le'ke {gu'tnul devour- 
does), when the young neophyte who 
has for some time past evinced his 
powers of self-denial, and thereby, in a 
measure, his fitness to enter upon the 
cares and trials of married life, is en- 
abled after a course of three ceremo- 
nies (known as yddi-gu'mul' turtle 
ceremony, (2 *ya-$rM'mu/- honey ceremony, 
and reg-jl-ri- or simply, as here, reg- 
gu'inui' pig's kidney-fat or simply pig 
ceremony), which take place at mter- 
vals with a degree of external cere- 
mony, to resume the use of these 
favourite articles of food, le-re devour- 
did. These ceremonies apply to the 
young of both sexes before reaching 
puberty. After this period the indi- 
vidual is said to be dS'tiga-y which 
implies that he or she may indulge in 
any kind of food at pleasure. During 
the period (lasting sometimes 2 or 3 
years) of their abstention they are called 
d'kd-jfd'b', or d'kd-ya'ba- and the 
fasting period is termed d'kd-pd'ba-^\'\ 

39. tdro'lolen atged're yn'bada. 
They have suffered no ill consequences 
thereby. [tdro'to-Un last-to, that is, 
afterwards, see 18. at-yed'-re^ at is the 
plural fcrm of the human prefix ab 
(see 1 !). ytd be sick, re past time, that 
is, men were sick, ya-ha-da not. They 
ftncT that to break the gu-mul (see 
38) will entail serious consequences, the 
fiet hcSi? that they then generally gorge 
tbemseilTes vith these nch articles of 
diet, void hcaee make themselves ill.] 

40. med'a d'ehitik ekan Ub royo 
ikpS'r md'tO'pmi'ehalen ehi'lffuke. We 
are rearing a few pigs for ourselves. 
[med'a we. d'ehitik now, r Aran selves. 
leb for. ro-go pig. ikpS'r two, that 
is, a few ; as two is the largest number 
for which they have a name, they use 
it indefinitely, see 36. n.S'to our own, 
pai'eha lap, len to, that is, * in our 
midst.' do- to s. mi' to pi. ngd'to and 
6- to s. and pi. are the reflective forms 
of ^/ s. mo'tot pi., ngot and o/, etc., 
as 51 dotje'rke he my-head shave-does, 
but 4^1 do' to je'rke I my -own -head 
shave-do. ehi'lyu'ke fattening -are, 
see 17.] 

41. td'rdi'lea mar^du'ru otpdg'i 
kdt'ehu len ydwgare. The day before 
yesterday we all went a^ain to catchall. 
\tdr probably ' beyoncf* di'lea yester- 
day, mar^du'ru we all, see 32. 
dt-piig'i again, ig-pag't is also used, 
see otj igy in Nos. 14, 15, and 9, 10, 
pdg'i repeat, .kdt'ehu Eatchall. len 
to, postp. ydwga-re go-did, used for 
going to a particular place, otherwise 
llr is used.] 

42. kd'to 5'gun d'rla u'batu'l bar- 
mire, (but) spent only one day there. 
[kd'to there, o-gun only, d'rla day. 
wba-td't one, see CI. 6, and also 10 
and 43. bar'mi-re spend-did, passing 
the night there, as on a visit.] 

43. me'kan leb ro'go H'bado'ga mu'rgi 
ji'baba be'dig omore. We fetched a 
pig and very many fowls for our own 
consumption, [me'kan ourselves, see 
e-kan in 40. leb for, postp. rogo pig. 
u'ba-do'ga one, or rather only one, an 
emphatic form of u'ba-tu'l, see 10. 
mu'rgi fowl, see 36. jl-baba very 
many, be'dig also, o'mo-re fetch-did, 
see 16, td'yu-re bring-did.] 

44. jU'rulen yd'dl cho'ag drdfrru 
be'dig igbd'digre, do'na du'tre yd'badn. 
On the way we saw several turtles and 
porpoises, but speared none, [ju - rw sea. 
len to or in, postp. pd-di turtle. 
cho'og porpoise, botn rendered plural 
by the following word, drdfrru several. 
be'dig also, ig-bd'dig-re see-did. do-tia 
but. du'tre spear-did. yd'bada not. 
The usual way to catch turtles is to 
harpoon them with a spear called 
kowai'a 16'ko dd't^nga', consisting of 
the t6g-, or a long bamboo baft, at 
one end of which a socket is provided 
for the kowai'a- y which is a short 
pointed and notched iron harpoon; 
these are connected by a long line, 


THE president's ANNUAL ADDRESS FOR 18S2 

be'tma-. The thick end of the tdg- is 
called dr-bS-rod", and the socket end 

45. m^'a di'Ua e'remien mai'i 
Vd'kdtdnp id'lia - go'tya igbd'digre; 
ktancM' d'ehitik kd'rin to'ug pdtke. 
Yesterday for the first time we saw a 
mai'i tree in the jungle; we can 
therefore make torches here, [tneda 
we. dl'lea yesterday, rrein iunele. 
Icn in, postp. mai-i name of a kind of 
StercfUia tree. Vd'kd-tdttgy V eu- 
phonic, d'kd No. II, tang topmost 
part, this is any kind of tree, a^ fruit 
tree is <i*A'a-M7a-, which may be from 
the same root, id'lia-go iya^ possibly 
a contraction of ed'a-lva'go'iya ever-of- 
fresh, quite the first, igbd'dig-re see- 
did, kianchd' therefore. dchUik 
now. kd'rin here, tbug torch, con- 
sisting of the resin of the mai'i tree 
wrapped in leaves, and principally used 
when fishing and turtling at night, 
full name toug- pd't-nga-. ;?a/make, 
only said of this torch, ke future time. 
The word for * making ' varies with 
different things made, thus, tcal'igma- 
ehug make an oar, butdn'i make a 
house or hut, kop make a canoe, bow, 
etc., te'pi make anything with cane, 
bamboo, etc., as in thatching, wearing, 
said also of a bee constructing it» comb, 
tdtvi make a pail, lUt make a cooking- 
pot, mdr make waistbelts, wristlets, or 
garters with pandanus leaves and string, 
td'i make arrowheads by hammering out 
pieces of iron, see 46, wai'a make string 
uy twisting the strands with the fingers.] 
46. .mamjo'la drtdm d'riaUm ehii'i 
yl tikcy to'batek med'a e'la do' gaga 
td'ikr. The former .matnjo'la is always 
writing, meanwhile we are making lots 
of pig-arrows, [.mam-j'o'la homes- 
chiet, a word coined since the Andaman 

* Homes ' were established, and used in 
addressing the officer placed in chaise 
of them. The first syllable appears to be 
a form of mdm (see 1), and the whole 
word is an abbreviation for mdm- 
mai'ola worshipful chief, of which 
some persons suppose it was first an 
Englisn cor^ption, afterwanls adopted 
bv the natives. In this letter Mr. 
Man himself is referred to, as he ceased 
to be in charge of the * Homes * when 
he was transferred to the Nicobars. 
d'rtdm old, applied to animate or in- 
animate objects, but here it only means 

* former,* for Mr. Man was not aged. 
d'rUt'len day-to, always, ehii'i letter. 

a Hindustani word, yl'ti-he tattoo - 
does. They have applied the word 
* tattoo * to writing, as it were, 
scratching, scribbling, td'ba-tek mean - 
while, compare entdba already, before, 
to'laba wait a little, dentb'bare elder 
brother, med'a we. e'la pig-arrows, 
pi. indicated by next wora. dbgaya 
many, td-i-ke make-do.] 

47. mo'tot pai'ehalen d'ehitik delta 
d'tO'Chd'nga jl'baba. We have now 
got very many bundles of arrows in our 
possession, [mo'tot our. pai'cha-len 
lap-to, in our possession, see 23. 
d'ehitik now. d^l'ta arrows, generic 
name for all arrows except the chdm-, 
which w more of an ornament or toy. 
The several kinds are: rd'id- with 
blunt wooden point for play, or before 
conversion into a <t*r/<»rf-sharp wooden- 
pointed, for shooting fish ; td'lbod- with 
iron point, with or without barb, for 
shooting fish and small animals, etc. ; 
e'la- with movable iron blade-head, 
for shooting pigs and other animals, 
etc. ; e'la Id'kd la-pa- with fixed iron 
blade- head, for the same purposes. 
d'io-cho'-nga bundle of arrows or 
bows (see 6' to in CI. 7, it is often used 
as a prefix to verbs), ch6 bind, as a 
parcel with string. Jl'baba very many.] 

48. .malai' Iva ehd'rigma dt-lo'biuga 
Unjd'bagda; ot-mu'gu kvnab Veda're 
51 tog Im tiik'lake. The Nicobar out- 
rigger canoe is ill-suited for turtling ; 
the narrowness of the bows prevents 
one from making full use of the spear. 
[.malai- Malay, meaning Nicobarese, 
who are probably remotely Malavs, 
and are quite different from the Anoa- 
manese. Iva of. ehd'rigma outrigger 
canoe, the generic name for all canoes 
is rb'ko-y those in the neighbourhood 
of Port Blair are generally witliout 
outrigger, and much larger than the 
ehd'rigma-, ot-to'bi-nga (No. 14) 
hunt for turtles along the shore by 
poling- (verbal subst.). len for, postp. 
jd'bngda bad. ot-mu'gu (No. 14; bow 
of boat, ig-mu'gu- face, kvnab thin, 
that is, narrow. Vedd're because of, 
that is, because of the bow being nar- 
row, ol it. t6g turtle-spcar, see 44. len 
for. tdk'la-ke inconvenience-does.] 

49. kianchd' lo'biuga bedig met 
en-to'lat-ke. The consequence is that 
in poling the canoe we (frequently) 
fall. [kianchd' therefore, lo'bi-hga 
hunting the turtle by poling- (verbal 
subst). be'dig while, met us. en-to'" 



iat'If$ caose-fall-does ; td-lat is to 
drop, and is here made causative by 
prenxing en, = makes us fall, see t!n-ot' 
ji'rke in 21.] 

50. mo-da ngol bvrma-ehS'lewa ten 
mln drdii-ru ngd'na yd'te iiitd'nke 
ya'ba, mol'oiehik kukja'bagike. If you 
don't send us by the (incoming) steamer 
all the things we asked for, we shall be 
very disappointed, [mo'da if. ngol 
you. bt-nna-ehe'lewa steamer, see 3. 
Un in, postp. min things, see 23. 
drdu-ru all. ngd'na v. beg, ask for, 
f/ti-te which we asked for, but there is 
no indication of person or time, itit&'nke 
send, see 23. yH'ba not. mol'oiehik 
we. kuk-jn-bagi'ke heart-bad->are see 
23, euphonically inserted t before -ke,"] 

61. kA-rin ng& tdrtl't ya'ba. There 
is no more news to tell you. [ku-rin 
here. ngd. more. idrtVt news, ga'bu 

52. med'a ngolV drdu'ru tek tdrtl t 
bi'Hnga ig&'rike. We are longing to. 
have good accounts of you all. [med'a 
we. ugot'la you. drdu'ru all. tek 
from, postp. tdrtl' t news, i-gd'ri-ke 
long-for-do, t prefix, an abbreviation 
of tg, Nos. 9 and 10.] 

53. ngd'kd yiim & Utpd're, But 
little rain has fallen up to the present 
time, [iigu-kd as yet, see 5. yum 
rain, ba little, la-pd-re (euphonic /a, 
frequently prefixed to verbs), fall -did.] 

54. kam wai mol'oiehik. Good- 
bye. [See 29.] 

The above examples shew the mode of thought of the 
natives, and what most occupies their attention. They are 
some of the very few expressions of genuine untutored 
barbarians which we possess. The analytical translation 
which I have been enabled to give, by the help of Mr. Man 
(who has very carefully revised the whole), shews not only 
the meaning of the parts of the words and the method 
of construction, but the great depth to which Mr. Man has 
been able to penetrate, entirely from oral instruction, into 
the genius and vocabulary of the language. 

The agglutinative nature of the language tends directly 
to the detection of basic forms, and Mr. Temple has very 
acutely pursued this into the theory of roots. He conceives 
that the roots are all properly monosyllabic, and generally 
end with a consonant, but that these monosyllables are 
frequently extended by the addition of a vowel or diphthong, 
or the same preceded by a consonant, in which the real 
meaning lies in the first syllable, though it has now been 
lost, while thie expansions serve as modifications. Occasionally 
the roots are of three syllables. This chapter in Mr. Temple's 
grammar is one of the longest and most carefully studied, 
but his materials were too scanty, and, as the vocabulary 
increased, Mr. Man found it necessary to suggest such 
multifarious points for reconsideration, that it would be 
obviously premature to give the lists which Mr. Temple has 
furnished. It is to be hoped that the fuller vocabulary 

70 THE president's ANNUAL ADDRESS FOR 1S82 

(which has now aboat 6000 entries of the English- Andamanese 
part only), and the corrected grammar will be published in 
course of time. They are obviously of great uuportance to 
the Indian Government, on account of its penal settlement at 
Port Blair, and are well worthy of its patronage. 

The Andamanese have poetry, and that of a most remark- 
able kind. Their only musical instrument is a stamping 
board to keep time, and to this rhythm everything seems 
to be sacrificed. The words, their order, the prefixes, the 
suffixes, the postpositions, are all more or less changed, the 
order of the words suffers, in short the poetical language 
re«}uires a special study, which is the more difficult to give, 
as songs are always impromptu, and not, as a rule, sung 
again aft4^r the one occasion for which they were composed, 
and then only by the composer. Of the music Mr. Man 
regrets to state that he is unable to give any information, as 
he is, unfortunately, totally unacquainted with the subject 
The following specimen of a song composed by the jam'hu^ 
to whom the above letters were addressed, after his liberation 
from a six months' imprisonment, about 1865, for having 
shot down a sailor whom he found taking liberties with his 
wife, was given to Mr. Man by the author. 

I. As rr WAS sung. 

Solo. ngd\io kuk Vdrid^lagVka^ 
md'ro eima kd igbd'ddla 
md'to etmo i€ aden'ifard 
p4-t6t idA. 

CuoRVs. adenyard pd-tdi Idh. 

II. Literal Translation of the Poetry. 

thou heiut sad 
skv surface there look-at 
•kj surfiic*^ of ripple 
bamboo spear. 


UL Prose An daman bsb Version by Mr. Man. 

figdl kuk I'drid'lagike 
md'tv el'ma ien kd'to igh&'dignga bedig, 
md'ro el'ma li'a en't/ar Ien igbd'dignga bidig 
pS'tdg Ien tdg'imike. 

TV. Literal Translation of Prose Version. 

thou heart-sad-art 
sky-surface to there looking while, 
sky-surface of ripple to looking while, 
bamboo spear on lean-dost. 

V. Free Translation of Prose Version. 

thou art sad at heart, 
gazing there at the sky's surface, 
gazing at the ripple on the sky's surface, 
leaning on the bamboo spear. 

The rhythm, as read by Mr. Man, was : 

-" I "21 I -w I -w 

-' I -- 1 -- 1 — 


The syllables marked :: were of medial length. There 
were two short syllables at the end of the second and third 
lines. The three long syllables in the fourth line were very 
long and slow, each filling up a whole measure. Strange as 
some of the changes and omissions were, this is one of the 
least altered of the songs in Mr. Temple's grammar. We 
must suppose the man to be standing before his companions 
after liberation from prison, gazing sadly at the sky again 
and resting on his bamboo spear, and then the action would 
make the words intelligible. 

An important question arises as to the durability of the 

72 THE president's annual address for 1882 

language. The English have been there for so short a time 
(only twenty- four years), and the only trustworthy vocabulary, 
that of Mr. Man, has been made for so much shorter a time, 
that there is no proper record by which the past can be 
contrasted with the present state of the language. But there 
are some names of places in the neighbourhood of Port Blair 
which cannot be explained. The Andaman names of places 
are all significant, and this shews that some words have 
entirely dropped out of use, or have become unrecognisably 
modified since such places were named. There will also be 
found in the examples I have given many evidently compound 
words of whose parts Mr. Man had not succeeded in obtaining 
any explanation. This therefore leads us to suppose that the 
words may alter rapidly, while the constructions may remain. 
The difierence of words and sameness of construction in the 
various Andaman tribes might be accounted for on the 
principle of independent development, owing to little inter- 
course, during many hundreds of years. The ease with which 
young ,w6*if an .dko-ju'waida^ or native of South Middle 
Andaman, learned the South Andaman language, may be 
mainly explained by the similarity of construction. It is 
not so much the words of a foreign language which puzzle 
us, as the native method of putting those words together, for 
this depends upon an original divergence in the lines of 
thought, which soon become impossible to reconcile. When, 
therefore, the construction remains the same, the shifting 
from one set of words to another is comparatively easy. At 
the same time, this example may serve to shew with what 
ease any one of these languages may change its words. If 
Messrs. Man and Temple succeed in getting their vocabulary 
and grammar of the South Andaman tongue officially re- 
cognised, and books come to be printed in accordance with 
them, and used in the Andaman Homes, and finally over all 
those parts of the South Andaman and Rutland Islands 
which are in the occupation of the Mjigngljida (isolated 
parts of these islands are in the possession of the ^fdrawada, 
who own Little Andaman, the Sentinels, and small inter- 
mediate islands), and the people themselves do not die out 


(as is unfortunately quite possible, for the deaths much 
exceed the births, and the 1500 South Andamanese that 
are estimated to have been there when we took possession 
of the islands in 1858 have dwindled down in 24 years to 
less than 500), then the change of the language may be 
arrested, a literary or book language may be acknowledged 
as that used at Port Blair, and the speech of the other 
islanders recognised as provincial. Even if the present 
South Andamanese died out, the language would remain that 
of government, and be adopted by the natives of other 
islands who naturally come to Port Blair. In the mean 
time, thanks to the two gentlemen whose papers I have 
been entrusted with, a very fair notion of this language as 
it now exists can be formed, and its position in the whole 
family of human speech, as laid down by Mr. Temple in the 
observations with which I began, can be duly appreciated by 
philologists. Even if the language became extinct before 
the end of the present century, the researches of Messrs. 
Man and Temple, as preserved in their manuscripts, would 
retain their philological value. Exceptional opportunities, 
well utilised, have resulted in a thorough, practical, and 
trustworthy exposition of a remarkable agglutinative lan- 
guage, as yet almost entirely free from external influences. 
The excellent memoirs on the people, their habits and 
customs, which Mr. Man has read before the Anthropological 
Institute, and are published in its Transactions, complete one 
of the most satisfactory accounts of an uncivilised tribe 
which we possess. I beg in conclusion to tender the thanks 
of the Philological Society to Messrs. Man and Temple, 
and especially to Mr. Man, without whose presence in 
England and unstinting personal explanations the present 
report could not have been drawn up. 

Notice by the President of Prof. B. Julg's Report on 
THE Present State of Mongolian Researches. 

Prof. B. Jiilg, of Innsbruck, kindly undertook to prepare 
a report on Mongolian for Dr. Murray's first Presidential 
Address, three years ago, but it was not ready in time. 



even for his second address, and was not in fact completed 
till last summer.^ And then, by a curious miscarriage, of 
which Professor Jiilg, according to his correspondence 
with me, was not aware, and at which he was much 
surprised, it was passed over to the Asiatic Society, and 
before I could claim it, had been accepted, translated and 
prepared for press. It has therefore by mutual consent 
appeared in the Journal of that Society, where it will be 
accessible to any member of our Society who wishes to 
study the subject. But as it was originally intended for us, 
it seems best to give the following short account of its 

1 In hU first address, 1879, Dr. 
Marray says: "We confidently ex- 
pected a report from Professor Teza, of 
Pisa, on Manchu, and until a few days 
ago one from Professor Jiilg, of Inns- 
bruck, on Mongolian.'' — Trans. Phil, 
Soe. 1877-8-9, Part III. p. 686. In 
his second address, 1880, he had to 
say, alluding especially to the two 
ahiove-mcntioned reports : " Sevend 
contributions, lon^ promised for the 
present occasion, me failure of which 
nas been a disappointment to me, will, 
I hope, be ready by next year." — Trans, 
Fhtl. Soe. 1880-1, p. 118. 

' Prof. Jiilg's paper, as printed, b^ns 
with the foUowmg words, address^ to 
Robert N. Oust, Esq., Hon. Sec. 
R.A.8. : "My dear Sir,-In reply to 
your request tnat I would send a brief 
accountof the present state of MongoUan 
Besearches, I have great pleasure in 
forwarding to you, for pudlieation in 
thi Joutftal of the Rnyal Asiatic Society 
of London^ the following notes, etc.*' 
As this is apparently in direct opposi* 
tion to what 1 have said in the text, and 
was indeed appeal(>d to when I read my 
address as disposing of my assertion, 
I consider it necessary to quote the 
words of Prof. Jiilg' s letter to me, 
which will show that the passage 
italicised above must have been msertiMl 
after the arrangement mentioned in the 
text had been concluded, in which case 
of course it became perfectly correct. 
But the point is the original destina- 
tion of the report. I had previously 
written to Prof. Jiilg, asking if his 
paper was ready, and he replied on 

23 Nov. 1881, that Mr. Oust (through 
whose instrumentality Prof. Jiilg had 
been induced to undertake what, on 
account of his numerous engagements, 
proved to be the very laborious task of 
writing this report^ nad acknowledged 
its receipt, and had said he had passed 
it on to t)r. Rost, an old friend ot l^f . 
Jiilg's ; hence. Prof. Jiilg referred me to 
these gentlemen. I wrote to Mr. Yaux, 
the paid secretary of the R.A.S., and 
learned from him that the paper had 
come from Dr. Best to the Asiatie 
Society, and had been already accepted 
and translated, in ignorance, so far as 
the Council and Mr. Yaux were con- 
cerned, that it had been meant for any 
other Society. But this fact was, of 
course, known to Mr. Gust, who had 
previously frequently written to Dr. 
Murray about it, and on 19 Not. 
1881, after I had vrritten to Prof. 
Jiilg, but before I received his reply, 
wrote to me : ** Dr. Jiilg sent me ms 
long promised report on Mongolian in 
the summer in German, and I, thinking 
that the Philological Society had no 
occasion for it, made it over to the 
Boyal Asiatic Society. It has not 
been utilised, and you can have it still, 
if you wish ; please decide at once, as 
it 18 a very valuable paper." Mr. Cust 
had been absent from England, and did 
not know exactly what had been done, 
but he wrote and told me in part on 
23 Nov. 1881, and Mr. Yaux told 
me all about it on 24 Nov. 1881. 
I wrote the particulars to I*rof. Jiil^, 
and said that in that case I thought it 
best to assent to the appearanoe of the 



Prof. Jiilg first describes the boundaries of the Mongol 
region, occupying most of Asia, and gives a list of the works, 
ancient and modem, which record the history of the Mongol 
empire, and describe the country and the people, with their 
habits and customs, and their religious, political, and literary 
development. Then dividing the whole Mongol tribe into 
three branches, 1. East Mongols ; 2. West Mongols (Kal- 
muck, Oelod) ; and 3. Buriats, Professor Jiilg describes the 
people, always giving the titles of the works on which he 
relies, and proceeds to consider their respective languages, 
which are in close connection with each other in roots, inflec- 
tions, and grammatical structure, so much so, that he who 
understands one, may be said to understand all. The chief 
phonetical characteristic consists in the harmony of vowels, 
which are divided into hard /7, o, u, and soft e, o, ii, between 
which stands u The vowel of the first svllable determines 
the class of the rest, and the consonants preceding the vowels 
are also affected by them. The languages all use postpositions, 
which serve as inflections of the noun (just as in the South 
Andaman language considered above). 

In East Mongolian, or Mongolian proper, the writing is a 
complicated syllabary, arranged vertically from top to bottom, 
the columns proceeding from left to right. It is extremely 
imperfect. Thus there are no means of distinguishing a and 

report in the Journal of the Eoyal 
Asiatic Society. He replied as follows 
on 4 Dec. 1831 (I ^Te the original 
first and the translation afterwards) : 
** Ihr lieber Brief vom 28 Not. hat 
mir ahermals eine Ueherraschung 
bereitet. Yon all dem was Sie mir 
mittheilen, habe ich auch nicht die 
geringste Ahnung gehabt, kein Mensch, 
weder Hr. Cnst noch Hr. Rost hat 
mir auch eine Silbe dariiber mitgetheilt. 
Ich danke Ihnen yon ganzem Herzen 
fiir Ihre Gilte. Aber ich bedaure sehr 
wenn die Abhandlung nicht in den 
Proceedings der Philological Society 
erscheint, fiir die ich sie doch in 
gutem Glauben mit rieler Miihe zusam- 
eestellt habe. Habent sua fata libelli ! 
Natiirlich kann ich nichts dagegen thun 
wenn die Abhandlung in den Transac- 

tions der E. Asiatischen Gesellschaft 
erschcinen soil. Wenn Sie damit 
eiuTerstanden sind, so muss auch ieh 
es sein . * * ( Translation : * * Your kind 
letter of the 28 Nov. has nven me a 
new surprise. I had not the slightest 
suspicion of all that you tell me, no 
one, neither Mr. Gust nor Mr. Kost, 
told me a syllable about it. I thank 
you with all my heart for your kindness. 
^ut I am Tery sorry that the paper will 
not appear in the Proceedings of the 
Philological Society, for which nerer- 
theless (doeh) I composed it in good 
faith and with much trouble. Habent 
sua fata libelli ! Of course I can do 
nothing against the paper's appearing 
in the Transactions of the R. Asiatic 
Society. If you are satisfied with it, 
/must be so too.*') 

76 THE president's annual address for 1882. 

ti, and tt, g and k, d and t, j and « [di) ; while a and ^, 
(w) and o (w), a (e) and w, g and cA, ^ (a?) and ou are liable 
to be mistaken for each other. But in 1648 the Saja Pandita 
composed a new alphabet, the Kalmuck, in which these 
ambiguities are avoided, the angular clumsy shapes rounded 
off (although the graphic differences are but small), and every 
sound has its distinct symbol, any two of which it is difficult 
to confuse with each other. Professor Jiilg therefore lays it 
down as an axiom that Kalmuck is the key of Mongolian, and 
should form the foundation of all Mongolian studies. The 
Buriatic follows the East Mongolian. 

A clear distinction exists between book language and 
colloquial. All grammars and dictionaries treat of the literary 
form, except A. Pozdnjejew's Obraztsy, etc., or " Specimens 
of the Popular Literature of the Mongolian Tribes," St. Peters- 
burgh, 1880, in which the conversational language was first 
reduced to writing. The literature consists mostly of transla- 
tions from the Tibetan, which is even yet the language of the 
learned, and as the Tibetan literature is itself principally 
translated from the Sanscrit, we thus became acquainted with 
Indian Buddhistic literature, of which the originals have been 
lost, as is the case, for example, with the tales of the Siddhi' 

Prof, Jiilg then gives a long list of the grammars, dic- 
tionaries, and texts published in each of the three divisions, 
several of which are due to himself, especially, for Kalmuck, 
his "Tales of the Suldhi-Kiir; with Kalmuck text, German 
translation, and Kalmuck-German dictionary to the same,*' 
Leipzig, 1866. Good translations of the Bible have been 
published by the British and Foreign Bible Society. 

From its very full list of works bearing on the subject, 
Prof. Jiilg's report is of great importance to all intending 
students of Mongolian, and although we have accidentally 
been unable to print the whole report in this address, we 
cannot feel less grateful to Prof. Jiilg, who freely ga\e us, 
in intention, his best work on this interesting subject. 


In my Address for 1874 I had the pleasure of reading you 
a brief report by the Rev. Prof. Sayce upon Assyrian Phi- 
lology. But as great progress has been made since that 
time, I am much gratified in being able to lay before you the 
following excellent report by one whose knowledge of the 
subject is at once so accurate and so extensive, and I am 
sure you will all feel deeply indebted to the learned Reporter 
for the great trouble he has taken to render it complete. 

Report on the Progress of Cuneiform Research, by 
Theo. G. Pinches, Esq., of the Department of 
Oriental Antiquities, British Museum. 

" A description of the progress made in Cuneiform research, 
that is to say, the languages of the Babylonian and Assyrian 
Wedge-writing, during the last few years, is no easy task. 
The subject has become so wide, di£Bculties, instead of lessen- 
ing, have increased, and it is now certain that there were, in 
ancient times, no less than fourteen languages in which the 
Wedge-writing was used. (See the list on p. 92.) 

" The progress, however, which has been made since the 
year 1874 is very great, if we keep in mind the fact that, 
up to that time, only three of those fourteen tongues, namely, 
Persian, Median, and Assyrian, had been studied with any- 
thing like thoroughness, tjie object being then to try to 
make out what the Assyrian records had to tell with the 
help of Hebrew, Arabic, and the other cognate languages — 
a method which, when we come to consider it, was but an 
unsatisfactory one at the best, but which served admirably 
in the beginnings of the study. It was left for the German 
Assyriologists, Professors Schrader and Friedrich Delitzsch, 
to inaugurate a new and perfectly scientific method of trans- 
lating the records which the Assyrian and Babylonian 
empires had left for the information of the world. 

" Students of the Assyrian and Akkadian languages enlarge 
constantly, and with great justice, on the diflSculties of their 
special branch of study, the uncertainties of the readings of 
words, and the seeming inconsistencies of the method of 

78 THE PRESIDEXT's AXXCAL address foe 1S82. 

those ancient scribes ; but they do not consider that, if it 
had not been for these very difficulties, almost all bat the 
Historical inscriptions would have been a sealed book for us. 
The difficulties which the Babvlonians and Assyrians them- 
selves felt in using their own cumbersome way of writing, 
caused them to draw up those syllabaries and bilingual lists 
without which much of the full value of the inscrip- 
tions would have been lost to us. Had this fact been well 
kept in mind, there would have been no need for such 
criticisms as Gut«chmid's * Assyriologie in Deutschland,* or 
for such a polemic work as Haupt's * Sumerische Familien- 
gesetze.' Tet our thanks are due to these writers for pointing 
out to Assyriologists the weaknesses and unscientificnesses of 
their system, and so enabling them to remedy these defects. 

^'The reform came, as above remarked, from Germany, 
and was brought in by Prof Fried. Delitzsch. He it was who 
first used to the fullest extent those bilingual tablets which the 
Assyrians and Babylonians wrote in such number. Parallel 
passages and synonyms were thus easily noted, variant 
readings could be found also with greater ease. The appli- 
cation of the keys thus obtained to the one-tongue texts 
gave most excellent and interesting results. In some cases, 
however, philology has been carried too far, and allowed to 
override archaeological facts, and the result of this too great 
devotion to science has not always been satisfactory. 

" The French system, represented by the many pupils 
whom Prof. Oppert in Paris has trained, has brought forth 
also good results, but they are, it must be allowed, far behind 
the German system. This, however, has not been from want 
of either talent or enthusiasm, but from want of that rigorous 
scientific exactness so needful in such a difficult study. 

"The system in use in England has been, perhaps, the most 
unsatisfactory of all. Far too unflinchingly have the English 
Assyriologists kept to the old methods, so that, notwith- 
standing that the talent was of the best and most brilliant 
kind, the results have been very far from what could have 
been wished. The old and uncertain system of comparison 
with the cognate languages is, even now, in full force, and 



the insufficient nature of such aids can not but be recognized 
by all familiar with the science of philology, for one might 
as well try to Bead an English book by comparing the words, 
both the Romance and the true English, with words of 
similar sound in the other Teutonic languages. 

** In spite, however, of the defects of the systems of both 
the old and the new school, the results have been most satis- 
factory, and continued excavations in Babylonia and Assyria 
have brought to light treasures to add zest to the labours of 
students. The excavations recommenced in 1873, at Nine- 
veh, soon after the first publication of Mr. Smith's * Chaldean 
Account of the Deluge,' by that scholar, under the direction 
of the proprietors of the * Daily Telegraph,' aroused a new 
interest in the study. The next year, the excavations were 
continued under the direction of the Trustees of the British 
Museum, with equal success. The results of the excavations 
were the publication, in the Transactions of the Society of 
Biblical Archaeology,^ of most interesting articles, by Mr. 
Geo. Smith, upon the subject of the Flood, as told by the 
tablets from Nineveh. Mr. Fox Talbot, also, published* a 
commentary on the same text, which, though filled with 
somewhat fanciful etymologies, nevertheless contained a few 
good things. Some new bilingual lists, discovered by Mr. 
Geo. Smith, were also published, with a commentary, by 
the same author.^ An important chronological paper, en- 
titled * A portion of a tablet from which the Canon of Berosus 
was copied,' was also published by Mr. Geo. Smith in the 
above-mentioned work.* 

''Before his departure on his third and last journey to 
Assyria, which proved so fatal to him, Mr. Smith published 
the results of his researches in the ancient and most interest- 
ing legends of Ancient Babylonia, in a work entitled * The 
Chaldean Genesis,' a work which gave, in a rough though 
fair translation, the contents of all the tablets referring to 
the Creation, the so-called fall of man, and the war between 
the gods and Bisbis-tiamtu * the monster of the sea,' which 

» Vol. iii. p. 630. 

* * Tnuuactions,' vol. iv. p. 49. 

' * Transactions,' vol. iii. p. 496. 
* * Transactions,' vol. iii. p. 361. 



is supposed to typify the Waterohaos.^ To this was also 
added the legends of Izdubar,' an ancient hero whom Mr. 
Smith identified with Nimrod. It is in the account of the 
wanderings and adventures of this prince that the story of 
the flood occurs, in the form of a narrative told by Um- 
napistim ^ to the Babylonian hero. This legend is, in every 
respect, a most poetical and interesting composition, and 
affords material both to the philologist and the historian. 
So great was the popularity of the book, that a German 
edition, translated by Hermann Delitzsch, with notes by 
his brother, Prof. Friedrich Delitzsch, was published soon 
after.* Four other works, also by Mr. Geo. Smith, may be 
noticed. These are his * Assyrian Discoveries,' * containing 
a record of travel as well as translations of all the most 
interesting and important texts ; the history of Assyria, from 
the earliest times to the fall of Nineveh* — ^a thoroughly 
useful book, indispensable to students ; the history of Baby- 
lonia,'' a book which, though somewhat out of date and 
needing revision, nevertheless contains a large amount of 
most useful information ; and the history of Sennacherib,® 
upon the same plan as the 'History of Assurbanipal,' 
published in 1871. The two last-named works, the ' History 

* ** The Chaldean Account of Genesis, 
etc." By George Smith. London, 
Sampson Low and Co., 1876. 

^ The more correct Akkadian read- 
ing would be Gis^ubar (or Gi<dubarJ. 

^ Read by Mr. Smith first Sisit, tnen 
Adra-hafis, and lately, by Prof. De- 
litzsch l*ir-napl^tim **the offspring of 
life." None of these renderings are, 
howeTer, to my mind satisfactory. The 
most usual way in which the name is 

given is: | ^] >-]]^^ i-^J^,the 

first sign of which, though it have the 
value of pify can hardly be the word 
for ** offspring" in Assyrian, which was 

more usually written -^T -<^^>r- 
pir-* (/?»>-•«). ^T means, when taken 

ideographically, both **the sun," the 
Sungou, and **day." As, however, to 
express the name of the sun, or the 
ISungod, it should have the prefix of 

divinity ►>-Y, the most probable pro- 
nunciation and rendering are Um-na- 
pistim, *'day of life." 

* George Smith's Chaldaische Gene- 
sis. Eeinnschriftliche Berichte, etc., 
etc. Leipzig, 1876. 

B Assyrian Discoveries, an account of 
explorations, etc., during 1873 and 
1874, by Geo. Smith. Sampson Low 
and Co., 1875. 

• Ancient History from the Monu- 
ments. Assyria, by Geo. Smith. Fcp. 
8vo. Society for l^moting Christian 
Knowledge, 1876. 

^ Ancient History from the Monu- 
ments Babylonia, by Geo. Smith. 
Edited by the Rev. A. H. Sayce, 1877. 
Uniform with the above. 

8 **The History of Sennacherib,** 
translated from the cuneiform inscrip- 
tions. Edited by the Rev. A. H. Sayce. 
London, Williams and Norgate, 1878. 



of Babylonia/ and the 'History of Sennacherib/ were 
published after Mr. Smith's death in 1876, under the able 
editorship of Prof. Sayce. There has also been published, 
under the direction of the Trustees of the British Museum, 
and edited by Sir H. C. Rawlinson, the fourth volume of the 
Cuneiform Inscriptions of Western Asia/ containing prin- 
cipally bilingual tablets and texts (in Assyrian), refer- 
ring to magic, incantations, etc., and the first instalment 
of the fifth volume^ (35 plates), containing historical 
texts and bilingual lists. Besides the above works. Sir 
H. C. Bawlinsou has found time, notwithstanding his 
many diplomatic occupations, to write several articles, of 
which his translation of the cylinder of Cyrus, and his 
remarks upon the antiquities found at Bahrein are worthy 
of notice.* 

" Among the productions of the pen of Prof. Sayce may be 
mentioned the two editions of his * Assyrian Grammar,' ^ a 
book which has now become rather out of date; a most 
interesting article upon 'Babylonian Augury by means of 
Geometrical Figures,' ^ in which are published for the first 
time the contents of some very curious tablets in the British 
Museum ; a translation of a tablet brought from Assyria 
by Geo. Smith, entitled, 'Ancient Babylonian Moral and 
Political Precepts.'^ A paper, read before this Society, 
upon Accadian Phonology ; ^ another, upon * The Tenses of 
the Assyrian Verb,'® and a most interesting and valuable 
book, written in popular style, upon Babylonian Literature ® 
— a work that can be thoroughly recommended to all who 
wish to get a general idea of the interesting contents of the 

^ The Oimeifonii Inscriptions of 
Western Asia. Prepared by Sir H. 
C. llawlinson, assisted by 6. Smith. 
1876. Folio. 

* A Selection of the Miscellaneous 
Inscriptions of Assyria. Prepared by 
Sir H. C. Rawlinson, assisted oy Theo. 
G. Pinches. 1880. Folio. 

* Journal of Roy. Asiatic Society, 
Tol. xii. pp. 70 and 201. 

* An elementary grammar, etc., of 
the Assyrian language, by the Rev. A. 

Phil. Tranf . 1S82-3-4. 

H. Sayce, M.A. (Originally Bagsters, 
now) Triibner, 1875, a 2nd edition has 
since been published. 

* Transactions of the Soc. of Bibl. 
Archffiol. Tol. iv. 

® Records of the Past, vol. vii. 
^ Trans. Philol. Soc. 1877-79, pt. 1. 
8 Journal of the R. Asiatic Society, 
London, vol. ix. pt. 1. 

* Babylonian Literature. Lectures 
delivered at the Royal Institution. 8vo. 
London, Bagsters, 1877. 

82 THE president's annual address. for 1882. 

treasures of the Mesopotamian libraries. Of this book a 
translation was published in Germany in 1878.^ A new 
edition of Geo. Smith's Chaldean Genesis^ edited by Prof. 
Sayce, appeared also last year. Although it hardly belongs 
to cuneiform research, yet it would be well, perhaps, to 
mention here the most valuable papers contributed by 
Prof. Sayce upon the Hittite Inscriptions, entitled, * The 
Monuments of the Hittites,'^ and 'The Bilingual Hittite 
and Cuneiform Inscription of Tarkond^mos.' * The Rev. J. 
Dunbar Heath, who has studied these texts for many years, 
believes them to be written in a language closely allied to 
the Chaldee, and he has reasoned out, with a view to proving 
this, the values of several characters, by means of which he 
gives a rendering of these texts. 

" Returning, however, to English Assyriology. The next 
important writings of which we have to speak are those of 
the Rev. W. Houghton, who has taken up the natural history 
of the Assyrian inscriptions as his special study. One paper, 
upon the mammalia of the Assyrian sculptures,^ has appeared, 
and in a future paper it is his intention to treat of the birds. 
An interesting paper, upon *The Hieroglyphic or Picture 
Origin of the Characters of the Assyrian Syllabary,' * by the 
same author, has also been published. 

" From the pen of Mr. G. Bertin has appeared a paper in 
which the Assyrian numerals are explained, and their forms 
compared with those of the other Semitic languages. Mr. E. 
A. Budge has published * Assyrian Incantations to Fire and 
Water,' * * The Nebbi-Yunus inscription of Sennacherib,' "^ ' A 
newly-discovered text of Assur-natsir-pal,' ® and two works, 
entitled, * Assyrian Texts,' ^ and * The History of Esarhad- 
don,' ^^ the latter being upon the model of Geo. Smith's 'Assur- 

> Babylonische Literatur. Leipzig, " Trans. Soc. Bibl. ArchsBol vol. vi. 

0. Schulze. pt. 2, and Records of the Past, vol. xi. 

' Transactions of the Society of ' Records of the Past, vol. xi. 

Bibl. Archaool. vol. vii. pt. 2. ^ Trans. Soc. Bibl. Arch. vol. vii. 

3 The same. pt. 1. 

* Transactions of the Soc. of Bibl. * Assyrian Texts. Selected and 
Archajol. vol. V. pt. 1. Arranged, with Philological Notes. 

* Trans. Soc. iibl. Archa)ol. vol. v. London, Triibner. 

pt. 2. ^^ The History of Esarhaddon (son 



banipal ' and * Sennacherib.' The following papers have also 
been published : * Notes upon Babylonian Contract Tablets 
and the Canon of Ptolemy/ ^ in which the author of the 
present report gave the results of his examination of these 
important texts, with special reference to one dated in the 
eleventh year of Cambyses; 'On a Tablet relating to the 
capture of Babylon by Cyrus, and the events which preceded 
and led to it,' ^ — a historical study of a most interesting 
tablet, giving the annals of the latter years of Nabonidus ; 
' The Bronze Gates discovered by Mr. Bassam at Balawat,' ^ 
in which the form of these monuments is fully described and 
illustrated, and a rather important philological communication 
* Upon the consonants S, R and L in Assyrian,' ^ where the 
hitherto puzzling change of 8 into / before a dental is fully 
explained, and examples given. Precis of forthcoming papers 
have also been given (notably upon 'A new list of Babylonian 
kings,' * Remarks upon the Recent Discoveries of Mr. 
Rassam at Aboo-habba ' ^), and two short articles have been 
published upon certain tablets found in Cappadocia,^ having 
a rather important bearing upon the language and geography 
of the East in ancient times. By the Society of Biblical 
ArchsDology two works are now in the course of publication,^ 
namely, * The Bronze Ornaments of the Palace Gates at 
Balawat,' a splendid series of autotypes containing repre- 
sentations of the expedition of the Assyrian king Shal- 
maneser II., and a small work intended to assist students in 
acquiring a knowledge of the style of writing in use in 
ancient times in Babylonia.^ M. de Lacouperie, the well- 
known Chinese scholar, has made some interesting researches. 

of Sennacherib), Kin^ of Assyria, b.c. 
681-668. Translated from the Cunei- 
form Inscriptions, etc., etc. London, 
Triibner. Both the ** Assyrian Texts " 
and the "History of Sennacherib*' 
have been yery severely criticized by 
the reviewers. 

* Trans. Soc. Bibl. Archseol. vol. vi. 
pt. 2. 

' Both in Trans, vol. vii. pt. 1 . 

' Proceedings Soc. Bibl. ArchaeoL 
April 5th, 1881. 

* Proceedings of the Soc. of Bibl. 
ArchflBol. Dec. 7th, 1880, Jan. 11th 
and June 7th, 1881. 

* Proceedings, Nov. and Dec. 1881. 
® Four parts have been already 


' " Texts in the Babylonian "Wedge- 
writing," auto^phed from the original 
documents, with a list of characters 
and their meanings, by Theo. G. 
Pinches. London, Society of Biblical 
Archseology, 1882. 

84 THE president's annual address for 1882. 

which seem to point to a connection between the wedge- 
writing and the writing in use in early times in the east 
of Asia. 

" Among the French Assyriologists, that busiest of 
scholars, Fran9ois Lenormant, takes the first place. This 
author has published several most interesting works upon- 
the bilingual syllabaries and lists, among which may be 
mentioned his 'Etude sur quelques parties des syllabaires 
cuneiformes/ 'Les syllabaires cun^iformes/ etc., and his 
'Chaldean Magic'" — a most interesting and instructive book. 
He has also given some exceedingly valuable papers entitled 

' Sur la lecture et la signification de Tldeogramme ^uy et 
a cette occasion sur quelques noms de maladies en Accadien 
et en Assyrien/^ and * Les noms de Tairain et du cuivre dans 
les deux langues des inscriptions cuneiformes de la Ohald^e et 
de TAssyrie,'' and a work* in which he has tried to prove 
the Turanian nature of the Akkadian language. 

"By Prof. Oppert have been published new translations 
of the Annals of Sargon,' the Inscriptions of the Persian 
Monarchs,^ and, in conjunction with M. M^nant, some trans- 
lations of Babylonian Public Documents,^ and a book en- 
titled ' Documents Juridiques de TAssyrie et de la Chald^e/* 
a work upon which, unfortunately, very little praise indeed 
can be bestowed. From Prof. Oppert's pen have also come 
several short papers, among which may be noted his ' Revised 
chronology of the latest Babylonian kings,'* several transla- 
tions of Khorsabad Inscriptions in the Records of the Past,^® 
and an article entitled * L'arabre jaune chez les Assyriens,' *^ 
in which appear some gratuitously unpleasant translations of 
certain words in the 6th tablet of the legends of the hero 

^ Chaldean Magic ; its ori^^n and ^ Records of the Fast, Tola. tu. 

dcvtjUipment. Translated from the and ix. 

Frencli. 8vo. London, Baxter, 1877. • Records of the Past, Tol. ix. 

* Transactions Soc. Bibl. Archajol. ' The same. 

vol. Ti. pt. 1. ^ Paris, Maisonnenye. 

* The same, pt. 2. Republished ® Trans. Soc. Bibl. Archffiol. Yol. vi. 
M-parately (J'aris, Maisonneuve). pt. 1. 

* Ia's prinrijM»8 de comparaison de ^^ Vol. xi. 

rAkku(li«u et d<'s langues touranienncs. " Recueil des TraT. relatifs k la Phi- 
I'arls, Maisonncuve. lologic, ii. 2. 



Gistubar. Prof. Oppert has also published a most important 
little book, in which he exposes the language ^of the Median 
Inscriptions,^ but it is deprived of much of its usefulness by 
the total absence of references. 

" The well-known French Assyriologist, M. J. M^nant, has 
published several most interesting works upon the hard-stone 
cylinders, among which may be noted his catalogue of the 
cylinders of the Museum of the Hague,^ and his remarks 
upon the impressions of cylindei's on the contract-tablets of 
the British Museum.' Two other works have also been 
published by this scholar, the one, a small book written in a 
popular style, gives an account of the ancient library of 
Nineyeh, with translations of texts ;^ and a large work upon 
the cuneiform writing, the Assyrian grammar, etc. — a book 
which, if it had a few more references, would be invaluable 
to the beginner in cuneiform studies.^ M. Hal^vy, who has 
an idea that everything cuneiform is Semitic, has published 
several books in which he tries to prove this theory — a 
theory which he holds almost alone. This scholar even goes 
so far as to doubt the existence of the non-Semitic languages, 
contending that they are nothing more nor less than crypto- 
graphies. His principal works upon the subject are : ' La 
pretend ue langue d'Accad est-elle touranienne ?'® 'La 
nouvelle evolution de Taccadisme.'^ Of other works from 
this author's pen may also be noticed a paper entitled ' Baby- 
lonian Fragments/ in the Records of the Past,* in which are 
translated some texts which are of importance because they 
seem to bear witness of the Assyrians' and Babylonians' 
belief in the immortality of the soul (a belief received by 
them from the Akkadians and Sumerians of old-time) ; and 

1 Le people et la lan^ne des MMes. 
Paris, MauonnettTe, 1879. 

* Catalogue des cylindres orientaux 
du cabinet royal des Medailles de la 
Have. Haye, impr. de I'Etat, 1879. 

3* Empreintes aes cylindres assyro- 
chaldeens relevees sur les contrats d*in- 
teret privtf du Musee britannique 
claaaees et expUqnees. MaisonneuTe, 

* D^couvertes assyriennes. La Bib- 

lioth^que du palais de Ninive. Paris, 
Leroux, 1880. 

* Elements d'6pigraphie assyrienne. 
Manuel de la langue assyrienne. I. Le 
Syllabaire. IL La Grammaire. III. 
Cnoix de lectures. Paris, Maisonneuve, 

« Paris, Leroux, 1876. 

"* Revue de philologie, t. iii. 

8 Vol. xi. 



one entitled * Cyrus et le retour de Texil/ ^ being a study 
upon the cylinder of Cyrus, and the unbaked clay tablet, 
written during the reign of the same king, giving the annals 
of the reign of Nabonidus and a full account of the taking of 
Babylon. The question whether the Akkadian and Sume- 
rian languages are cryptographies or not the reader will be 
in a position to determine for himself, if he read this section 
to the end. In France has been also published a very well- 
written and reasoned work upon the important historical 
text of Sennacherib known as the Bavian Inscription, by 
M. Pognon,^ and several articles by M. St. Guyard, princi- 
pally notes upon the difEcult words found in the texts, with 
philological comparisons,* an article upon the Assyrian god 
Ninip,* and another upon the Babylonian religion.* 

" It is in Germany, however, that the study of Assyriology 
has made the greatest strides. A cutting critique,^ by 
Gutschmid, of Prof. E. Schrader's * Keilinschriften und 
das Alte Testament,' in which the author criticized that 
work right and left, brought forth from Prof. Schrader his 
latest book, entitled ' Keilinschriften und Geschichtsfor- 
schung,*'' in which were answered, long and exhaustively, 
most of the historical and geographical questions to which 
Gutschmid had taken exception. The system of the wedge- 
writing is there fully discussed, and the means of gaining 
certainty in doubtful readings shown, many geographical 
and historical questions are there gone into, and thoroughly 
and systematically reasoned out, and the conclusions, whether 
they turn out hereafter to be right or wrong, are always 
intelligently given. In a smaller work Prof. Schrader gives 

* Rovue des Etudes jiiives, No. 1. 

' L* inscription do Bavian, texte, 
traduction et coramentaire philologique, 
avec trois appendices et un glossaire, 
par II. Po^on. Paris, Vieweg, 1880. 

^ See the Journal asiatiquey 1878, 
Sept. -Oct. ; 1879, Mai-Juin ; 1880, 
Jan., Mai-Juin, etc. ; Memoires de*^uistique de Paris, iv. 3 ; Recueil de 
Travaux rt^latifs h. la Philol. etc., 6gypt. 

* I^ dieu assyrien Ninip. Revue 
critique d'histoire !«»" Mars, 1879. 

^ Bulletin critique de la Belieion 
a8S}Tio-babylonienne. Revue de PKU- 
toire dcs Religions, Mai-Juin, 1880. 

® Neue Beitrage zur Geschichte des 
Alten Orients. Die Assyriologie in 
Deutschland, von Alfred von Gut- 
schmid. Leipzig, Teubner, 1876. 

"^ Keilinschriften und Geschichtsfor- 
schung, von Eberhard Schrader. 
Giessen, J. Ricker'sche Buchhandlung, 



a geographical discourse upon the names of the seas in the 
Assyrian inscriptions^ In another dissertation he makes a 
critical study of the inscriptions of Tiglath-pileser II.,* 
Esarhaddon, and Assurbanipal,^ principally with a view to 
determine the correct order of the campaigns, etc., of these 
kings, and elsewhere he gives a critical examination of the 
chronological testimony of Polyhistor and Abydenus,* com- 
paring these authors with the testimony of the inscriptions. 
Other historical or geographical papers of this author are 
' The Leka of Kamses II. and the land of Laki of the Assy- 
rian Inscriptions/ ^ ' The eleventh year of Cambyses,' * 
' Additional remarks upon the newly- found Babylonian 
Nebuchadnezzar-inscription,' '^ and, later on, additional re- 
marks upon the tablet dated in the eleventh year of 
Cambyses.® A new and revised edition of Prof. Schrader's 
Eeilinscriften und das Alte Testament ' has been for some 
time in preparation, and it is promised that it shall appear 
shortly. This book, when revised to date, will be undoubt- 
edly of great value to those who wish to make themselves 
acquainted with the latest and most interesting results of the 

" Most important, however, in the study of the Philology, 
has been the work of a young scholar, Dr. Paul Haupt. 
Carrying critical research much farther than it had ever been 
carried before, he undertook, in his most exhaustive study 
'Die Sumerischen Familiengesetze,'^ the translation of a most 
difficult bilingual text. This work is, in itself, a model of 

* Die Namen der Meere in den assy- 
rischen Inschriften. Berlin, Diimmler, 

* Really the third king of Assyria 
of that name. 

3 Zur Kritik der Inschriften Tiglath- 
pileser's II., des Asarhaddon und des 
Asnrbanipal. Beriin, Diimmler, 1880. 

* Zur Kritik der chronologischen 
Angaben des Alex. Polyhistor und des 
Abvdenus, Ton Eberh. Schrader. Leip- 
zig^ 1880. 

^ Zeitschrift fiir agyptische Sprache, 
1879, i. 

* Ztschft. f. agypt. Sprache, i. 

' The same. 

® Das elfte Jahr des Kambyses. 
Nachtrag. Zeitschrift f. agypt. Sprache, 

^ Die Sumerischen Familiengesetze, 
in Keilschrift,Tranf5scription,und Ueber- 
setzung, nebst ausfiihrlichem Com- 
mentar und zahlreichen Excursen. 
Eine Assyriologische Studie von Dr. 
Paul Haupt. Leipzig: Hinrichs'sche 
Buchhandlung, 1879. Only one** law," 
the 11th and r2th paragraphs of the 
third column of the tablet, is translated 
and fully discussed, but it is promised 
that the rest shall follow. 

88 THE president's annual address for 1882. 

what a thoroughly critical and scientific work should be, but 
it contains so many hard and unjustifiable attacks upon the 
older Assyriologists, that it was far from favourably received 
by them, and several criticisms appeared which, while ad- 
mitting the ability with which the work had been done, 
showed much resentment at the style in which it was written. 
The principal things there explained are : that the Snmerian 
(or Akkadian) copula ^y»-]^T| * and ' is to be read sa, and 
not u; that the true reading of the sign ^^ 'silver,' is 

rather azag than ku, or ku-babbar ; the vowel-harmony that 
exists so extensively in the Sumerian (or Akkadian) 
language ; that the Assyrians never prefixed a y to the 3rd 
person of the imperfect of the verb in the voices taking the 

prefix u ; and that the groups YI yj and ^^T J are to be read 

respectively aa or d and ia, instead of at and ya as heretofore, 
and that therefore, instead of there being three forms of the 
Ist pers. sing, of the possessive pronoun in Assyrian, namely 
-ya, ai, and a, there was but one, namely d, throughout. 

" Since the appearance of the above work, several others 
have been given forth by the same author. These are * Ueber 
einen Dialekt der Sumerischen Sprache,' ^ also a popularly- 
written little book upon the old Flood-story,* and the first 
four parts of his 'Akkadische und Sumerische Keilschrifit- 
texte,' ' the last-named being a most excellent text-book for 
students, for the texts, though not entirely faultless, are 
nevertheless much better than any yet published. 

"From the pen of another promising Assyriologist, Dr. 
Lotz, a pupil of Prof. Fried. Delitzsch, we have a thoroughly 
scientific translation of some most interesting historical texts, 
containing the Annals of Tiglathpileser I.,^ accompanied by 

^ IJeber einen Dialekt der smner- zig: ninrichs*8che Buchhandlang» 

iMhen Spnche, Odttinger Nachr. 1880. 1881 and 1882. 

IXo, ^f ^ ^ * Die Inschriften Tiglathpileser's I., 

* '. r keilinflohriftliche Sintfluth- in transscribirtem assmtichcm Grund- 

^ I Babylonifohe Nim- text, mit Uebereetzung und Kommen- 

1881. tar, yom Dr. Wilhelm Lotz. Mit 

I }he Keil- Beifpiben Yon Professor Dr. Friedrtch 

MmmfUMM. uAu xj uialen im Delitzsch. Leipzig, Hinrichs'solM 

. ««iO. Leip- Buchhandlung, 18S0. 


a most excellent commentary, a word-list, alphabetically 
arranged, a list of proper names, etc. In this book, however, 
the thorough Germanness of the whole work is unmistakably 
shown by the too great readiness to criticize the work of 
others, and some most unwarranted faultfinding with the 
work of M. M^nant, the French Assyriologist, in the Intro- 
duction (p. 10), has a most insufficient apology (if apology it 
can be called at all) in the Nachtrage und Berichtigungen. 
A noteworthy example of too great readiness to lay down 
the law with regard to the readings of words is to be found 
on pp. 147 and 166, where the names of the horse and the 
elephant in the Assyrian language are discussed. There, it 
is stated, that the word for horse was not susu, as had been 
formerly read, but murnisku, and this reading, to quote the 
words of Prof. Delitzsch, whose initials are attached to the 
note in question : ' cannot be doubted.' To prove to Assy- 
riologists, then, how widely they had wandered, the author 
goes on to show that the name for ' elephant,' which was on 
all sides admitted to be doubtful, was neither bazidti^ nor 
anything else of that kind, but that same siUu which had 
formerly been thought to be the name of the horse. About 
six pages are devoted to this word, and to its etymology. It 
is explained from the Akkadian 8u * tooth,' and it is con- 
tended that it had the name silsu (lit. ' toothtooth ') on 
account of its having tusks. The whole argument is 
certainly well reasoned out, but nevertheless the reasoning is 
wrong, for the name of the horse, in spite of its ' undoubted- 
ness,' is not niurnisku, but sku, and the name for the 
elephant is not ausu, but piru,^ of which the plural, pirate, a 
feminine form, appears on the Black Obelisk. The fixing of 
the meaning ' elephant,' however, to the Akkadian group 

^!^^ *>^Yy (lit. homed or toothed bull), is a gain upon 

which the author may well be congratulated. The book is, 
on the whole, carefully and scientifically written, and greatly 
to be recommended. 

^ Houghton, " The mammalia of the ^ With thia may be compared the 

Assyrian inscriptions.** Trans. Soc. Hebrew IB, 
BibL Archaeol. vol. y. pp. 33 and 319. 

90 THE president's ANNUAL ADDRESS FOR 1882. 

" The principal works of Prof. Fried. Delitzsch, whose time 
is greatly occupied in preparing the lectures which he gives to 
his students, are the second edition of his Assyrian' Chresto- 
mathy^ — a book which, giving, as it does, a critical edition 
of all the most important texts needful for the study, as well 
as several well-selected extracts by way of exercise for 
students, will always be of great value. The science of 
Assyriology owes much to this excellent edition of what may 
be called the ground-texts of the study. His latest work, 
whose inquiring title, * Where lay Paradise P ' * will rouse the 
curiosity of all Biblical students, is a monument of careful 
and painstaking study. The book is, however, rather a long 
disquisition on geography (only about a quarter of the whole 
being really devoted to the subject to which the book owes 
its title) than an attempt to settle, once and for all, the 
question as to the position of Paradise. The author deals 
with his subject systematically. He begins by determining 
the full and right meaning of the Old Testament story. He 
discusses the name of the garden of Eden, its position, — more 
southwards than northwards, — the rivers by which it was 
watered, and the streams with which they are now to be 
identified. The author then goes on to discuss the opinions 
that have been entertained hitherto — the Paradise in Utopia, 
the Paradise in Armenia, and the Paradise in South Baby- 
lonia. In the first of these three sections is disposed of the 
question of an Indian Paradise, in the second the northern 
position is discussed and negatived, and in the third the 
author seeks to prove that, as the identifications hitherto 
recognized that the Pison is the Karun, and the Gihon the 
Karasu, run directly against the Biblical account, therefore 
the position of the Paradise in South Babylonia cannot be 
entertained. He places therefore, in his second section, the 
position of Paradise in that part of Babylonia called Kar- 
Duni^, ' the garden of the god Duniis.' For this identifi- 

> Assyrische Lesestucke nach den ' "WolagdasParadies? einebiblisch- 

Orijnnalen, theils revidirt theils zura assyriologische Studie, etc., von Dr. F. 

crsten Male herausffep:eb(5n, etc., von Delitzsch. Leipzig, Hinrichs'sche 

Dr. FritMlrich Delitzsch. Leipzig, Buchhandlung, 1881. 
Ilinrichs'sche Buchhandlung, 1878. 


cation, the Cash of the second chapter of Genesis is the 
Kas-da or Kassd (Kassites or Cossseans) of the inscriptions, 
the Gihon is the Guhanna or Arahtu (the Araxes) of the in- 
scriptions, and the name of the stream Pison the author 
connects with the Akkadian pisanna, a word as yet unfound 
as a geographical name. This pisannay which went over into 
Assyrian under the form pisannu, is used to designate a 
water-reed, most likely the papyrus. The author ends by 
referring to the various Babylonian legends which agree 
with the Biblical account of the creation, flood, and early 
history of Babylonia. Little need, however, is there to force 
such geographical identifications. Prof. Fried. Delitzsch has 
helped greatly, by his book, the final decisions that students 
must come to ; but new researches have thrown fresh light 
upon this question, and it is now certain that it is not 
necessary to identify the Cush of the second chapter of 
Genesis with the Kassites or Cossaoans of the Inscriptions, 
seeing that Cappadocia, as well as Ethiopia, was of old called 
Kflsu or Cush by the Babylonians. As to the identificatipn 
of the Gihon with the so-read Guhanna or Arahtu of the in- 

w w 

scriptions, that is quite untenable, the real name of the 
stream (or rather canal) being Gu-gande, a name meaning 
' may he speak,' ^ and not Guhanna. The derivation of the 
word Pison is also, of course, equally untenable. The geo- 
graphical portion of the book is, notwithstanding some 
identifications now found to be wrong, full of most valuable 
material, and cannot fail to be of great use to all interested 
in the subject. 

" The works of the two other pupils of Prof. Fried. Delitzsch 
may also be noticed. These are Dr. Reinhart Hoeming and 
Dr. F. Hommel. The former has published a very valuable 
little treatise containing a translation of the annals of Sen- 
nacherib,^ and the latter, a scholar well known by his book 
entitled 'Die Namen der Saugethiere bei den Siidsemiten,' 

* Compare also the name of the often gave names of this kind to the 
well-known river called in the inscrip- rivers of the land. 

*;«,.„ Tiki X-v.^/ «<«,«,, u /4.i,« ^-.r^^N ^ Das sechsseitiffe Prisma des San- 

taons Libil-gigal "may it (tne nver) i m • . -i.- i. n ji. j. j 

, . e __^y- It mi T. V 1 • henb m transscnbirtem Gnmdtext una 

brmg fertility. The Babylonians Uebersetzung, etc. Leipzig, 1878. 

92 THE president's annual address for 1882. 

has published several papers and small works, among whioh 
may be mentioned his disquisition upon the sibilants in 
Assyrian,^ and his parallel list of events of Babylonian, 
Assyrian, and Israelitish history.^ 

'* In Denmark the principal book published is the work of 
Valdemar Schmidt, entitled : * The Ancient History of 
Assyria and Egypt/ ^ The author gives a full and very 
complete view of what we have gained from the study of the 
monuments of these two nations, with regard to their history, 
literature, etc., together with the geography of these 
countries, accompanied by copious references, and a most 
useful map. 

Philological Progress, 

" The progress that has been made during the last few 
years in this branch of the study has been most gratifying. 
Not only has much light been thrown upon the Assyrian and 
Akkadian languages themselves, but new dialects and even 
new languages have been discovered, raising the total 
nflmber, as before stated, to about fourteen. I give here a 
, list of the names of these dialects and languages, including 
those of which I have only been able, as yet, to find traces : 

Assyrian or Babylonian. Sugite or Suhite. 

Akkadian. Lulubite (or Lullubite). 

Sumerian. Vanite. 

Kassite. Cappadocian. 

Marite. Median. 

Nimite (or Elamite). Persian. 

Suite. Scythian. 

No coherent texts, however, of any of the new dialects of 
Akkadian have been found, except in the case of Sumerian, 
but two texts are known in the old Cappadocian language.^ 

* Zwci Jagdinschriften Assurbani- BabcPs, in Tabellenform. Leipzig, 

bal's, nebst einem Excurs iiber die Hinrichs, 1880. 

Zischlaute im Assyrischen, wio im ' Assyriens og -Slgyptens gamle 

Seraitischen iiberhaupt. Leipzig, Hin- Historie, eller mstorisk-geographiske 

richs, 1879. Unders^gelser om det ^mle Testa- 

^ Abriss der babyloniscb-assyrischcn mentes Lande og Folk. Kj^benhayen, 

und israelitiscben Geschicbte von den 1872 and 1877. 

altesten Zeiten bis zur Zerstorung *- Proc.Soc.Bibl.Arch.Noy.Dec.188I. 




**The discovery that Sumerian was only a dialect of the 
Akkadian tongue was effected by means of the trilingual 
lists furnished by the Assyrian scribes, which show in parallel 
columns the peculiarities ^ of each tongue, and the vocal and 
consonantal change-laws. The most noteworthy are the 
following : 

'' initial g in Akkadian becoming d in Sumerian, as : guba 

* to fix/ Sum. duba ; agar * inclosure/ Sum. adar ; 

" initial g in Akkadian becoming m in Sumerian, as : gara 

* to make/ Sum. mara ; gala * to be/ Sum. mala ; igar (or 
engar * roof/ Sum. dmar ; 

final g in Akkadian becoming b in Sumerian, as : duga 

* to be good,' Sum. siba ; saga * heart,' Sum. iaba ; 
d in Akkadian becoming s (or z) in Sumerian, as : duga 

' to be good,' Sum. siba ; dima * to make,' Sura, sim ; 
**« in Akkadian becoming n in Sumerian, as : nirgal * ruler,' 
Sum. sernial ; anir * servant,* Sum, aser, and many others 
of the same kind. 

** The values of several characters (notably those containing 
the consonant g) supply us with the key to these changes, so 

that we find given, for example, to the character ^^ the 
values gur, gur (or hiir), mur, and ur, in which the progres- 
sive weakening and, in the end, the complete falling away of 
the original hard g, through ^ or A (= German ch) and m 
(= English ic) to the simple u is easily traced. We some- 
times meet, however, with changes that are more difficult to 
understand, as, for instance, those of the character JSlT, 
which haa the values of gis, his, mm {=wti8), and tis. The 
g, however, was probably palatal, hence its change to s 
(=Eng. ah, compare the different pronunciations of the 
German words ich, euch, etc.). In other mouths, however, 
instead of becoming s, it passed through the same changes as 
the word gur, given above, to m (=tr), and ultimately fell 
away altogether. The polyphony of the characters, as used 
by the Assyrians, arises, in some measure, from these dialectic 

94 THE president's annual address for 1882. 

changes, the values being taken by the Babylonians and 
Assyrians almost indiscriminately from the two dialects, 
Akkadian and Sumerian. 

''As such a subject as the dialects of the Akkadian lan- 
guage is quite new to the members of the Philological 
Society, it may be of interest to give here specimens of these 
dialects, with short remarks thereon. The following extracts 
will give a slight idea of the nature of the language, and the 
remarks will show something of the difficulties which the 
student has to contend with — difficulties, however, which 
might not exist at all if we had complete texts to study, 
instead of the mere shards of which the greater part of them 
too often consists. 


Example of the Akkadian Language. 

"1. En: As gula galla-kime lu-ra 

Incantation : A curse evil demonlike upon a man 
is fixed, 

"2, nig-me-gar lahba-kit mu^d-na garra 

what a voice makes of evil over him is fixed, 

"3. nig-tne-gar nu duga mugd-na garra 

what a voice makes not good over him is fixed. 

"4. As ^ula sag-ba saga-giggam 

The curse evil (is) the disease of head-sickness (i.^. 

"5, (lu) gisgallU'bi as gula lu-l^ime summa 
That man the curse evil lamblike slaughters. 

"6. dingirdni sudna badu 

his god from his body has departed 

"7. ama-Nindni sa-kusa^ maSa-su badagub 
his goddess consoling by (his) side sits down 

1 Lit. "heart-resting.'* 



'*8. nig-me-gara gi-kime bandul 

what a Yoice makes garmentlike covers him (and) 
clings (to him). 

" Incantation : * An evil curse, like a demon, has fixed 
npon a man, a voice of evil has fixed upon him, a voice 
which is not good has fixed upon him. The evil curse is 
the disease of madness. The evil curse slaughters that man 
like a lamb, his god is departed from his body, his consoling 
goddess sits down by his side,^ the evil voice covers him like 
a garment and clings to him.' 

^ nu-mundadi 

a house is not equal 

" Example of the Sumerian Language. 

" 1. {dimmer) Mu-sibba-nd d-zu-ta d 

Nebo, with thy power a power 

is not equal 

"2. E'zu E'zida 

(with) thy house, E-zida, 

" 3. UrU'ZU Bad'8iaba(Jci) uru nu-mundadi 

(with) thy city, Borsippa, a city is not equal 

*' 4. Asa-zu TinHr{ki)ta 

with thy field, Babylon, 


" 6. ditga-zu ana-dim nu-kunnida ana 

thy command, heavenlike, not it changes (in) heaven 
zae magmen? 
thou supreme art. 


a field is not equal 

* The Assyrian version of the above 
is as follows : Arrat limuttim kima 
galle ana nisi ittaskan, kCLlu kuru eli-Su 
itta^an, killu la tabu eli-su ittaskan. 
Arrat limuttim mdmtt ^*u. Amelu 
Suatum arrat limuttim kima immeri 
itbuh-§u, ili-§u ina zumri-su ittest, 
i^tar-su mu^taltum ina dhati ittaziz, 
kulu kdru kima ^ub&tim iktum-su-ma 

' Instead of being within him. 

^ The Assyrian is as follows : Nabii, 
itti emuki-ka emul^u CLl isannan ; itti 
biti-ka, E-zida, bitu ill iSannan; itti 
dli-ka, Bar-sip(ki), ^u ul iSannan; 
itti e^-ka, Babilim, £klu ill iSannan ; 

kibit-ka, kima Samd, id 

uttakkar, ina Same attam firat ! 

96 THE president's annual address for 1882. 

" * Nebo, no power is equal to thy power; no house is equal 


to E-zida, thy house ; no city is equal to Borsippa, thy 

city ; no land is equal to Babylon, thy land 

thy command, heavenlike, changes not, in heaven thou art 
supreme ! ' 

"The dialectic peculiarities of the latter example are as 
follows : — 

" The use, in the first line, of the form §ibba or §iba for the 
Akkadian duga * good ' ^ (see line three of the Akkadian 
extract) ; the peculiar spelling, Badaiaha for the Akkadian 
form Bar-siba (Borsippa) in the third line ; and dim for Icime 
(or gim) ' like,' in the sixth line. In the third line also it 
would be better, perhaps, to read erif^ as the Sumerian form 
of the word for ' city ' than urn. The other peculiarities of 
this example are more of grammatical forms than of change 
of letters. The real differences of grammar, however, are 
hard to detect, on account of our ignorance of these 
languages. It will be seen, nevertheless, that the particle 
'ta * with,* is here left out in two of the lines, but in Akka- 
dian it would have been, most likely, repeated every time. 
To the root kur ' to change ' is added, instead of a prefix, 
which the Akkadian dialect preferred, the suffix -da, which is 
here evidently the pronoun. Da as a prefix enters into the 
composition of the word mun-da-di, where we have mun, 
evidently another form of men Uo be ' (compare ma^-men in 
line 6), here used, however, with a pronominal force, the 
inserted pronoun da^ and the verbal root di * to rival.' 

'* One of the principal difficulties of these early Meso- 
potamian languages is the verb. Not only could it be 
expressed by the simple root (as gara * to make ' in lines 
2 and 3 of the Akkadian example, given above), but to it 
might be added a whole row of prefixes, expressing the 
persons (both subject and object), or the passive, causative, 
or intensive idea. These prefixes generally express the 
subject and the object, the former being inserted, as a rule, 

* In this case it forms part of the changes above, p. 93). The fall 
name of the god Nebo in Sumerian. Akkadian form of the word was guru» 

* Or meriy (see the list of soimd- 




between the object and the root, as, for instance, in the word 
f «/d, which means : ' he weighed,' the form with a direct 
object being innanla (for inna-inld) * he weighed it/ So also 
mtiezu or ingaezu is *thou knowest it,' literally *it thou 
knowest ' ; immungama {inimu-in-gama) * he has bowed down 
before me ' (lit. ' me he has bowed down to ') ; the subject 
being, in all these examples, between the direct object and 
the verb. The above, however, show only some of the 
simpler forms, for we meet, in many cases, with verbal roots 
having at the beginning long clusters of prefixes^ whose 
precise meaning it is at present impossible to determine. 

" Of the other dialects very little is at present known, but 
some examples of the Kassite language, preserved in a few 

y names of kings, will give materials for comparison. From 
these we learn that the Akkadian for ' man,' hiy in Sumerian 

jj mulu, was in Kassite meliy a form from which, evidently, 
the Semitic Babylonian word amelu *man,' with which we 

J are familiar in the well-known name Amel-Marduk (Evil- 
Merodach) ' Man (or servant) of the god Marduk,' came. 
Also the name of the goddess Gula, which is another form of 
the Akkadian gala 'great,' appears in Kassite as Gall (read 
JSTiali), where we have an interesting example of the soften- 
ing of the initial g. Of other comparisons there are very 
few, but a connexion may be traced between the Kassite 
\ gira and the Akkadian kara (both rendered, in Assyrian, by 

ec/irii), and between the Kassite J^ ]J*^1 {dur) and the 

I Sumerian ^t^tttt {dun) 'shepherd,' 'prince,' and a few 
.{ other words. 

! " Of great importance for the determining of the nature of 

the ancient languages of Chaldea, Akkadian and Sumerian, 
is the question as to what was the original seat of these 
peoples. The opinion hitherto entertained by scholars is 
that the Akkadians and Sumerians of the Babylonian and 
Assyrian inscriptions came from the eastern highlands, Elam 

* A good example are the words zae- enough, but -why an « is prefixed to 

sinya-mennej the meaning of which is the incorporated object inffa cannot, 

simply *'thou art." The meaning of at present, be explained, 
the words zae and u>enne is clear 

FMl. Tram. 1882-3-4. 7 

98 THB president's annual address for 1882. 

and Media. Kecent discoveries, however, point rather to 
the region around Cappadocia as their first home. 

"The reason for supposing that the neighbourhood of 
Elam was the original dwelling-place of the ancient Akka- 
dians was founded upon the fact that the monogram for the 
word ' horse * is t^T^ V" &TT ^^ *^^* language. This group 
Assyriologists translated as 'animal (t^T^) of the east 

( V" ^tfl )/ ai^d with it was connected the Arabic word ^1 
* horse/ which was compared with the proper name 
\Jt4j^ 'Persia/ and explained as *the Persian animal.' 

This explanation, however, must be admitted as rather forced, 
for it by no means follows that, because the Arabic name 
for 'horse' and the Arabic form of the word ' Persia ' contain 
the same radical letters, that therefore the horse came from 
Persia. The explanation of the Akkadian compound, also, 
is hardly satisfactory, for the word for * east ' in that lan- 
guage is always written with the sign -^^l" ' ^^^^ ' ^ ^ 
prefix. The word for * horse ' therefore means literally * the 
animal of the country,' and may be explained as the animal 
of the land from which the Akkadians came. The reason 

why the group -^4f ^^ ^^TT came to mean * the east wind ' 
is most likely to be found in the fact that the sign <^ (with 
lengthening "X"^ ^^H ^^^'^('^t to be read liurd) means not 
only ' land,' but also * mountain,' and ^41" V" B^Tf ^ there- 
fore to be explained as ' the wind of the mountainous region,' 
namely, the country to the east of Babylonia. 

"The Akkadians, therefore, most likely, came from the 
region of Cappadocia,^ a district of old celebrated for its 
horses. What direction they took after leaving their original 
home is uncertain, but it is most likely that they journeyed 
eastwards until they reached the district of Eassi, where a 
part of them settled, and became the Eossseans of the Greek 
writers. The migration, however, was continued, but in a 
■outhem direction, until they reached the shores of the 

^ ' k in is efidentlj to be oonnected with tii« 

Omh of the Snd ohtptor of Qenflrii. 



Persian Gulf (then much farther inland than now). There 
they settled, and gradually mingled with the original Semitic 
inhabitants of the country, the Akkadians occupying northern 
Babylonia, and the Sumerians the south, and on that account 
these districts were called Akkad^ and Sumer respectively. 
The new-comers, however, did not enter the country empty- 
handed, for they brought with them their agriculture, 
science, art, and religion, which they taught to the less- 
civilized Semitic Babylonians whom they found there. The 
Akkadian and Sumerian languages, however, in course of 
time died out before the more vigorous and practical Semitic 
Babylonian, the old languages being retained as classic 
tongues, the ideographs of which were used by the Assyrians 
and Babylonians as a kind of secret writing, but short 
historical inscriptions were sometimes written in pure Akka- 
dian. When the inhabitants of Babylonia first began, 
probably about 2000 B.C., in the reign of Gammurabi, to send 
out more extensive colonies northwards, forming what became 
afterwards the kingdom of Assyria, the Akkadian and 
Semitic Babylonian languages were both in use, in about 
equal proportion. Akkadian seems to have become quite 
extinct, however, about 1000 b.c. It is a curious fact that, 
while the Semitic Babylonian languages incorporated a great 
many Akkadian and Sumerian words, these languages seem 
to have been kept quite pure. Not only, however, did the 
Babylonian, but also the Hebrew, Arabic, and other Semitic 
languages, borrow words from Akkadian and Sumerian, so 
that we have, in these tongues, a valuable by-help in the 
science of Semitic philology, and, in the history of the people 
who spoke them, most important confirmations of the truth 
of the Bible narratives.^ 

" Such is a short sketch of the progress and the brilliant 
results of the researches that have been made in the difficult 

1 The Akkadian inhabitants of the or to suppose that Nimrod, the son of 

liod called it Ur. Cosh, was an Ethiopian, nor did the 

' In ooDflequence of the identification Hittitcs bring horses to Solomon from 

of the country called Cappadocia with Ethiopia, but from that northern Cush 

Cu^ tfaeie ii now no need to seek in which seems to hare been the original 

TOiii^ l2io conne of the ri?er Gihon, home of the Akkadian race. 

100 THE president's ANNUAL ADDRESS FOR 1882. 

study of the mystic lore of the old-time Chaldeans, so long 
hidden, and only in late years brought to light. The work, 
however, is constantly going on, pushed forward by earnest 
students, and there is no doubt that, for the yec^rs to come, 
the results will be as brilliant as those of the past few years. 
It is to be hoped, however, that the government will carry 
on, with a liberal hand, the excavations in these most in- 
teresting districts, so that we may complete, as far as we can, 
the documents, now so fragmentary, which contain the im- 
portant records which those old Babylonians and Assyrians 
have bequeathed to us." 

It gives me great pleasure to be able to insert in this 
place, three concise but important reports by Mr. H. Sweet 
on subjects to which he has paid special attention, and which 
my own work during the last year, would not have allowed 
me to touch. They relate to General Phonetics, General 
Philology, etc.. Special Germanic and English Philology, all 
subjects of particular interest to our Society, which will feel 
itself much indebted to Mr. Sweet for these most acceptable 

Report on Phonetics, by Henry Sweet, Esq., M.A., 
Vice-President (formerly President). 

** The contributions to phonetics, both general and special, 
that have appeared during the last few years, are both 
numerous and important. 

" Few works have been so anxiously expected as the pro- 
raised revision of Visible Speech by the author. The progress 
of phonetics has been so great during the fourteen years 
that have elapsed since the appearance of that epoch-making 
work — a progress due, in great measure, to the influence of 
Visible Speech itself — ^and Mr. Bell's views have been sub- 
jected to such criticism both by friend and foe, that great 
curiosity was felt as to how he would meet these changed 


conditions. The book has at last appeared/ and, I regret 
much to say, must be pronounced a disappointing one. 
Those who, like myself, after a long study of Visible Speech, 
have been forced to the conclusion that the system not only 
admits of, but urgently requires supplementing and revision, 
think they have a right to expect something more than a 
mere restatement of the matter contained in the inaugural 
edition. In fact, the idea of popularizing Visible Speech is 
an unfortunate one, and until the system has been completely 
tested, and has assumed a permanent form, generally ap- 
proved of by scientific phoneticians, the attempt to popularize 
it seems more likely to do harm than good. 

" It cannot be denied that Mr, Bell has improved his 
Visible Speech typography, and that he has so far profited, 
by criticism as to make his exposition less dryly schematic, 
Dor can it be denied that he has made it clearer by the more 
liberal use of key-words. He has also reversed the former 
values of the symbols for s and sA, and of those for the front- 
point and point- front consonants, the last being now identi- 
fied by him with English th. The only information we 
receive about the grounds of this change is (p. 32), that 
* experience has shown that the present arrangement is 
preferable.' I miss detailed argument here especially, for 
the good reason that I have strong doubts as to the correct- 
ness of the change as regards s and «/*, and still believe that 
Mr. Bell's original analysis is the most correct one yet 
published, with the slight modifications made in my Hand- 
book of Phonetics (p. 40). His analysis of the ordinary 
English th and / as divided consonants is, I believe, not 
accepted by any one but the author, and is evidently due to 
an attempt to maintain the symmetry of a defective conso- 
nant-system. In my paper on Sound- Notation (Trans. 
1880-1, II.) I suggested a symbol for the teeth, formed by 
a simple modification of existing V.S. symbols, as a necessary 

^ Sounds and their relations, a com- English in varions styles, and of other 

plete manual of universal alphabetics ; languages and dialects, by Alex. Mel- 

illustrated by means of Visible Speech : ville Bell, F.E.I.S., etc. Londou, 

and exhibiting the pronunciation of Triibner & Co., 1882. 

102 THE president's ANNUAL ADDRESS FOR 1882. 

supplement to the original consonant-system, which would 
enable us to put th and/ into their natural places as point- 
teeth and lip-teeth consonants respectively. This suggestion 
has probably been made by others as well, for Mr. Bell 
indulges (p. 92 foil.) in a polemic of some length against it, 
but without mentioning any names. His main contention is 
that it is practically useless to symbolize the fixed parts of 
the mouth. The author's son, Mr. A. G. Bell, and his 
fellow- workers in America, are not only of the same opinion 
as I am, but think I have not gone far enough. 

" But it is pleasanter to dwell on the merits than on the 
defects of Mr. Bell's work. His analysis of the vowels is, 
indeed, one of the really great achievements of modern science, 
and I am glad to think that my Handbook has been the 
means of introducing it to the notice of Continental students. 
The German edition of Storm's English Philology} in which 
the valuable section on ^ general phonetics,' containing a full 
account of the work done by the English school with Ellis 
and Bell at their head, has been made accessible to a larger 
circle of readers than it was in the original Norwegian 
edition, has contributed greatly to the same end. 

** Sievers, the leading German phonetician, in the second 
edition of his IntrodHction to the phonology of the Indo* 
germanic languages} has very generously acknowledged his 
obligations to what he justly calls the * English- Scandina- 
vian' school of phonetics. He says (Preface, p. v) : 'I must 
openly confess that even the first edition of my book would 
have received a materially different form if I had at that 
time been acquainted with, or had utilized better, the two 
works which have founded modern phonetics — Bell's Visible 
Speech^ and Ellis's Early English Pronunciation.^ Again, 
'I mention by way of example the important theory of 
transition-sounds or '* glides,'* of which I had given only a 

* Engrlische Philologie : anleitung fuhranff Id das studium der lautlelire 

zum wisaenschaftlichen studium dor en- der indogermanischen sprachen, von 

glischeu sprache, von Johan Storm, Eduard Sievers. Zweite wesentlich 

vom vorfasser fiir das deutsche pub- umgearbeitete und vermehrte auflage 

likura bearbeitet. I. Die lebende der '* Orundzuge der Lautphysiologie?* 

sprache. Hcilbronn, Henninger, 1881. Leipzig, Breitkopf und HArtel, 1881. 

' Grundziige der Phonctik zur ein- 


few scanty hints, while the whole system of them had been 
made clear by Ellis and Bell for years past.* 

" It is satisfactory to think, not only that English pho- 
neticians are thus paying back the large debt they owe to 
German science, but that in this way we are beginning to 
lay the foundations of a really international school of 
phonetics, for, as I have said elsewhere (Spoken Swedish, 
Trans. 1877-9, p. 542), phonology without comparison is a 
sheer impossibility ; and as no one can acquire a thorough 
knowledge of the sounds of more than comparatively few 
languages, each investigator bringing, according to his 
nationality, special qualifications and disqualifications to the 
task of observing, comparing, and analyzing the sounds of 
the group he is dealing with, it is absolutely necessary that 
he should constantly compare his results with those of others. 
It is now an axiom with phoneticians that no one can under- 
stand the sounds of his own language unless he is able to 
compare them with those of several others. Often, indeed, 
some of the sounds of a language are more correctly appre- 
ciated by foreigners than by natives. 

"An investigation of the sounds of a language by a 
foreigner is thus, though likely enough to contain errors of 
detail, tolerably sure to notice points which may escape 
native observers. Even if it does nothing more than 
stimulate natives to do the work over again in a fuller 
and more accurate form, it is amply justified. Kurschat's 
Lithuanian grammar, the work of a native, is no doubt a 
great improvement on that of the German Schleicher, but 
it is very doubtful whether it would ever have been under- 
taken without the imjentive of Schleicher's example. In 
the same way I am glad to find that my above-mentioned 
essay on spoken Swedish has induced one of the most 
promising of Prof. Storm's Norwegian pupils to write a 
similar treatise on the phonology of the spoken educated 
Norse,^ which very closely resembles Swedish. Strange to 
say, this is the first scientifically accurate and detailed 

* Bidra? til dansk-norskens lydlaere, og Voss's skoles indbydelsesskrift for 
af K. Brekke. Separataftryk af Aars 1881. Kristiania, FabritiuB, 1881. 

104 THE president's ANNUAL ADDRESS FOR 1882. , 

account, by a native, of the pronunciation of any standard 
language, as opposed to a dialect, that has yet appeared. 
"When the same work has been done for English, French, 
German, and other European languages, we shall be able 
to say that the foundations of a rational practical study of 
these languages — which at present do not exist — have been 
laid. The author is a thorough-going adherent of the 
English school ; he even retains the English names of the 
vowels — ' high-front-narrow,' etc. 

"On the other hand. Prof. Trautmann, of Bonn, in a review 
of Sievers's Lautphysiologie (Anglia, iv. 2, p. 56, foil.), has 
made a fierce attack on the English school, and on those of 
his degenerate countrymen who have confessed to having 
learnt something from it. The reckless, almost boyish, 
conceit of Trautmann's tone has certainly excited more 
amusement than indignation among his adversaries, but is 
nevertheless to be deplored. I have criticized Trautmann's 
attack, and, I think, refuted it in a review of Storm's 
Englische Philologie in the Gottinger gelehrte anzeigen 
(1881, No. 44), and need not go into details here. Anyhow, 
we shall all be glad to see Trautmann's promised work on 
'Sounds in general, and those of French, English, and 
German in particular,' and to learn from it what is to be 
learnt, although most of us will think that he has made 
a bad beginning to his phonetic career. 

"Techmer, in his Phonetik,^ has also gone a way of his 
own, but what that way really is, or what his object was in 
publishing this elaborato and expensive work, I am unable 
to say. The book consists of a mass of anatomical details, 
many of which have scarcely the remotest bearing on 
phonetics, with remarks on acoustics, psychology, the origin 
of language, and other general questions, together with a 
mass of undigested quotations from the most incongruous 
authorities. The author's views on phonetics proper are 
expressed in the vaguest and most abstract way, and he has 

^ Phonftik : lur Torgleiohenden Anmerbiiigcn. II. Atlas. Leipzig, 
pb^ol(]^i(> dor ittimme und tfpniche, Engelmann, 1880. 
Ton Dr. F. Teohmor. I. T«xt und 


added little or nothing to our knowledge of the actual sounds 
of language. Not a single key-word is given to explain 
what sound the author means by * open e/ etc. Nor is there 
any clear definition of the author's standpoint compared 
with that of his predecessors. Although the work no doubt 
contains many hints which may be useful to specialists, it is 
an entire failure as a guide to general phonetics. 

" Lastly, I may call attention to a short essay on the 
* Arrangement of the Vowels * by G. Michaelis.^ The main 
object of the work is the comparison of Bell's check-board 
tabulation of tlie vowels with the older triangular arrange- 
ment still prevalent in Germany, and a vindication of the 
latter, but the really valuable part of it is the excellent 
historical sketch of the development of vowel- theories from 
Roman times till the present day." 

Report on General Philology, by Henry Sweet, Esq., 
M.A., Vice-President (formerly President). 

" The most important work on general philology that has 
appeared of late years is perhaps Paul's Principles of the 
History of Language,^ in which, following mainly the psycho- 
logical views of Steinthal, he has summed up the views on 
the growth of language which have been lately developed 
among the younger school of German philologists, in many 
cases carrying them out more rigorously and consistently, 
and adding many original ideas of his own, and has produced 
a comprehensive, though necessaril}'' somewhat curtailed, 
outline of the general principles which govern the life and 
growth of language in general. What strikes one most in 
the work is its extreme soundness; it inspires the reader 
with a feeling of confidence, not only in the author's 
knowledge of the facts, but also in his logical and critical 
handling of them. 

* Ueber die anordnnn^ der vokale, von nermann Paul, professor dcr 
▼on G. Michaelis [AbdrucK aus Herrigs deutschen sprache und literatur an 
Archiv, Bd. 64 und 65], Berlin, Bar- der universitat Freiburg. Hallo, 
ihol, 1881. Xiemeyer, 1880. 

* Principien der sprachgeschichte, 

106 THE president's ANNUAL ADDRESS FOR 1882. 

" In his introductory chapters lie argues the necessity 
of a general theoretical science of language, discusses the 
relation of this science to other branches of knowledge, and 
makes some general remarks on the nature of linguistic 
development, laying special stress on the fact that the spoken 
word or sound has no history — that changes are not in words, 
but in the organs and organisms, physical and mental, which 
produce those words. In treating of the laws of sound- 
change, he argues that, j ust as in writing, one and the same 
person never forms any two letters identically alike, so also 
in speaking it is impossible to avoid a slight shifting of the 
positions and actions by which we form a sound, which 
cluiuges are only partially controlled by the influence of the 
spoken sound. [Curiously enough, Paul does not seem to 
acknowledge the much more potent cause of change which 
exists in tlie fact that one generation can learn the sounds of 
tlie preceding one by imitation only. It is an open question 
whether the modifications made by the individual in a sound 
he has once learnt, independently of imitation of those 
around him, are not too infinitesimal to have any appreciable 
effect.] He then proceeds to deal with the formation of 
those associated groups of sounds and ideas which constitute 
words and sentences; with the destruction and confusion 
caused in these groups by changes of sound and meaning ; 
and with the reaction by moans of analogical formation. 
[Thus, to take an English example, the sound-change 
known as 'mutation' obscured the relation between the 
Old English gold and the adjective gylden (the original 
forms having been gulpo^ gulpvw), hwt in Modem Eng- 
lish, gilden has been made into gohlen by the analogy 
of goklf and the etymological relation has thus been made 
as clear as it was at the beginning.] Paul well says 
(p. 100): 'We can hardly realize to what an extent the 
( onneotednesSy oonfusion, and unintelligibility of language 
yn d 1| if it had to endure patiently all the ravages of 

ihoat the possibility of any reaction against 

ooeeda to show that the disconnecting, 

ind- and other changes also have 


a positive, creative value, for it is only by ' isolation ' that 
proper names and pronouns (such as French on from homo) 
can be developed out of nouns, etc. He then proceeds to 
treat of the development of the parts of speech from this 
point of view. The concluding chapters treat of the develop- 
ment of dialects, the relation between written and spoken 
IsJigu&ge, and between standard languages and dialects. 

" This work forms a striking contrast to the productions 
of our own 'Drawing-room' school, of which Prof. Max 
Miiller, with his fascinating and facile pen, is both the 
founder and still the worthiest representative. Perhaps, 
indeed, some of those whose mental digestions have not been 
hopelessly impaired by the toflFy and Turkish delight served 
up to them in the pages of Prof. Miiller and his numerous 
followers, will turn with something like a sigh of relief to 
the plain loaf of whole-meal bread provided by Prof. Paul, 
. tough as its crust undoubtedly is. Perhaps, too, those who 
have vainly tried to grasp the brilliant, but unsubstantial 
theories of what may be called the * Soap-bubble * school, will 
find the severely consistent logic of Prof. Paul more satisfy- 
ing in the end, much as they may be exasperated by the 
exaggeratedly German abstractness and cumbrousness of his 

"While on the subject of English popular philology, I 
would call attention to the chapters on language in Dr. 
Tyler's Anthropology ^ as being among the best of their kind 
that have been published in England. Not only are the 
details on the deaf-and-dumb gesture language of great value 
to the specialist, but the treatment of the whole subject 
strikes me as remarkably sound and clear. 

"The fourth volume of the series of Indogermanic 
grammars headed by Sievers's Phonetik is Delbriick's Intro- 
duction to the Study of Language} The first part of this 
short work is a sketch of the history of Arian philology from 

* Anthropology : an introduction to ein beitrag zur geschichte und methodik 

file itm^ of man and ciyilization, by der vergleicheudeu sprachforschung, 

K. B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.K.S. Lon- von B. Delbruck. Leipzig, Breitkopf 

doB, Macmillan^ 1881. und Hartel, 1880. 

> Einkitimg in das sprachstudium : 

108 THE president's ANNUAL ADDRESS FOR 1882. 

Bopp to the present time, showing how the problems which 
are now engaging the attention of philologists have developed 
themselves. Bopp, his contemporaries and successors down 
to Schleicher, and Schleicher himself, are treated of in 
separate chapters, followed by one which deals with modern 
tendencies. These last are summed up by the author as 
follows : 1) the interest in the history and origin of inflexion 
decreases ; 2) it is acknowledged that the separate languages 
(Greek, Latin, etc.) had no power of making new words and 
forms, except by analogy ; 3) increased strictness in applying 
sound-laws, culminating in the axiom (flrst stated, ap- 
parently, by Leskien) that sound-laws admit of no exception, 
and that apparent exceptions are due to the workings of 
analogy; 4) recognition of the importance of living lan- 
guages. The second part deals with the problems themselves, 
namely, Bopp's agglutinative theory, which is declared to be 
the only plausible one against Westphal's evolution theory and 
Ludwig's adaptation theory ; the various questions connected 
with sound-laws ; and lastly with the genealogical relations 
of the separate languages. The best part of the book is 
undoubtedly the historical. As a whole, it is hardly full 
enough to serve as an efficient guide to the student. The 
author often gives his own conclusions in too dogmatic— 
often dogmatically sceptical — a way, and without accurate 
references to the works he is criticizing, although half the 
value of an introduction like this consists in its guiding the 
beginner and outsider to the exact places where information 
and suggestions are to be found, help which even the 
specialist is often glad of. 

"One branch of Arian philology which Delbriick has 
made peculiarly his own is that of comparative syntax. The 
four volumes of his St/ntucticai Investigations ^ now published 
have indeed laid the foundations of the science not only for 
the Arian family, but for language in general. In the third 

* Syntaktische forschungen, von B. tempuslebre, 1877. III. Die altin^ 

Delbriick. Halle, Buchhandlung des discne wortfolge aus dem Qatapatha- 

Waisonhauses. I. Der gcbrauch des brabmapa dargestellt, 1878. Iv. Die 

conjunctirs und optatiy8 in saoHkrit und grundlagen der griechiscben ayntax, 

grieobiflcben, 1871. II. Altdndiscbe 1879. 


vol. he shows (though partly anticipated by Bergaigne, as 
he himself points out) that parent Arian had already 
developed a perfectly definite word-order, so that each 
separate language received not only its words ready-made, 
but also, to a great extent, its sentences, the primitive order 
having been faithfully preserved in the oldest Sanskrit prose 
— that of the fore-classical brdhmanas. The fourth volume 


18 of peculiar interest to all philologists. In it the more 
certain results of comparative syntactology, as far as they 
apply to Greek, are summed up much in the same way as 
Curtius has summed up the results of the comparative study 
of the formal side of the language in his well-known 
Griechtsche etymologie, 

"Passing from general principles to their application to 
the detailed investigation of the structure of each Arian 
language separately, one is simply appalled by the vast mass 
of undigested, scattered, and conflicting investigations the 
student has to try and master. Schleicher's Compendium is 
now so utterly antiquated that no one thinks of using it 
except for the sake of its word-lists and inflection tables, and 
in the present revolutionary state of all things philological, 
it is hopeless expecting any real philologist to make himself 
the butt of his fellows by attempting to supersede it. The 
only feasible plan is evidently that of a series of grammars 
of each language on a uniform plan. When the series of 
ludogermanic grammars (see Trans. 1877-9, p. 383) was 
first announced, it was hoped that the promise of their 
appearance *in quick succession' would be fulfilled more 
literally than has been the case. Whitney's Sanskrit 
Grammar (to which I shall return again) worthily opened 
the series, and was followed the next year by Gustav Meyer's 
Griechtsche gra/nmatik, but nothing more has appeared in the 
last two years, and I am told that, although the Slavonic 
grammar may be expected soon, the others are indefinitely 
behindhand — each one waiting for the other's investigations, 
and afraid to commit itself to doubtful views. 

"The Greek grammar — in accordance with the general plan 
of the series — confines itself to phonology and inflections, 

110 THE president's ANNUAL ADDRESS FOR 1882. 

but the Sanskrit one is on a totally different plan. Here the 
comparative method is kept in the background, and the 
treatment is almost purely descriptive, but, on the other 
hand, the grammar is complete, derivation and composition 
being treated almost with the same fulness as sounds and 
inflections, the leading facts of the syntax being also stated. 
But Whitney's is not only the first complete Sanskrit 
grammar that has been published — it is the first grammar 
that has been constructed on a rational historical plan. The 
author's main principles have been, ' to make a presentation 
of the facts of the language primarily as they show them- 
selves in use in the literature, and only secondarily as they 
are laid down by the native grammarians,' to include the 
fore-classical period, beginning with the Rig-veda, and ' to 
treat the language throughout as an accented one.' Of 
course, Whitney's grammar will not supersede the special 
study of the works of native grammarians, nor has it 
supplied the want of a comparative Sanskrit grammar, in 
which the less primitive features of the language (above all, 
its vowel-system) would be explained from the cognate 
languages ; but it has relegated the former to its proper 
place, and has, for the first time, made the latter a possible 

** It should never be forgotten that the comparative 
philologist approaches the study of Sanskrit in quite a 
diftorent way from the would-be Sanskrit specialist; the 
latter may, if he likes, resolve on devoting a lifetime to the 
native grtunmatical system, but he has no right to impose his 
Hpoi^iulty ou his comparative philology pupils, as is too 
iihtMi done. Now that the labours of Aufrecht, Grassmann, 
Whituoy and Delbriick have provided us with a romanized 
text-tHlitiou and glossary, a translation, a romanized grammar 
and ohrt^Mtomuthy of the oldest Sanskrit — so that its study is, 
in a mtmauro, popularized — wo are beginning to see that not 
tmly the gramnmtieal, but also the whole of the classical 
Huuttkrit Utt^ruture has for the comparative student only the 
ituiMindary value of a supplement to the older literature. It 
is only iVom the latter that a practical command of the 


accentuation and of the verbal forms — perhaps the two most 
valuable features of the language for the comparative 
philologist — can be gained, not to mention that it alone gives 
the key to comparative mythology and the origins of Hindu 
civilization. This suggests the question whether the mastery 
of classical Sanskrit is, after all, a necessary stepping-stone 
to the older language. This is a question which only 
experience can settle conclusively, but I think that a 
judicious selection of simple narrative pieces from the prose 
of the brdhmanas would prove the very best introduction to 
the language in general, while familiarizing the student with 
the only natural prose that it has. Hence it would be an 
easy step both backwards to the language of the Vedas, and 
forwards to the classical Sanskrit. The selections should, of 
course, be made from accented texts, and should be ac- 
companied with a special grammar and glossary. 

" Another question which Vedic studies cannot fail to bring 
prominently forward, is that of transliteration. The argu- 
ment that Sanskrit forms cannot be impressed on the memory 
by means of that alphabet through which we learn nearly all 
European languages applies only — ^if it applies at all — to 
that vicious method which masters a language, not by sound, 
but by eye. But the really fatal objection to the devanSgarl 
alphabet is that it is simply incapable of representing the 
sounds of the older language with even approximate 
accuracy. It is only the defects of this alphabet that forces 
us to write such monstrosities as drya^ niartya^ etc., in direct 
defiance of the metre, which everywhere requires dria^ mariia^ 
these being, as Sievers has shown (Zur accent- und lautlehre 
der germanischen sprachen, p. 89), not only the original 
Sanskrit, but also the original Arian (not ' Aryan ') forms. 
So also Vedic metre requires, as shown by Kuhn,^ the 
admission of short e and o before vowels, which, again, the 
conventional alphabet is incapable of representing. It is 
really time we had a metrically correct text of the Vedas in 
Boman spelling. 

^ Cp.Bloomfield' On non-diphthongal American Oriental Society, Oct. 26, 
e ana in Sanskrit,* in Proceedings of 1881. 

112 THE president's ANNUAL ADDRESS FOR 1882. 

" Outsiders, too, who can only give a limited time to the 
language, have a right to demand that the external diffi- 
culties of its study should be reduced to a minimum. 
andthevariousscotchandgermanbakersofthemetropolis is exas- 
perating, these peculiarities must, to say the least, retard the 
mastery of an unfamiliar one. 

"Not but that the other alphabets may not learn some- 
thing from the devauagarl. If it is a sensible feature of the 
latter invariably to mark the quantities, it cannot but be 
the reverse for Greek to mark those of only two Towels, and 
for Latin to mark none at all. But, again, if it is a rational 
practice to print Latin, Gothic, and Anglo-Saxon books in 
the alphabet at present in general use, and not in imitations 
of the manuscript hands in which they were originally 
written, it cannot but be an absurdity to persist in printing 
Greek in a special form of letters, which, besides, bear 
only a remote resemblance to those of the oldest MSS. I 
hope that, parallel with the present agitation for spelling- 
reform, we shall soon have a movement in favour of a general 
system of Roman transliteration on rational principles. 

" Of special investigations there is a large number, which 
I have neither ability nor space to mention here at length. 
The most important are, perhaps, those contained in Osthoff 
and Brugman's Morphological Lwestigatiom} The last volume 
(the fourth) contains a very important essay by Osthoff on 
Arian I and u (Die'tiefstufe im indogermanischen vokalismus), 
in which he has cleared up the mysterious fluctuation between 
long and short vowel in such pairs as Sanskrit mnu and 
Germanic sunuy Sanskrit jlwd and Greek hios hy explaining 
2, u as the intermediate stages between original eiy eu and 
their weakenings i and u. His view is that the change 
from diphthongs to long vowels took place originally in 
every syllable that had not full stress, that the length of 

1 Morphologische untorsuchungen Dr. K. Brujorraan. Leipzig, Ilirzel, 4 
auf dera gebiete dur indogermanischen voIp., 1878-81. 
tjprachen, von Dr. II. Ustholf und 


these contractions was preserved where the syllable had a se- 
condary stress, while they were shortened to i and u wherever 
the syllable lost its stress altogether. He assumes that a 
syllable might have different degrees of stress according 
to its position in the sentence and the degree of stress of 
any syllable that preceded it, so that duplicates arose, only 
one of which was often preserved in the later languages. 
This view has much to recommend it, but cannot as yet be 
accepted as fully established. I certainly agree with Osthoff 
in rejecting the ordinary view which disassociates pitch and 
force, but I feel doubtful whether parent Arian really made 
such delicate discriminations in stress as is implied by his 
theory. But the facts themselves he has certainly estab- 
lished, as also a formerly disputed one, namely, that a/-roots, 
such as aidh ' burn,' undergo the same weakening as ^«- roots, 
as shown in Sanskrit Idhriya, Greek ithards, etc. He also 
shows very clearly the impossibility of explaining Arian a as 
e + a consonantal element, and assumes three distinct series, 
each with its three stages, dependant (as he assumes) on 
strong, medium, and weak stress respectively : — 














01 t t ou u u 

" He finds the o-series in such Greek presents as othomai 
compared with peiomai, oik/iomai with leipOy kroiib with 

"In an article in P. u. B. Beitrage (vol. vii. 1880, Die ent- 
stehung des o) H. Moller has explained the three stages ^, o, 
and loss of vowel, as due solely to the influence of pitch- 
accent. His view is that original a became e when it had 
the acute accent (Sanskrit uddtta), o when it had the circum- 
flex (independant svarita), and was dropt when it had only 
the grave accent (enclitic svarita). He would thus refer 
such a form as ecwozuljiiiin eqims (-os) back to original *dcw& 
(or dctcdy as he would write it). 

" Without attempting to go into further details, I will only 
remark that this theory, in so far as it explains the change 

Phil. Tram. 18S2.3-i. 8 

114 THE president's ANNUAL ADDRESS FOR 1882. 

from the neutral a to the clear e (of course, through the (b of 
English man) as due to raised pitch, and that of a to o as due 
to lowered pitch, has really given the best explanation of 
these phenomena as yet published, while, on the other hand, 
the dropping of the vowel in krid, etc., can hardly be 
explained except on the theory of stress-gradation. Probably 
both views must be accepted and harmonized. It seems 
certain that parent Arian had fixed pitch-accent, and it is in 
the highest degree probable (even on purely a-priori grounds) 
that gradations of stress were associated with the pitch- 

''A question of great morphological importance has been 
brought forward by these new theories, namely, that of the re- 
lation of roots and stems. Fick was the first (Bezzenberger's 
Beitrage I.) ^ to question the existence of a ' theme- vowel,* 
and to explain the o and e of hippos^ hippe, etc., as constituting 
part of the root. This view has been taken up by Paul, 
MoUer, and lastly by Eogel (P. u. B. B. viii. 1880, Qegen 
nasalis sonans). The general result arrived at is that the 
Arian root was originally (when uncompounded with other 
roots) dissyllabic, always ending in a vowel, all the vowels 
in a root being capable of the three ' gradations,' so that the 
second vowel of hippos is to that of hippe as the first oiphdrm 
is to that o{ ph^ro, while the dropping of the second vowel in 
the so-called root-stems, such as pad-, is paralleled by the 
dropping of the original root- vowel of krid, etc. 

" This view is so far from being new to me, that I have 
simply never been able to realize the possibility of the con- 
ventional one, according to which the primitive Arians first 
discoursed in monosyllabic * roots,' such as bhar, dam, then 
(for no apparent reason) made them into ' stems ' by sticking 
on a * demonstrative ' a (as if they were not overburdened by 
demonstrative roots already), and, lastl}', raised these stems 
to the dignity of 'words' by adding inflections. I have 
always seen fossilized Arian roots (or fore-inflectional words) 
in vocatives and imperatives, such as hippe, ph^re, and re- 

* I can only quote this article second-hand. 



garded hippo- in hippo-mak/ios, etc., as a fossilized Arian 
wordy all compounds being nothing else but fragments of 
fore-inflectional sentences." 

Report on Germanic and English Philology, by Henry 
Sweet, Esq., M.A., Vice-President (formerly Pre- 

" All Germanic students are anxiously awaiting Sievers's 
Deutsche Oratntnatik, which will form one of the above- 
mentioned series of Indogermanic grammars, but it is to be 
feared they will have to wait some time. The main cause of 
the delay is the want of a reliable collection of the Oldest 
English texts — a want, however, which ray forthcoming 
edition will soon supply. Of all the contributors to the 
series, Sievers certainly has the most formidable task. The 
Germanist has none of the helps which ancient and modem 
scholarship afford to the Sankritist and classical philologist : 
he has laboriously to recover every word and form from the 
manuscripts themselves, and to construct his grammars and 
dictionaries on this uncertain and shifting basis. Nor has 
he, like the Romanist, the advantage of a definite back- 
ground. It was, indeed, for a long time assumed that 
Gothic practically represented the Germanic parent lan- 
guage, but this view is now abandoned, having proved the 
source of many errors. Such recent discoveries as Vomer's 
law have taught us two lessons : 1) not to reason about any 
Germanic form or word till we have traced it through all the 
Germanic languages, and 2) that we must always be pre- 
pared to seek the explanation of Germanic forms in the 
older Arian languages. Thus, for a sound historical study, 
even of a single language like Old English, it is not enough 
to trace the forms to their Gothic equivalents, or even 
through all the other Germanic languages, for the real key 
may be a Greek, Sanskrit, Slavonic, or even Celtic form. It 
is not, of course, possible to get a practical knowledge of all 
these languages, but that general knowledge of their struc- 
ture, which will enable the investigator to utilize the material 



collected in grammars and dictionaries, can and must be 
mastered by all historical students of Old English, or any 
other old Germanic language. 

" Meanwhile, the series of short, purely descriptive gram- 
mars edited by Prof. W. Braune, are a great boon, even to 
advanced students.^ 

" Paul and Braune's Beit rage zur geschichte der deutschen 
sprache und literatur, of which the eighth volume is now 
appearing, still continues to be the chief organ of the most 
advanced school of Germanic philologists. 

" Among general investigations which have been published 
separately may be specially mentioned von Bahder's investi- 
gation of the history of verbal abstract nouns,^ as a valuable 
contribution to the scarcely touched subject of Germanic 
derivative- formation. 

" Not attempting to enumerate the many text-editions 
published every year in Germany, I may pass on to Denmark, 
to notice the foundation of an Old-Norse text society.^ The 
subscription is a very moderate one (6s. yearly), and every 
English philologist ought to support this society — unless, 
indeed, he is already a member of all the six societies 
founded in this country by our worthy Hon. Secretary, 
Mr. Furnivall. 

" The Swedish Dialect Society is continuing its work with 
unabated vigour. The editor of its periodical,* Kand. J. A. 
Lundell, has lately been appointed lecturer in phonetics at 

^ Sammlung kurzer grammatiken ger- 
manischer dialecte herausgegeben von 
W. Braune. I. Gotische CTaramatik 
mit einigen lesestiicken una wortver- 
zeichnis von W. Braune, 1880. II. 
Mittolhochdeutsche grammatik von H. 
Paul, 1881. III. Angelsachsische 
grammatik von E. Sievers, 1882. In 
preparation : — Althochdeutsche ^m- 
matik von W. Braune. Altnordische- 
Altschwedische grammatik von A. 

' Die verbalabstracta in den german- 
ischen sprachen ihrer bildung nach dar- 
gestellt von Karl von Bahder. Halle, 
Xiemeyer, 1880. 

' Samfund til udgivelse af gammel 
nordisk litteratur, 1880 : 1) Peder 
Smed, udg. af S. Grundtvig. 2) Agrip 
af Noregs konunga sogum, V. Dahlerup. 
3) Erex Saga, G. Cedersehiold. 1881:4) 
Kiddara-rimur, Th. Wi86n. 6) Man- 
devilles Rejse p& dansk fra 15de &rh., 
M. Lorenzen, Iste og 2deth8efte. 6] 
G}r5inga Sagd, G. porl&ksson. Secre- 
tary : Dr. K. E&lund, Eortadelersgade, 
KoDenhavn K. 

* Nyare bidrag till kiinnedom om de 
Bvenska landsm&len och svenskt folklif. 
Stockholm, Samson och Wallin, 1879- 


the university of TJpsala. This is the first official recognition 
of the science that has taken place, but I have little doubt 
that before many years there will be professors of phonetics 
and elocution at many of the Continental universities. One 
of the publications of the society for 1881 is a paper by 
Lundell on the study of dialects (Om dialektstudier med 
sarskild hansyn till de nordiska spr&ken), which ought to 
interest English dialectologists, as also an earlier one of his 
in the same periodical (1879-80) on dialectology and folklore 
in Sweden and other countries (Landsra&l och folklif i Sverige 
och andra lander), with a very full and valuable list of 
dialectal works in the chief European languages. In noticing 
the work of our English Dialect Society, Lundell justly re- 
marks (p. 474) : " When they hope within ten years to see 
the most important part of the work done, and the Society*s 
task completed, they are certainly greatly mistaken, or else 
have failed to see what that task really consists in." After 
praising Mr. Elworthy's work, he goes on to say : " Otherwise 
it is remarkable that phonetics is on the whole neglected, 
although England possesses phoneticians of the first rank, 
and in this respect stands on more than an equality with 
Germany, although in the latter the knowledge of the 
subject is undoubtedly more widely extended." In Norway 
also a dialect society has been founded, mainly, as far as 
the linguistic side of its task is concerned, under the 
guidance of that leading phonetician, Prof. Johan Storm, 
of Christiania. 

"Passing to English, I have first to chronicle the completion 
of Prof. Skeat's Etymological Dictionary,* which, although 
necessarily on a not always perfectly sound basis, especially 
as regards the Old French derivations, is a real contribution 
to general English philology; it is a distinct step towards 
making English etymology a really scientific study, and 
even where the author's views may be doubtful, the large 
mass of reliable materials collected by him will always afford 

* An Etymological Dictionary of Walter W. Skeat, M.A. Oxford, 
the English Language, by the ELey, Clarendon Press, 1882. 


118 THE president's ANNUAL ADDRESS FOR 1882. 

a sound basis for future investigation. The abridgment he 
has made of this work^ will, of course, address itself to a 
much larger public, and, it is to be hoped, will speedily 
supersede the miserable compilations now current. 

** Prof. Schipper's historical treatise on English metres, of 
which the first part, treating of the Old- and Middle-English 
periods, has just appeared,^ will no doubt help to fill a lament- 
able gap in English philology and text-criticism — especially 
the latter, but I am not yet able to pronounce a decided 
opinion on its merits. 

" The contributions to Old English are numerous and im« 
portant. Sievers's Grammar, mentioned above, p. 116, n. 1, 
is the first one on a historical basis, which, at the same 
time, gives a general view of the dialects. Unfortunately it 
includes only sounds and inflections. I may also mention 
my elementary book in Old-English,* in which I have tried 
to make the subject as easy as I possibly could. 

" Prof. Cosijn, of Leiden, has brought out the first part of 
an Old- West-Saxon Grammar,* which I hope to see con- 
tinued. A short, but thorough grammar of the language of 
the Vespasian Psalter, by a promising pupil of Sievers,* is 
another of those special investigations on which alone a 
general grammar and dictionary of Old English can be 
based. I am glad to be able to state that Prof. Cook, of the 
Johns Hopkins University, now studying under Sievers at 
Jena, is preparing a similar work on the Bushworth and 
Durham glosses. 

" The first volume of Wiilcker's re-edition of Grein's 
Library of Old- English Poetry* from the MSS., containing 

* A Concise Etymological Dictionary 
of the English Language, by the Rev. 
Walter W. Skeat. Oxford, Clarendon 
Press, 1882. 

' Englische Metrik in historischer 
und systematischer entwickelung dar- 
gestellt, von Dr. J. Schipper. Erster 
thcil : altenglische metnk. Bonn, 
Strauss, 1882. 

^ An Anglo-Saxon primer, with gram- 
mar, not^, and glossary, by Henry 
Sweet, M. A. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 

^ Eurzgefasste altwestsachsische 
grammatik von P. J. Coeijn. I. Die 
vocale der stammsilben. Leiden, Brill, 

^ Die sprache des kentischen psalters 
(Yesp. A. 1), ein beitrag zur angel- 
sachsischen grammatik, von R. Zeuner. 
Halle, Niemeyer, 1882. 

^ Bibliothek der angelsachsischen 
poesie begriindet von C. W. M. Grein, 
neu bearbeitet, vermehrt, und nach 
eignen lesungen der handschriften hgg. 


Beowulf, has appeared, as also a selection of the shorter 
poems by the same editor.^ 

"Zupitza has brought out the first part of his elaborate 
edition of -^Ifric's Grammar and Glossary.^ 

''A serious fault of these two editors is that they both 
deliberately suppress the accents of the MSS. in their texts. 
Zapitza has apparently been unable to resist the temptation 
of exhibiting his own views on O.E. quantity — views which 
the clear evidence of MSS. accentuation show to be untenable 
for -^Ifric's period — but Wiilcker gives us an absolute blank 
— he neither gives his own views nor lets the MSS. speak 
for themselves ! The truth is that the accents are not only 
as much a part of the spelling of a word as the difference 
between i and y, eo and to, etc., but are often the most 
important of all : such a gloss as ovum : (eg is of very little, 
such a one as ovum : (kg is of very considerable value. It is 
an unjustifiable inconsistency to register one class of dis- 
tinctions and to suppress the evidence of another on mere 
subjective grounds. 

" I may lastly mention the first part of ^l/ric's Lives of 
Saints, edited for the Early English Text Society by Prof. 
Skeat, which came out last year. 

'' It is humiliating to see how little share England has in 
all this progress. We have now two professors of * Anglo- 
Saxon ' — one of them, for a wonder, a real working one, but 
there are no signs of a school of young specialists rising up 
around them. Anglo-Saxon is abandoned to ladies and 
foreigners : our undergraduates and young dons are too 
much exhausted with ornamental scholarship and the resus- 
citation of decayed philosophies to have any time for the 
earnest study of their own language — they have only just 
strength enough left to let Browning Societies be founded 
for them." 

V. R. P. Wiilcker. I. Band, i. halfte. yersehen, von R. P. Wiilcker. Halle, 

Kasfeel, Wigand, 1881. Niemeyer, 1882. 

^ Klcinere angelsachsische dichtun- ^ iblt'rics grammatik und elossar 

gen. Abdnick der handschriftliclien hgg. v. J. Zupitza. I. Text iind vari- 

iiberlieferung, mit den lesarten der anten. Berlin, Weidmannsche buch- 

hand^hriften und einem worterbuche handlung, 1880. 

120 THE president's ANNUAL ADDRESS FOR 1882- 

To the address T deKvered in 1874, M. Paul Meyer con- 
tributed an excellent and exhaustive report on Romance 
Philology subsequent to 1870, and he supplemented it in 
Dr. Morris's address in the following year. But since that 
time no report on general Romance Philology has found a 
place in the annual addresses of our Presidents, although 
Prof. Pio Rajna favoured us with a brief report on the Italian 
Dialects in Dr. Murray's address, 1879. This year, however, 
Dr. E. Stengel, of Marburg, who has done so much for 
Romance Philology himself, and trained so many pupils to 
go and do likewise, has most kindly undertaken to fill up the 
gap from 1875 to 1882, in the following report, for which 
our Society will feel very grateful. It gives an excellent 
r^sumi with a brief criticism of all the recent works and 
essays bearing on this important branch of philology, and 
jointly with the preceding third report by Mr. Sweet, gives 
a survey of the state of Philology for the principal European 

Report on the Philology of the Romance Languages 
FROM 1875 TO 1882, by Dr. E. Stengel, Professor 
OF Romance Philology and Director of the Romance 
Seminary at Marburg. 

"There has been so much activity and in such various 
directions during the last seven years in the field of Romance 
Philology, that it is difficult to give a clear account of it 
within the limits of a short report. Moreover, the boun- 
daries of our science have extended so widely, both in time 
and space, and its cultivators are scattered through so many 
lands, that a single writer is hardly capable of giving a 
general survey, comprehending all the particulars, in a 
manner satisfactory either to others or himself. I must 
therefore crave the indulgence of the Philological Society 
for the following attempt. 

" When Paul Meyer, in 1875, gave his second report, in 
the Presidential Address of Dr. Morris, Friedrich Diez, the 
founder of Romance Philology, was still alive. He has 
since passed away, and with him the Nestors of our science 


in France, Paulin Paris and Littr^. We have also to lament 
the loss of two Englishmen, Thomas "Wright and Henry 
Nicol, not to mention other prominent scholars who have 
followed them to the grave. A daily increasing host of 
younger men endeavours meanwhile to fill up the gaps in 
our ranks, and leaves little to be wished for in point of dili- 
gence and productiveness. On the contrary, the interests of 
the individual and of the whole science indicate the advisa- 
bility of a slower and more cautious march, especially when 
we consider how the work is being continually and increas- 
ingly split up into fragments, and the almost total absence 
of any systematic co-operation or co-ordinated advance. 

"I. The principal jousting- place of our science remains as 
before — the elder French language and literature. Methodi- 
cal advance may here be generally first and most thoroughly 
observed, and even the majority of the new-comers seek to 
earn their spurs in this field. No explanation of this is 
needed, for not only is this preference justified by the prac- 
tical interests of the future career of many, but it may be 
also established on purely scientific grounds. 

"The old French system of sounds and grammar is an 
especially favourite subject for those little essays, mostly 
dissertations, written for the attainment of the doctor's 
degree. In these, phenomena of phonetic or grammatical 
nature are pursued through the whole field of the old French 
language or through a determinate section of it, or else an 
endeavour is made to establish the complete phonetic or 
grammatical relations of some single linguistic document or 
of a group of such. In the first case the object is to con- 
tribute towards our knowledge of the chronological and 
geographical development of the Latin speech-sounds and 
grammatical forms in French territory, and in the second 
case to determine more precisely the chronological and geo- 
graphical derivation of determinate linguistic documents. 
But the majority of these latter investigations lead to no 
tangible result, and hence must be looked upon in general as 
merely well-intended attempts, adapted rather to shew the 
present insolubility of the problem. This is of course not 



the view taken by the authors of these essays themselves. 
They rather consider that they are able to localise the 
individual works simply by means of an exact observation 
of their orthography. It is only a pity that each fresh 
investigator generally arrives at a different result. The 
example of the * Munich Brut/ ^ which Hofmann and VoU- 
moUer published in 1877, is very instructive in this respect. 
According to Vollmoller we have here a mixed dialect, then, 
in succession, it was considered to be in the Anglo-Norman 
dialect, then to have been written by a Picard on the 
Walloon boundary, then about Beauvais, and most recently 
in Namur. It would be better therefore to give up such 
indications, and in preference to make an earnest attack on 
the history of French Orthography, which was from the 
first partly etymological. Not until more light than we at 
present possess has been shed on this point can the question 
be satisfactorily answered, how far it is possible to conclude 
from the written sign as to the spoken sound. It is not 
denied that here and there a tolerably exact localisation of 
the methods of writing has been attained by means of 
numerous such localised and dated documents. But these 
documents are not older than the thirteenth century, and 
hence for older MSS. it is only possible to put forth more 
or less well-founded conjectures on this point. But if, as 
often happens, a writer purposes to determine even the 
place where any literary work was composed, solely by such 
observations, the ground totters beneath his feet, for medieval 
copyists treat their originals in the most arbitrary manner, 
both as regards their orthography and their meaning.^ Even 
assonances and rhymes are insufficient criteria in themselves 
to determine the time and place where a poem was composed. 

* DerMiinchenerBrut. Gottfried von 
Monmouth in franzosischen Versen des 
1 2 Jh. aus der einzigen Miinchener Hs. 
zum ersten Mai herausgegeben von K. 
Hofmann und VoUmofler. Halle, 

* In the third part of the collection 
of ' Kditions ana Essays ' {Ausgaben 
und Abhandiuiiyvn am dem Oebiete der 

romanisehen Philologiey pp. vii-xiii, 
Marburg, 1881) I have just glanced at 
a peculiar method of deforming texts, 
which is of prime importance,— the 
complete assimilation of some modes of 
expression, that approach each other 
very closely, within the same poem. 
The question deserves fuller treatment. 


Their genuineness must first be proved. Thus down to very 
recent times the language of the Song of Roland was identified 
in many points with the language of the Oxford MS., and con- 
sequently it was coQsidered to be consistent with the original 
Roland to pair a with an, and also ai with both a and e, 
Rambeau's investigations, 'On those Assonances of the Oxford 
Roland which can be proved to be genuine ' ( Ueber die ak 
echt nachweisbaren Assonanzen des Oxforder Roland, Halle, 
1878), have demonstrated the untenableness of this assump- 
tion. Rambeau has also rightly objected to Liicking's 
demonstration, based entirely on the mode of writing, in his 
otherwise meritorious work, * The Oldest French Dialects ' 
{Die dltesten franzosischen Mundarten, Berlin, 1877). Similar 
doubts can be also established against Suchier's learned essay, 
*The Dialect of the Song of Leodegar' {Die Mundart des 
Leodegarliedes, in Grober's Zeitachrift). Peculiar interest 
as regards the later old French phonetic and grammatical 
studies attaches to an article of mine in the first volume of 
the Zeihchrift fur neu-fvanziosische Sprache und Literatur on 
'The Oldest Introductions to the Learning of the French 
Language,' which I edited from an Oxford MS. (All Souls 
Coll. 182) dated at the end of the fourteenth century, and 
intended for English readers. The beginnings of French 
grammar have thus been shewn to be more than 100 years 
earlier than was hitherto supposed. 

" Numerous investigations respecting the syntactic rela- 
tions of old French documents have also, like those on its 
phonetics and accidence, essentially enlarged our knowledge 
of the earlier language of France. Ad. Tobler has shown 
himself to be a delicate observer on this ground. His 
* Miscellaneous Contributions to French Grammar ' ( Ver- 
mischte Beitrdge zur Orammatik des Franzosischen, in Grober's 
Zeitschrift) are distinguished alike by acumen and learning. 
On the other hand, little that is trustworthy has yet been 
done in reference to the special syntactic construction of indi- 
vidual works, and this must be attributed to the absence of 
previous proofs of the genuineness of the examples chosen 
from these writings. Thus, for example, Horning, in a 

124 THE president's annual address for 1882. 

very interesting Essay in vol. IV. of Boehmer's Romanische 
Studien, has demonstrated that the pronoun tl in the oldest 
French language had not yet received any neuter value, 
but at the same time he asserts, relying on the use of the 
word in the Oxford MS., which was written at the end of 
the twelfth or the beginning of the thirteenth century, that 
this neuter value was often to be met with in the Song of 
Roland of the eleventh century. The results of a close 
examination of every case, which I gave in the preface to 
No. III. of my * Editions and Essays,' p. xv, shew how- 
ever that in the oldest form of Koland that can be established 
by means of critical comparison, it is scarcely possible for a 
neuter il to have existed. 

" The investigations made on the old French vocabulary and 
the use of words, and the old French dictionary in general, 
have hitherto been in a bad way. There is certainly a large 
number of special glossaries in existence, but with a few 
exceptions they are very scanty, and many are rendered quite 
worthless by the total omission of citations. The latest pub- 
lished special glossaries also leave much to be desired. The 
most carefully prepared appears to be that of Suchier, attached 
to his edition of Aucassin and Nicoleitey^ while, for example, 
Michel's glossary to the Cambridge Psalter is far too in- 
complete. The authors of many special glossaries have only 
had in view the explanation of this or that passage of their 
texts, or the emphasising of this or that rare word, whereas 
the real aim of a glossary should be to furnish the necessary 
linguistic materials for criticism and interpretation of the 
whole text, and also to open up a productive vein for the 
criticism and interpretation of cognate texts. The more 
comprehensive dictionaries also have hitherto been completely 
insufficient. Lately in rapid succession two new and very 
copious dictionaries have been sent to press, which propose to 
collect and make accessible the whole of the words of the 
old language. Each work proposes to occupy the important 
space of ten volumes. The first is nearly complete, entitled, 

^ Aucassin und Nicolette, neu nach yon Hermann Suchier. 2te Auflage. 
der lis. mit Paradigma and Gloasar Paderbom, 1881. 


Dictionnaire historique de Vancien langage frangoU, and is 
edited by L. Favre. It was put together as early as the 
last century, by the well-known industrious collector, La 
Curne de Sainte-Palaye. That its publication should have 
been delayed till now, is all the more to be regretted, because 
it can naturally no longer come up to our present standard. 
It would therefore have been better not to print it. The 
second dictionary, called Dictionnaire de Vancienne langne 
frangaisef is also the fruit of an enormous industry in making 
collections. Its author, Godefroy, has for decads rummaged 
in its behalf all possible works written or printed, and thus 
even brought to light many a MS. hitherto unknown, without 
however being always conscious of his own discovery. Un- 
fortunately, too, this author has an insufficient grammatical 
knowledge of old French, and consequently his selection of 
passages to serve as proofs, instead of being suitable, is often 
rather fortuitous. To give only a single example, Godefroy 
has a long article on the word altain, but the passages 
alluded to by him leave the important question unsettled 
whether the word ought not to be more properly written 
haliain, with the h sounded. If this is the case, the reading 
of the Oxford MS. of the Song of Roland, 1. 3, 

* Tresqu'en la mer conquist la tere altaigne.' 

would be wrong, and ought to be replaced by that of other 

* Conquist la terre jusqu' a la mer altaine.' 

Moreover, aitaigne, which Godefroy considers merely as a 
different spelling of aliain, ought to be treated as a different 
word, as is proved by its masculine form in three syllables, 
* Mort le trebuce del bon destrier autaine.* — Anseis de Carthage, 

Only the first volume of Godefroy's Dictionnaire is com- 
plete. The author admits only that part of the old 
French vocabulary which has been lost in modern French. 
This is an unfortunate limitation which entails many other 
disadvantages and inconsistencies. Notwithstanding these 

126 THE president's annual address for 1882. 

and other shortcomings, we may gladly hail the appearance 
of this book, and hope important assistance from it in the 
successful progress of old French studies. A special dic- 
tionary to a number of the oldest French texts, which has 
just been finished by myself, in eleven sheets,^ will form a 
kind of supplement to the above. In this I have aimed at 
absolute completeness in words and citations. 

" The etymology of specially French words has also not 
been neglected in recent times. The researches on the 
Germanic element of the French language have certainly 
not produced anything essentially new, but in its place we 
have had discussed in the various journals a number of 
isolated etymologies, and amongst them of course those of 
the inevitable — and still not yet explained — etymology of the 
word aller. 

" Old French texts had been published in large numbers 
in former years, but the number of such publications has 
very considerably increased in the last seven years. Following 
the example of the Early English Text Society, a SocHt^ 
des ancietis textes frangais was formed in Paris in 1875. In 
addition to a Bulletin issued three times a year, it has already 
published a lordly number of volumes. A similar aim is 
pursued in W. Forster's * Old French library ' {Altfranzba- 
iache Bibliothek), of which three volumes have already 
appeared, and in Suchier's Bibliotheca Normannica (of which 
two numbers have as yet appeared), and also in the Biblio- 
theque frangaise dn moyen age, which has just been com- 
menced under the editorship of Gaston Paris and Paul 
]^Ieyer. Besides these a series of other texts are presented 
in the appropriate journals, and a great many others appear 
as separate publications. The advance of art has also 
rendered it possible to multiply copies of valuable MSS. 
either simply by photography, or by the various processes 
of photographic printing. Thus the oldest monuments of 
the French language from the 9th and 10th centuries have 
already been heliographed for the Soci^ti des anciens textes, 

^ Worterbuch der altesten franzos- ans * Ausgaben und Abhandlun^n,* I. 
ischen Sprache. Separat - abdruck Marburg, 1882. 


as well as the Florentine Alexander fragment, the Kassel 
Glosses, and some proofs from the Vatican MSS. in Monaci's 
beautiful Facsimili di antichi manoacritti. I have myself had 
the Oxford Song of Roland reproduced by photography, and 
also at my instigation the Hildesheim Alexis manuscript has 
been photographed at that place. Nevertheless diplomatic 
printing (which was so justly recommended by Ellis in his 
presidential address to the Philological Society for 1874 — 
Transactions for 1873-4, pp. 433, ff.) retains its full 
value, because in the mechanical reproduction passages 
are frequently enough not clearly given, which however 
can be quite well deciphered in the originals. Thus 
Eoschwitz has accurately printed the oldest monuments 
of the French language, using however only the helio- 
graphs for originals, and I have also reproduced, from 
the originals, the Oxford Roland (Heilbronn, 1878), the 
Hildesheim Alexis, and the Song of Solomon, and together 
with them (in Ausgaben und Abhandlungen, I.), from the helio- 
graphs the Alexander fragment and the epistle of St. Stephen, 
of which Forster had given a not very good facsimile in the 
Retite des Latigues Romanes, Similar prints are those of the 
Venetian Roland by Kolbing (Heilbronn, 1877) ; the Poitou 
Turpin and the Brandan of the French Arsenal by Auracher ; 
as well as the MS. of Songs at Montpellier by Jacobsthal — 
the three last named are contained in Grober's Zeitschrift. 
The greater number of editions does not keep so strictly to the 
origrinals, but endeavours to make them more easily legible, 
at least by the resolution of contractions, by punctuation, 
and here and there by diacritical marks. Suchier uses a 
peculiar kind of diacritical signs in his handy edition of 
Aucassin and Nicolette, of which the second edition has 
already appeared. Regularisation of the orthography or an 
entire re-writing into another dialect is also much affected. 
For example, J. Koch in his edition of the poems of Chardry, 
Koschwitz in the * Journey of Charlemagne to Jerusalem 
and Constantinople/ Heiligbrodt in his careful new edition 
of the valuable fragment of the Chamon de Oormunt et 
liembart, in vol. III. of the Romanische Studien, and Theodor 

128 THE president's annual address for 1882. 

Miiller (who died last year) in his new edition of the Song 
of Roland.^ But this process leaves far too much room for 
the personal judgment of the particular editor and leads to 
many arbitrary results and inconsistencies, as well as to 
obscuration of the actual words employed, which it is always 
most important for the reader to know. The system of a 
theoretically correct orthography, independent of tradition, 
which was formerly applied as an experiment, has been 
properly enough entirely discarded of late years, and in its 
place Suchier endeavours in his * Sermon in Rhyme ' {Revti' 
predigt, Halle, 1879, forming part I. of the Bibliotheca Nor- 
mannica) to restore the original orthography of the poet, 
but only so far as he feels firm ground under his feet. It 
is evident that even this system practically leads to numerous 
disadvantages, and hence it would be best at present to limit 
ourselves to a theoretical discussion of the questions which 

" The criticism of the matter, as distinguished from that of 
the form alone, which has hitherto been considered, that is, the 
attempts to purify the old writings as respects expression and 
contents from all more recent corruptions and interpolations 
by revisers and scribes, and to reinstate them in the condition 
in which they left the authors' hands, although it is, properly 
speaking, the most important problem of Romance Philology, 
has not made any essential progress recently. Many editors 
still think that they can dispense with investigations on the 
way in which a writing has come down to us, or pass lightly 
over the determination of the relations of the MSS., and yet 
the possibility of a trustworthy constitution of the text de- 
pends upon these fundamental determinations. A very careful 
piece of work in this direction was furnished by Victor in his 
treatise on * The MSS. of the Geste of the Loherains,' Halle, 
1876, to which refer further supplementary works by Hub,^ 

* Le Chanson de Roland nach der The second part, which ought to con- 

Oxforder Handschrift, erlautert und tain the commentary and glossary, has 

mit einem Glossar versehen von Thfodur not appeared. 

Miiller^ Professor an der Universitat ^ La Chanson de Iler^-is de Mes. 

Gottingen, Erster Theil, zweite voUig Inhaltsangabe und Classification der 

umgean)eiteteAuflage,Gottingen,1878. Handschnften. Ileilbronn, 1879. 



Rhode,^ and myself.^ Generally suchlike investigations, and 
consequently editions of considerable texts, in which the 
practical results of a complicated pedigree must be deter- 
mined, have been gladly avoided, and in their place texts 
have been preferred which have come down to us in a single 
MS., or at least in but few MSS. An edition is thus more 
quickly put together, and subjective criticism is less weighted 
by a crowd of variants. For the proclivity to conjecture is 
innate in the Romance Philologist, and seeks every oppor- 
tunity to assert itself. Within proper limits it is also 
perfectly justified. But then conjecture should always be 
preceded by a necessary examination of the author's special 
habit of language, and recourse should not be had to it until 
every other means of positive criticism of the text have 
failed, and there are many such means besides variants of 
MSS. As already mentioned, not many editions have lately 
appeared in which the editor had at his command a con- 
siderable number of MSS. with strongly-marked differences. 
I may mention in the first instance Wolter's edition of the 
story of a Jewish boy from the Vies des ancieris phres in 
No. II. of the Bihliotheca Nonnannica. He communicates 
the whole set of variants, clearly arranged, but, in contra- 
diction to the relation of the MSS. which he assumes, repro- 
duces in his text what amounts to only the readings of a 
single MS. A similar course is pursued by Martin in his 
new edition of the Roman de Henarty lately commenced. 

^ Die Beziehungen zwischen den 
Chansons de geste de Hervis de Mes 
nnd Garin le Loherain von A. Rhode, 
in Ausgaben und Abhandlungen III. 
Marburg, 1881. 

'^ In Zeitschrif t f iir rom. Philologie. I. 
137 ff., II. 347 ff., III. 143, V. 88, 381 
anm. The Philosophical Faculty of the 
University of Marburg has, at my sug- 
gestion, proposed the following subject 
for its * ' I'hfloloeical Prize'* in the year 
1882-3: — *' To investigate whether the 
Geste of the Lothringers proper (Garin 
and Girbert) , without reference to the in- 
troductory and concluding poems (Her- 
vis and Anse'is) is to be considered as a 
single poem, or only as a cycle of poems. 

PhU. Train. 1882-8-4. 

In the latter case the several parts of the 
cycle must be distinguishea as exactly 
as possible, and the one which forms 
the nucleus of the whole geste must be 
clearly indicated." (Es soli untersucht 
werden, ob die eigentliche Geste von 
den Lothringem (Garin und Girbert), 
abgesehen von den jiingeren Vor- und 
Nachdichtungen (Ilervis und Anse'is) 
als ein einheitliches Gedicht oder nur 
als ein Gedichtscyclus aufzufassen ist. 
Im letzteren Falle sollen die eizelnen 
Theile des Cyclus moglichst genau 
ermittelt und derjenige festgestellt wer- 
den, welcher den £em der geeammten 
Geste bildet.) 



130 THB president's ANNUAL ADDRESS FOR 1882. 

At any rate, the reader is at least put in a position to form a 
judgment for himself. Certainly in this case it would be 
preferable for the editor to leave the whole constitution of 
the text in the hands of the reader, and to limit himself to 
an exact reproduction of the text of the best MS., with as 
clear an arrangement as possible of the variants of the other 
MSS., a course which I have pursued in ' Editions and 
Essays/ part I. for the Canc'un de Saint Alexis. On the 
other hand, the eclectic system seems to be an entire failure, 
as Th. Miiller applies it in his new edition of the Song of 
Roland, and as L^on Gautier, notwithstanding what he h£is 
said in opposition, uses it in his numerous editions of the 
same poem.^ Th. Miiller, who considers that the whole tra- 
dition of the Song of Roland falls into two groups, of which 
the Oxford MS. alone represents one, does not even go so far 
in his arrangement of variants as to give those fundamental 
readings of the second group by which all or most of its 
members are opposed to the first, but in a completely 
arbitrary fashion adds the variants only to those passages in 
the Oxford MS. which caused him difficulty. The reader of 
his edition is therefore quite incapable of forming an in- 
dependent objective judgment on the deviations of the second 
group. This is all the more to be regretted, because it is as 
yet impossible to obtain sufficient information upon those 
variants elsewhere, for a number of MSS. (of the important 
rhymed form of the so-called Roman de Roncevaux), notwith- 
standing that they have been announced for years as ready 
for the press, are still delayed, and the Song of Roland has 
altogether such numerous ramifications and complications 
that it is rather difficult to obtain a clear general view of 
them. The whole grouping of the traditions of the Song of 
Roland, as Miiller puts it forward, awakens much hesitation. 
It has probably to be replaced by another, for which I and 

^ La Ohanson de Roland. Texte des Inscriptioiis et Belles-Lettres. 

critique, traduction et commentaire, Huitidme edition, revue ayec soin. 

grammaire et glossaire, par L6on Edition classique k T usage des ^l^ves 

Gautier, Professeur k Fecole des de seconde. Tours, 1881. It is re- 

Chartes. Ouvrage couronn6 par ported that the eleventh edition has 

TAcademie £ran9ai8e et par I'Acad^mie already been issued. 


a number of my pupils have entered^ and which has finally 
been advocated by Perschmann in his dissertation published 
in the third part of Ausgaben und Abhandlungen, Marburg, 

" From among other attempts to form a critical text, I may 
cite here the edition of * Charlemagne's Journey/ by Kosch- 
witz ^ (with which should be compared the complete notice of 
it by Suchier in Grober's Zeitschrift, IV. 401), and Andresen's 
edition of the Rotnan de liou, which Gttston Paris has 
fundamentally discussed in Romania. For Chardry's 'Poems' 
and the ' Sermon in rhyme ' there were simpler relations of 
MSS. In respect of subject-matter the editions which have 
appeared in the last seven years are distributed over every 
field of literature, Epics, Romances of Chivalry, Legends, 
Fabliaux, Lays, Songs, didactic and moral Poetry and 
Prose, Drama and Translations. 

The criticism of the subject-matter of the text is, however, 
still more advanced than what is closely allied to it, the 
philological interpretation of the subject-matter, and it may 
be complained, generally, that methodical antiquarian re- 
searches have been hitherto rather too much neglected. 
Somewhat more has been done in recent times for the know- 
ledge of the poetical art, for the style, and the elucidation of 
the numerous interrelations between individual literary works, 
>I8 well as in general for what relates to the history of litera- 
ture. The magnificent undertaking of the Benedictines, the 
Sistoire Litiraire de la France^ which is being at present con- 
tinued by the Academy of Inscriptions, has been augmented 
by two volumes, and now counts Gaston Paris among its 
staff of contributors. On the other hand, the Hiatoire de la 
langue et de la liitSralure frangaise au moyen Age by Charles 
Aubertin, in two volumes, is quite worthless, because it 

^ Earls des Grossen Reise nach papers and texts referring to the same 

JeniBalem und Constantinopel, ein subject. I may also here refer to 

altfranzosisches Gedicht des XI Jahr- Mussafia's review of this edition in the 

hunderta, herausgegeben von E. Kosch- Zeitschrift fur osterreichisehe Oymna- 

»«»f«, Heilbronn, 1880. This forms «i>;i, 1880, p. 195, and to my own in 

tHe second volume of W. Forafer^a the Liternturblntt fur germaniache und 

Altfranzosische Bibliothek. The same romaniache Fhihlogiey 1881, No. 8. 

Bctiolar had previously published several 


is only an ill-digested compilation of partly antiquated works 
by other writers. Of works which treat of separate branches 
of Literature, I may mention the Hhtoire du ThSdtre frangais : 
les Myst^res, by L. Petit de JuUeville, in two volumes, 
a valuable work, and also the new edition of Gautier's 
Epopies frangaises, of which the fourth volume has lately 
appeared. This book, it is true, suffers from important defects, 
but nevertheless its very numerous statements of fact give 
it a value which must not be underrated. A series of 
separate investigations may be considered as supplementary 
to it. Of these I can only mention the interesting work of 
Darmesteter De Floovante, with which we must connect a 
pretty program by Bangert, * Contributions to the history of 
the Floovent Legend' (S^/^ra^e zur Geschichte derFloovent-Sage, 
Heilbronn, 1879) ; the instructive investigations of Lognon 
on the historical foundation of particular French epics ; the 
learned article of Gaston Paris, which however is not very 
convincing in its main subject, on the Journey of Charlemagne 
in the ninth volume of Romania; A. Thomas's interesting 
Reckerchea mr VEntrie de Spagne (Bibliotheque des Ecoles 
fran9ai8es d'Athenes et de Rome, fasc. 25®, Paris, 1882) ; 
Reimann's dissertation on the sources of the Chanson de 
Gaydon, and the Angevine Thierry- Gaydon Legend (in Ausg. 
u, Abh. III., Marburg, 1881) ; H. Meyer's investigation of 
the Chanson des Saxons in its relation to the Song of Roland 
and the old Norse Karlamagnus Saga will appear in Ausg. 
u. Abh. IV. (Marburg, 1882) ; with many others. In other 
fields of old French literature, also, there is no deficiency of 
valuable separate works, some of which have appeared as 
introductions to editions, others in Journals, and others have 
been published independently. I omit to mention them by 
name, and give merely a passing notice to the numerous con- 
tributions to the knowledge of old French manuscripts, 
among which, in especial, those of Paul Meyer in Romania 
and in the Bulletin de la Soci^ti des anciens textes frangais 
must be mentioned with approval. 

" I shall only indicate a few of the works which advance 
our scientific knowledge of more recent French. The first 


place here belongs to the work of Charles Thurot, lately 
deceased, De la prononciation frangaise depuis le comtnencement 
du XVIme sihcle d^aprh les Umoignagea des grammairienSy 
of which we possess only the first volume, Paris, 1881. 
Thurot, it is true, is no real phonetist, as we should expect, 
but a philologist of the old stamp. Nevertheless, his state- 
ments are interesting, and may be useful in a determination 
of real French speech sounds, similar to that which your 
president has given us for Early English Pronunciation. Next 
we must mention the excellent work of Darmesteter, De la 
creation actuelle de mots nouveaux dam la langue franqai%e^ 
and the meritorious undertaking of K. VoUmoUer, 'French 
Beprints' (Franzosische Nendrucke),^ together with the 
volume of Darmesteter and Hatzfeld, called Le aeizibne 
Siiele, which presents a tableau de la literature, a tableau de 
la langue and morceaux ckoisis des auteurs, and has already 
reached a second edition ; ^ and finally Lotheissen's beautiful 
* History of French Literature in the seventeenth century * 
(Oeschichte der franzosischen Literatur im 17 «7A.).* The 
Journal for modern French language and literature,"* edited 
by Korting and Koschwitz, is especially devoted to the 
study of this period. The same scholars also published 
'French Studies' (Franzosische Studien),^ which serve as a 
sapplement to the above, but are so arranged as to include 
at the same time essays on the elder as well as the more 
recent language and literature of France. 

" Among the works which treat of both the old and new 
language of France in common, I may mention the explana- 
tions of Forster, Boehmer, and G. Paris on the history of 
the French vowel o, in the Romanische Studien and Romania ; 
together with 0. TJlrich's remarks on * The History of the 
French Diphthong oi, in Grober's Zeitschrift, vol. III., and 
Darmesteter's on La protonique non initiale nan en position, in 
Romania, vol. V., as well as his Traits de formation de mots 

^ Paris, 1877. ' Zeitsehrift fiir neufranzoaische 

* Heilbronn, 1881. Spraehe und Litteratur, Oppeln and 

* Paris, 1881. Leipzig, from 1879. 

* Vienna, 1879-80. « Heilbronn from 1880. 

134 THE PRESIDBNT's AKNUAL address foe 1882. 

composes enfaangais} and Ismar Rothenberg's dissertation on 
* The interchange of Suffixes in French ' {Die Vertamchung 
der Suffixe in der franzomchen Sprache).^ The new edition of 
Matzner's French Grammar, Berlin, 1877, would, on the 
other hand, have been better left unpublished, as the investi- 
gations made in this field since the appearance of the first 
edition have not been utilised. A large number of writings 
deal with French metre. The Etudes hisioriquee et philo^ 
logiquee sur la rime frangaise * by Bellanger, since deceased, 
are very meritorious ; so is Tobler's fundamental work * On 
the structure of French verse in old and recent times ' ( Vom 
franzosischen Versbau alter und neuer Zeit). But the writings 
of Grammont,* Becq de Foiiqui^res * and Lubarsch ® proceed 
too much from d priori theories. The following are more 
special metrical dissertations : Grobedinkel's * The construc- 
tion of the verse in Ph. Desportes and F. de Malherbe/ 
in Franzosiache Studien, I., and Johannesson's 'Malherbe's 
eflforts in the art of poetry ' {Die Beatrebungen Malherbe'a auf 
dem Gebiefe der poetischen Technik, Halle, 1881) ; and Emile 
Freymond, Ueber den reichen Reim bei altfranzosiachen Dich- 
tern bi^ zum Anfang des XIV Jahr^ Halle, 1882, which is 
also to appear in vol. VI. of the Zeithchrift fur rom, Phil, 

*' II. Our knowledge of the Proven(al language has like- 
wise been much extended and improved in these last seven 
years. As respects grammar, we have the excellent Chram* 
maire limoimn, now complete, by C. Chabaneau, which 
appeared bit by bit in the Revue des lauguea romanes, and 
has been afterwards published separately. It starts from the 
living language. Similar works on other new-provengal 
dialects are due to Aymeric,'' Constans,^ Luchaire ^ and others. 

* Paris, 1876. • Franzdsisclie Veralehre mit neaen 
^ Gottangen, 1881. Entwicklimgen fiir die theoretische 
' Paris, 1876. Begriindung franzosisclier Rhythmik. 

* Les vers fran(^ais et leur prosodie. Berlin, 1879. 

Lois reorissant la po^sie en France, ^ Le dialeete Rouergal par J. Ay- 

leurs variations, excmples pris des diver- meric, in GrSber's ZeiUchrifl fur rom, 

ees ^poaues, formes de po^mes anciennes Fhil. vol. III. p. 321 ff. 

et modemes par F. de Grammont. ^ Essai sur Tnistoire da sous dialeete 

Deuxi^me Edition, Paris, 1879. du Rouergue par L. Constans. Paris, 

* Traitd general de versification fran- 1880. 

9aise, par L. Becq de Fouquidres. Paris, * Etudes sur les idiomes pyr6n6ens de 

1879. la region £ran9ai^. Paris, 1879. 



To this place also belongs Comu's Phonologie du Bagnard (a 
west Swiss dialect), printed in Romania. Particular important 
questions of the older Proyen9al speech sounds and accidence 
have also been examined, particularly by Paul Meyer,* 
Chabaneau,^ Thomas^ and Wiecbmann,* especially on the basis 
of the rhymes, which clearly indicate vowel dififerences that 
have disappeared in writing, just as in French itself. The 
statements of the two old grammars, the Don at proensal and 
the Ita908 de Trobar by Raimon Vidal are of great 
importance for this question. I have provided a new edition 
of these (Marburg, 1877), which, differing from the pseudo- 
critical one by Guessard,^ faithfully reproduces the MSS., 
which have been sadly corrupted in places, and is accom- 
panied by an ample commentary and glossary. In con- 
nection with the Rasos there arose a number of similar 
essays, one even in doggrel verse, which Paul Meyer has 
printed in the Romania under the title of Traces Catalans 
de grammaire et de poetique, and furnished with a commen- 
tary. It is only to warn scholars against it, that I mention 
Demattio's Orammatica dMa lingua provenzale (Innsbruck, 
1880), which can be described as merely a bad copy of what 
Diez in his grammar, and Bartsch in the Tableau of his Chres- 
iomathie provengale (now in its fourth edition),^ have already 
given. It shows no new research, nor even a knowledge 
of what has been recently accomplished. Ch. de Tourtoulon 
and the poet 0. Bringuier (since deceased) endeavoured to 
fix the existing linguistic boundary between the Proven9al 
and the French languages by actually travelling over the 
limiting districts. But they only partially completed their 
work. Their first report, with a map of the boundary so far 

^ L'imparfait du Subjonctif en a par 
Paul Meyer, Romania, V 1 1 1 . 155. Les 
troisi^mes personnes du pluriel en 
proTen^al, oy the same, ibid. IX. 

* In various notes contributed by him 
to the Revue des Languea romanesj and to 
the Momania. 

^ De la confusion entre r et x, z, en 
pruyen9al et en fran9ais, par A . ThamaSf 

in Monaci's Giomale di filologia rom. 
No. 6, July, 1879. 

* Ueber die Aussprache des provenza- 
lischon, von Ernst Wiechmanu. Halle, 

* Grammaires provencales de Hugues 
Faidit et de Raymond \ idal de Besau- 
dun. Dcuxidme edition, corrigde et 
considcrablement augment^e par F. 
Guessard. Paris, 1858. 

6 Elberfeld, 1881. 

136 THE president's annual address for 1882. 

as yet determined, is published in the Archives des Missions 
scientifiques et littiraires, Paris, 1876.^ As respects lexico- 
graphy we must particularly allude, for the earlier 
language, to the special Olossaries to Stimming's edition of 
Bertran de Born ; to Paul Meyer's edition of the Croisade 
contre les albigeois^ and to my edition of the two old 
grammars, already mentioned ; for the recent language, two 
comprehensive dictionaries are in course of publication, first 
the Dictionnaire des idiomes romans du midi de la France, by 
G. Azais, in three volumes, published by the SocidtS pour 
Vitude des langues romanes, and, secondly, Lou Tresor dou 
Felibrige, by Mistral, the well-known modern Proven9al 
poet. A large number of editions of old Proven9al writings 
have to be noticed. Among them are Monaci's heliotypic 
reproduction of the drama 8anta Agnes (Roma, 1880), 
which had been previously published by Bartsch and 
Bardou; my copies of the Proven9al Anthology of the 
Biblioteca Chigiana (Marburg, 1877), and the short Copen- 
hagen collection of poems (in Orober's Zeitschri/t, vol. II.) ; 
Constants extracts from two MSS. at Cheltenham, printed in 
the Revue des langues romanes, 1881 ; various shorter texts 
published by Ghabaneau, ibid, ; Forster's palseographical 
reprints of the translation of the Gospel of John (all in 
the same periodical), and of the Oxford Oirart de Rossilho; 
an well as Stiirzinger's reprint of the London Girart (in 
Boehmer's Mom. Studien, voL V.) ; Paul Meyer's excellent 
CKlition of the Chanson de la Croisade contre les Albigeois, in 
two volumes (Paris, 1875-9) ; Stimming's welcome collection 
of the Songs of Bertran de Bom (Halle, 1879) ; as well as 
the Bongs of Ouillem Figueiras by Levy (Berlin, 1880) ; 
and that of the Songs of Ponz de Capdoil by M. v. Napolsky 
(lEalle, 1880, rather unsuccessful) ; Sardou's very defective 
edition of the Vida de 8. Ronorat by Raimon Feraut, Nice, 1875 ; 

> In the Mme periodical there ap- d^partementdelaCreuse.' Paul Meyer, 

p«!ftrwl in 1870 another and Terr im- in Romania, VIII. 471, says it should 

(K^rtant n^pfirt, hjr a young scholar of be regarded * comme modele k tous 

f^rtmi promise (Ut whom I haTe already oeux c^ui dordna yant etudieront la g4o- 

iful occaNion to allude), A. Thomas : graphic des patois romans.* 
' Kur uuc niiMiou philologique dans le 


and many others. Many additions have also been made to 
the history of literature and accounts of MSS. Grober en- 
deavoured to throw light upon the origin and sources of the 
collections of Proven9al Songs, in a somewhat too long essay 
in the Romanische Studien. Paul Meyer has written a lecture 
De ^influence des troubadours mr la poisie des peupka romana 
(printed in Romania, vol. V.), and {ibid. VI. p. 399) treated 
the relation of the Proven9al poem and the Latin prose Vita 
of St. Honorat (printed in 1502), which was also discussed 
by Hosch^ and myself,^ and finally decided by the sudden 
discovery of two older Latin MSS at Dublin and Oxford, 
made almost at the same time by Paul Meyer and myself.' 
The various forms of the Giravt de Romllon Legend were 
investigated by Paul Meyer,^ and its historical foundations 
were discussed by Lognon in an article in the Revue hiatonque. 
The part which the celebrated Sirventes poet, Bertran de 
Bom, played in history, was treated by Cl^dat.^ Various 
contributions to the history of literature and discoveries of 
MSS., by Pio Rajna, Mild y Fontanals, Meyer, Chabaneau, 
Thomas, Constans, Bartsch, and myself, will be found in the 
various journals concerning the Romance languages. To 
these must be added some dissertations, and Hiiffer's abortive 
book The Troubadours, London, 1878. An equally useless 
book is E. Brinkmeier's Die provengalischen Troubadours ah 
It/rische und poUtische Dichter^ mit Proben ihrer Dichtungen^ 
Gottingen, 1882. On the contrary, the new edition of Diez's 
splendid work, Leben und Werke der Troubadurs^ lately 
announced, to be produced under the care of Karl Bartsch, 
the well-known Proven9al scholar, promises to be of prime 

The discovery and publication of the oldest Alba of the 
ninth century by Joh. Schmidt, printed in Zacher's Zeitschrift 

* TJntemichimgen iiber die Qaellen VIII. 481, and Zeitaehr, f. rom. Phil, 

und das Verhaltniss der provenQalischen III. 61 1 . 

UDdderlateinischenLebensbeschreibung ^ In Romania, YII. 161-235, of. 

dee til. HonoratOB von S. Hosch. Ber- also ib. toI. YIII. 136. 
lin, 1877. ^ Da rdle historiqne de Bertran de 

"-* In Grober's ZeitHhrift fur rom. Bom par Ldon Clcdat Paris, 1879, 

PAf7. II. 136-142. in the * Bibl. des ^coles fran<;aise8 

3 Forfurtherparticularsseei^oinafita, d'Athdnes et de Eome faso. septi^me.' 

138 THE president's annual address for 1882. 

fur deuhche Philologie, voL XII., is of peculiar interest. It is 
a Latin poem in stanzas with a Proven9al burden, perhaps 
merely the Latinisation of an original popular Provencal 
song, which is very diflferent in its contents from the later 
Albas, and must be considered as a military watch song. 
The Proven9al burden is, — 

** L'alba par umed mar atra sol 
Poy pas a bigil mira clar tenebras." * 

Its lines of nine and twelve syllables appear in their metrical 
construction to correspond to lines of eleven and fifteen 
syllables, in which, after the two (or three) principal interior 
ictus, the syllabic expression of the thesis is suppressed. It 
is well known that the oldest Troubadour, William IX., 
unites lines of 11 and 15 (or 14) syllables in three of his 
poems, and these shew clearly marked ictus by means of 
the verbal accent, on precisely the same places as the 
Alba. (We have here verses with more than two fixed ictus, 
similar to the lines of 12 syllables with three ictus, on 
the 4th, 8th, and 12th syllable ; see on this point Romania^ 
X. p. 70, note 1). Bartsch^ has asserted the Celtic origin of 
these and som : other kinds of verse, in opposition to Arbois 
de Jubainville and Gaston Paris, but probably incorrectly, 
because it is very easy to see in them transformations of the 
old long line of 16 syllables with trochaic rhythm. A paper 
by Maus, now in the press, will endeavour to settle the 
metrical imitations of Pierre Cardinal. I have myself spoken 
of some other very marked cases of formal imitation in 
Grober's Zeiischrift, IV. 102. 

"III. The philological contributions to Italian, Spanish, 
Portuguese, Rumanic, and Rhaeto-Komanic, can be even 
more briefly summarised than those to Proven9al. Toward 
Italian grammar Canello has contributed an essay on the 
Vocalismo tonico in Grober's Zeitschrift, I., and another on Oli 
allotropi italiani in Ascoli's Archivio, III. Caix's work on Le 

^ In English, according to the inter- obliquely over the hill, shines brightly 

pretation in the Liter aturblatt, 1882, upon the darkness." 

No. 1 notes: *< The dawn appears, the ' Zeitschrift fiir rom. Phil., III. 

sun jtttracts the humid sea, passes 359 ft. 



origini deUa lingua poetica, Florence, 1880, is interesting and 
instructive. Other contributions have been made by the 
same writer, by d'Ovidio, Pio Rajna (* On the Dialects of 
Italy ' in the eighth annual address of the President to the 
Philological Society, 1879), Grober and Gaspary, but we 
are still in want of a really scientific Italian grammar 
suitable to replace that of Blank,^ which is antiquated on 
many points. The writings of Demattio' in this direction 
have no great value, and other grammars, as those of 
Vockeradt^ and Stadler,* have practical aims in view. 

" Of publications of texts I may name Forster's impression 
of the Gallo-Italian sermons in Romanische Studien (though 
they perhaps rather belong to the Franco-Provenjal division) ; 
several publications of dialectal texts in Ascoli's Archivio 
Glottologico, vols. IV. and VII. ; Monaci's impression of 
the Cauzoniere chigiano in the Italian journal Propiigna- 
tore I mv own edition of the Cantare di Fi^rabraccia in 
No. IL of the ' Editions and Essays ' (to which is prefixed 
an investigation by Buhlmann on its relation to the Pro- 
ven9al and French forms) ; Pio Rajna's edition of a Ver- 
sione d^i sette sari in otfava rima,^ on which he had already 
treated in Romania ; Varnhagen's impression of an * Italian 
prose- version of the seven wise men * ; ^ Castet's edition of an 
Italian version of the Roman de la Rose in sonnets by Durante, 
entitled Fiore;^ and finally, the excellent Saggio on a new 
critical edition of the Rime di F. Petrarca, with a copious 
commentary by the gifted poet Giosu^ Carducci (Livorno, 

" Many works are devoted to Italian literature. I may 
name the much appreciated Storia della letteratura italiana by 

* Grammatik der italieniRchen 
Sprache vou L. G. BlanJ^. Halle, 1841. 

' Uranimutica storica della liii<rua 
italiana ad uso del Giunasi e doi caudi- 
dati alio insfguamento, per F. Demattio, 
Insbruck, 1875-«. Orij,nne, Forma- 
zione ed Elcmeuti della lingua italiana, 
ib. 1878, 2»ediziono. 

3 Lehrbuch der italienischen Sprache 
fiir die obereu Klassen hoherer Lehrau- 

8talt«n und zum Privat-Studium, von 
H.Vockenidt. Berlin, 1878. 2Theilo. 

* Lehrbuch der italieiiischen Sprache 
zura Schul- Privat- und Selbts- Unter- 
richt Von K. Stiidler, 4^« giinzlich um- 
gearbeitote Aurtage. Berlin, 1878. 

* Bologna, 1 880. Scelta di curiositu 
Ictterarie, Dispensa CJAXVl. 

« Berlin, 1881. 

' Montpellier et Paris, 1881. 

140 THE president's ANNUAL ADDRESS FOR 1882- 

A. Bartoli ; ^ Canello's valuable Storia della htteratura italiana 
nel secoh xvi., Milan, 1880 ; and Korting's * History of 
Italian literature at the time of the Renaissance/ ^ which is 
planned on a very extensive scale ; the two volumes already 
published treating of the lives and works of Petrarch and 
Boccaccio. For Petrarch we have also the thorough Studj 
by Zumbini (Napoli, 1878), for Boccaccio the important Studj 
8ulle ojyere Mine by A. de Hortis, Trieste, 1879, and the 
Italian translation of Landau's Biography by G. Antona- 
Traversi (Napoli, 1881). Of other works I may mention 
the Studj di critica by A. d'Ancona (Bologna, 1880) ; the 
learned work Le fonti deW Orlando fut^o by Pio Rajna 
(Firenze, 1876), to whom we owe a large number of other 
works on the older romantic poetry of Italy ; the Studj 
d^erudiziofie e (Parte by Adolfo Borgognoni (vol. 2°, Bologna, 
1878) ; and finally, Gaspary's careful work ' The Sicilian 
school of poets in the thirteenth century ' {Die aicilianische 
Dichtersckule des 13 Jahrhutiderts^ Berlin, 1878). 

" For Spanish, we have first of all to welcome the appear- 
ance of a scientific Grammar by P. Forster.* The first 
volume is all that has yet appeared, and of course that does 
not allow us to pass a final judgment upon it. Next we 
must hail the * Studies on the Romanic making of words' 
{Studien sur romanuschen Wort^chopfung) ^ by the learned 
Romanic scholar Caroline Michaelis de Yasconcellos, in 
which splendid work the Spanish language has been 
especially considered. The independent nature of this 
language, and the way in which, as regards the formation of 
words, it has cut itself loose from Latin and taken its own 
path, is especially what the learned authoress has grasped, 
and for the first time brought into proper light. Among the 
editions I mav mention VoUmoller's new edition of the 
Poenia del Cid^^ of which however the second volume, in- 
tended to contain notes and a glossary, has not yet appeared. 
In the mean time Comu has begun to publish his Etudes sur 

» Fwnze, 1879. « I^ipzig, 1876. 

5 Ltinzi^, 1S7S-S0. * Halle, 1879. 

» Berlin,^ 1S81. 


k Pokme dii Ctd in Romaniu, vol. X. Again, several publica- 
tions by H. Knust from the MSS. of the Escurial have to be 
noticed ; ^ also an edition of Juan Manuel's El lihro de lu Caza 
by Baist ; ^ another very careful edition of Calderon's Magico 
prodigioso by Morel Fatio,^ and several others. The Calderon 
jubilee of course produced a flood of writings composed for 
the festival, and mostly of no scientific value.* A useful 
manual for the beginner is a short grammar and chresto- 
mathy given by d'Ovidio and Monaci in No. 1 of their 
Manualetti d^ introduzione agli stud) neolatini^ Naples, 1870, 
which they have followed up as No. 2, 1881, with a similar 
and somewhat more copious one for Portuguese. 

"For Portuguese, von Reinhardstoettner's 'Grammar of 
the Portuguese language'^ is a meritorious work, although 
objections of various kinds have been made to it. Cornu has 
published the first part of his Etudes de grammaire portuguaise 
in Romania^ vol. X., which promise to give interesting expla- 
nations. Among editions of texts the first place belongs to the 
careful diplomatic impression of the celebrated Songbook of 
the Vatican in Monaci's Communlcazioni dalle hiblioteche di 
Roma (Halle, 1875). In the second volume of the same 
collection Monaci has published the Codice Colocci-Brancuti, 
which, hitherto supposed to be lost, .but rediscovered by 
Molt^ni, supplements the Vatican collection in a most 
desirable manner. It is well known that the text of this MS. 
was disfigured in the most frightful way by the Italian scribe, 
who was ignorant of Portuguese, and requires a complete 
critical reconstruction. Monaci had already attempted this 
himself for some songs. Some others, similarly treated, he 
dedicated to me as a wedding present, with the title Cantos 
de Ledino, Halle, 1875. Th. Braga has undertaken to furnish 

' Dos obras didacticas y dos levendas * For further particulars I refer to 

sacadas de manuscritos de la Biblioteca A. Morel Fatio's Calderon^ Jtevue 

del £8corial. D&las a luz la Sociedadde critique dea traraiix (t erudition publiea 

BiblidfUos espafioles. Madrid, 1878. en Espagne d Voccaaion du aecond cen- 

Mittheilungcn aus dem Escurial von H. tenaire de la mort du potte. Suivie de 

Kua«»t, gedr. turdenliterarischenVerein docwnenta relatifa a Vaneien theatre 

in Stutt^rt. Tiibingen, 1880. eapagnol, Paris, 1881. 

» Halle, 1881. * Strassburg, 1878. 

» HeUbronn, 1877* 

142 THE president's annual address for 1882. 

such a reconstruction, but his Cancioneiro Portuguez da 
Vaticana, edigao critica, Lisbon, 1878, is a too hasty work, in 
which he has even omitted to cite for comparison the 56 
Caniiyas of the Cancioneiro da AjtAda, which recur in the 
Vatican MS. The same Th. Braga has produced a whole 
series of other writings bearing upon the literature and 
literary history of Portugal. I need only mention his 
Antologia portugufiza. Oporto, 1876, and Manual da historia 
da Utteratuni jwringueza desde as suas origens ati ao presente, 
Oporto, 1875. 

*' For Rumanic we have first works on its speech - 
sounds by liumbrior,* Qaster,^ and Miklosich,' then the com- 
pletion of the valuable Dictionnaire by Cihac,* the second 
part of which treats of the non-Latin elements of Rumanic. 
Ilusdeu's journal, entitled Cohimna lui Traian, which ceased 
to appear in 1877, contains many interesting contributions, 
and especially older Rumanic texts. A further publication by 
Hasdeu in two volumes, which is also devoted to the oldest 
texts of the Rumanic language, and is entitled Cucente den 
hiktmniy Bacuresci, 1878-1880, has led to unpleasant explana- 
tions between Cihac and Gaster. 

"The Rhirtoromanic language has also some noteworthy 
grammatical works to shew, as Th. Gartner's Die Gredner 
Jfttndarty Linz, 1S79 ; Alton's Ueber die ladinisc/ten Idioine 
in Ladinien, Groden,, Fassa, Bttchemstein^ Ampezzo, Innsbruck, 
1879, and Boehmer's contributions in various numbers of 
his Bomanische Studien. Stiirzinger's dissertation Die Conju" 
gation im lilidforomaniiicheH^ also deservee attention. Among 
important older texts, J. Ulrieh has published Le sacrifice 
tTAbraham^ Jfy^ftire engadinoisy in Somania^ voL YIIL, and in 
vol. IX. of the same the Catechi$me romaitt^ by Bonifaci. 
In the Atvhirio GMMogiiV^ vol. YII. C. Decurtis gave an 

^ Emi ^ phon^tique rounuune par Fnuu Miklwich, in the *' Sitzimgs- 

A- Lamhiior, JUmmntmy IX. 99 and bt richte '* of the Academ? of Vienna. 

867 ff. Vienna, IS^l. 

* d intfchen Lantgiwchiehte. * Dii*tionnair« d'EtvmoIogie Daco- 

TQB M. l«a»ter in Roroane. Klements slares^ ma^yars, 

••^^ liir rmm* I^kii. 11. turvs. «TWs-miHierne, et albanois, par 

*: lnhre der raman- A. de Oihao. Frankfort-a.-M., 1S79. 

L> von ^ Zurich, 1$79. 


edition of four 'testi soprasilvani/ and Ascoli will in the 
same volume add a translation and notes to one of them. 
A. von Flugi has communicated some specimens of modern 
Ladin poetry in Grober's Zeifschn/t, vol. III., and in vol. I. of 
the same has treated of ^ The Ladin Dramas of the sixteenth 
century.' Rausch has also given some linguistic remarks on 
the Miiaser Krieg, etc., in the same Journal, II. 99. 

"IV. Finally, we must cast a glance over the works 
which treat of the Romance languages as a whole. Linguis- 
tically I may mention W. Forster's 'Contributions to Rot 
mance phonetics, I. Yowel Mutation, properly speaking 
vowel elevation, in Romance' {Beitrdge zur romaninchen 
Laufiehre, I. Umlaut eigentUch Vocahteigerung im Roman- 
ischm)^ printed in Grober's Zeitschrift, vol. III. (the theory 
here upheld is, however, very open to attack) ; J. TJlrich's 
Dissertation, ' The formal development of the past participle 
in Romance languages ' {Die formelle Enticickelung dea Par^ 
ticipium praeteriti in den romanischen Sprac/ien^) ; Diez's last 
work, ' The Romanic making of words ' {Romanische Wort* 
schop/iing, Bonn, 1875), an appendix to his grammar of the 
Romance languages, of which the fifth edition is now pub- 
lishing ; Foth's dissertation, * The shifting of the Latin tenses 
in the Romance languages ' (Die Verachiehung der lateinischen 
Tempora in den romanischen Sprachen), in No. 8 of Romanische 
Studien ; Meunier's work, published after his death by A. 
Darmesteter, Les Composes qui contiennent tin verhe d un 
mode personnel en latin, en frangais, en italien et en cspagnol, 
Paris, 1875, an investigation related to Darmesteter's work 
already mentioned ; F. A. Coelho's Os dialectos Romanicos on 
Neo- Latinos na Africa, Asia e America, on which very 
interesting work compare an article in the Litteratiirhlatt 
fur germanische und romanische Philologie, 1881, col. 256. 
To these must be added numerous new Romance Etymologies 
which Scheler has collected in the Appendix to the fourth 
edition of Diez's * Etymological dictionary of .the Romance 
languages,' Bonn, 1878, which has appeared under his 

» Winterthur, 1879. 

144 THE president's annual address for 1882. 

superintendence. Many other proposed etymologies will be 
found in the various journals which lay themselves out for 
the cultivation of Romance philology. Among these journals, 
the following two have ceased to appear within the last seven 
years : * The Annual (Jahrbuch) for Romance and English/ 
of which 15 volumes have appeared, and the Mirisfa di filo^ 
login romanza^ which only lasted for two volumes. In place 
of the Annual, the ' Journal for Romance philology ' {Zeit- 
schrift fur romaniHche Philohgie) has appeared, edited by 
Grober. It enjoys the active collaboration of almost all 
German Rr^mance scholars, and has just completed its 
fifth volume.^ As was the case in the Annual, a copious 
bibliography of the preceding year is to be added to each 
volume. The Qiornale di filologia romanza, under the 
editorship of Monaci, of which 3 vols, have now appeared, 
serves as the organ of Italian Romance scholars in place 
of the Ririsfa mentioned above. 

"A question which reaches beyond the strict limits of 
Romance philology into the Latin territory : what is the 
part played by the quantity of Latin and Romance vowels la 
producing a change of quality P has been investigated by 
Boehmer and ten Drink in opposite directions. Boehmer's 
thesis was SSound not length,'^ ten Brink's 'Both sound and 
length.''"' In this discussion, which has unfortunately beea 
conducted with i)orsonal animosity, Boehmer appears to have 
defended the correct view, as I have already stated in speak* 
ing about ten Brink's Essay in the Jenaer Literatarzeitung^ 
1879, Art. IGS. At any rate ten Brink's assertions give 
rise to considerable doubt. Other questions of general im- 
portance, which also touch on the Philology of the Romance 
languages, have been treated in a masterly manner by Ascoli 

^ A new noriodionl of the mmo kind, 

snderthe nlitnrNhip of K. Vollmollcr, 

bM jitiit Wn comniriKMNl nndor tho fit In 

o( •• Romaninohn F<>rHrliun)^«n," Kr- 

a. . Krtrni 1880 the M.itom- 

lurKermaniiicho iind mmnniKoho 

/fldiUtdby Ikdmgv^l mid Nou- 

miif hM Wn oxrhiKivoIy 

1. Anoihrr ptTiiNliciil 

oonflned to French 

rhilolofiy, is announced to begin in 
July, 1882, under the title of Oallia^ 
liCi'pzi^, 1882 ; it will be edited bj 
I)r, Knviimer of Cassol. 

^ Romanischc Studicn, III. 351 and 

' Dauor und Klan^. Ein Beitrag 
zur Gt'schichte dor \ ocalquantitat im 
AltfranzusiKchen von B. ten Brink. 
Straasburg, 1879. 


in Una lettera gioitologica, Torino, 1881. I cannot treat here 
at any length of the works which specially deal with the vulgar 
ind later Latin, among which those of Wolflin in particular 
are of great interest to Romance scholars ; I must refer for 
them to K Ludwig's reports in Bursian's ' Annual report on 
the progress of the science of classical antiquity' (Jahres- 
berichi uber die Fortschritte der classischen Alterthumswissen- 
Khqft, Berlin, 1876-8). 

** During the last seven years some general surveys have 
appeared of the development of Romance philology. Thus 
F. I^eumann reported on Romance philology during the last 
two years in Kuhn's Zeitachrift fur tergkichende Sprachfor- 
9ehung, new series, lY. Karl Sachs in an address printed in 
Herrig's Archiv, vol. 54, treated of ' The present condition of 
the investigation of Romance dialects' (Ueber den heutigen 
Stand der romanischen Dialectforachung), Lastly Marius 
Sepet delivered in 1878 before the Congrh bibliographique 
international a short and rather one-sided report on Lea dtudes 
relatifs d la literature fran^aise du nioyen dge, 

"I conclude with mentioning the writings which treat 
of the conception and method of Romance philology or its 
particular branches. These are a number of rather popular 
lectures. 'The science of language and modem languages' 
(Sprachwissenschaft und neuere Sprachen) by Breymann, 
Hunich, 1876. Storia letteraria e comparazione by A. Graf, 
Torino, 1876. La storia compnrata delle letterature neo-latine, 
and Frederico Diez e la filologia romanza by M. Angelo Canello 
in his Saggi di critica letteraria j Bologna, 1877. Le letterature 
neo-latine nelle nostre Universitd by Pio Rajna, printed in the 
Nuova Antoiogia, 1878, 15 January. Cours d^Hiatoire de la 
langue Frangaiae, Geneva, 1876, by E. Ritter. L'enaeignement 
de la philologie romane en France and La langue et la littira- 
ture frangaise au moyen age by Boucherie (Montpellier, 1878 
and 1881). La langue et la litterature procengale by Chaba- 
neauy Paris, 1879. On the other hand, the 'Encyclopedia 
of the philological study of modem languages ' [Encyclopadie 
de9 philologischen Studiums der neueren Sprachen) by the late 
Prof. B. Schmitz of Greifswald, which is now in its second 
FhiL Inuu. 1882-8-4. 10 

146 THE FASSIDKXT's AKNUAL address for 18B2 

edition (I^eipzig, 1875-7), must be oharaoterised as thoroughly 

"May Roniance Philology continue to shew a similar 
activity, hut at the same time give greater attention to those 
parts which have hitherto been insufficiently oultivated I 
Aad especially may Romance scholars of alt countries more 
and more sink petty jealousies and national antipathies, 
remembering that real science acknowledges Truth as its 
only aim I " 


With this report I conclude my address. The field 
covered this evening has been very extensive, reaching £rom 
the languages of naked barbarians that bad no system of 
record, through the dialects of cultivated nations, which are 
equally unrecorded by the speakers, but which philologists 
are endeavouring to preserve as part of the material whence 
a science of language may be constructed ; and then through 
some of the oldest records of language in the wedge-formed 
characters, down to the modem cultivated forms, whioh are 
themselves only descendants of some older European tongaee, 
together with the principle of phonetics which underlies 
their outward transformation, and even some of the studies 
of the principles of philology whioh regulate their inward 
change. No one can glance over the contents of this address, 
which the kindness of friends in and out of the Society has 
enabled me to bring before you, and the array of treatises 
therein mentioned, without feeling what an enormous 
moss of work there is for a philologist to accomplish before 
he ventures upon more than a tentative construotioQ of the 
science of language. Everybody in this world who is not 
dumb, is daily chattering. The very barbarians ohatter aa. 
glibly as speakers of our most cultivated languages, and in 
their chattering make distinctions whioh tha latter have not 
only not conceived, but whioh they find it diffloolt ersp, 
to conceive as habitually conceived. What I have boon 
enabled to lay beibra yon ooooomii ■ *" ' ^Qg ^^^^ d^^ 


Andamanese, demoDBtrates this dearly eaough. Bat upon 
vhat priaoiples do they and we chatter? The daily, Day 
the momentary operations of life, those with which we are 
most familiar, become the moat difficult aubjects of investi- 
gatioQ. We have to go out of ourselves, to see the 
phenomena in others before we can appreciate their aignifi- 
cance. And hence the necessity of collecting foreign 
materials in abundance, to understand our home growth. 
Their own dialects are to the literary a really foreign growth, 
and hence the scattered materials which I have brought 
before you to-night are all contributions towards the under- 
standing of language by viewing it beyond ourselves. Even 
the great work under Dr. Murray's editorship, which all 
of us must devoutly hope he will live to complete, while 
keeping to the cultivated domain of a single language, goes 
beyond ourselves at every turn by tracing the use of words 
historically, by shewing from actual record the words of 
different centuries, and thus forcing upon our attention the 
real growth of language, which is going on even now all 
about us without our noting it. We that read history, make 
history, more especially in words. 

With few exceptions all who have helped me this evening 
are hard-working philologists. But these themselves, as the 
names they cite shew, are but sparse representatives of the 
great army which is vigorously endeavouring to conquer 
the immense, the multifarious, the ever variable problem 
of language. Like all sciences the science of language pays 
ill, except in the pleasure which it gives to its cultivators. 
All the more proud have we to be of the hosts which range 
themselves under its banners ! That we have advanced and 
are advancing rapidly, an extremely cursory glance through 
a very few years is suf&cient to shew. See how much Prof. 
Stengel has to record in his one department during the few 
years which have elapsed between the two periods for which 
you honoured me with your presidency. But it is like the old 
story of the climber — the more summits we surmount the 
more we see before us to overcome. 

But I nuut conclude. Allow me first in your name to 

148 THE president's annual address for 1882. 

tender the best thanks of the Philological Society to Messrs. 
Murray, Skeat, Bridges, Man, Temple, Jiilg, Pinches, Sweet, 
and Stengel for their interesting and valuable contributions to- 
wards this evening's presidential address. For myself. Ladies 
and Gentlemen, I feel that at my time of life it is practically 
impossible for me to be your President again. But I shall 
never forget your kindness in electing me temporarily at 
first to supply the place of that eminent Sanscrit scholar. 
Prof. Goldstiicker, whom we lost so suddenly before the first 
year of his presidency had expired, and then in your re-elect- 
ing me for the regular two years of office. I felt then, as I 
felt when you again called upon me to take the chair, that 
I was not a regular philologist, that in fact I indulged in 
too many other engrossing pursuits, and that in philology 
itself I was far too one-sided, far too much of a mere 
phonetist, to discharge the duties of your President with 
satisfaction — at least to myself. I regret that during my 
second presidency external and unexpected circumstances 
have prevented me from doing as much for the Society as 
a President ought to do. But you have kindly condoned 
my shortcomings, and I take leave of you as President — I 
hope still to be generally present at your meetings — ^with the 
most profound feeling of gratitude for the honour you have 
done me, in these three elections, and in your continued 
kind support of me while in this chair. I feel happy to 
think that my successor designate (Dr. Murray) is in every 
way fitter to direct your deHberations than myself. And 
therewithal I bid you heartily fisu^welL 


By Prof. PosTGATE, M.A. 


In Plaut. Cas. 1, 30 huic lucebU nouae nupfae facem and id. 
Cure. 1. I. 9 lautua luces cereum occurs a remarkablo active 
use of this verb. The meaning in both places is not merely 
the active side of lucere to shine ; if luces cereum has anything 
to do with ' shining ' it means to hold a shining taper, not to 
make a taper shine. The usage suggests two questions for 
our solution. (1) Can we find anything in the use of the 
other acknowledged compounds of luceo to shine to justify 
this use P (3) Failing that can we iind another explanation 
of the word ? 

(1) It may be admitted thot the neuter use of hiceo for 

sUvea or other persona carrying a light is both natural and 

supported by analogies. So serum praeluceiu, a slave going 

in front with s light, Suet. Aug. 29, 'saepe ■asLtaaii praeluxi' 

Stat. Silu. 1. 2. 89 'I often lighted his path before him in 

the wavea,' and, in a metaphorical sense, Auson. Id. 6. 95 

'his ego quaeeiui meritum quam grande nepoti consul anus 

lum«ique tuae praeluceo uitae,' where the verb has been taken 

actively without necessity or authority. Tlie meaning is 

that ' my example is a lamp for thy feet,' ' a light for the life 

joomey before thee.' It may further be admitted that com- 

pomdi of luceo to shine might under certain circumstances 

Ue an active construction. Thus in Plaut. Bacch. 2. 3. 21 

'Tuletinis Sol Lnna Dies dei quattuor Scelestiorem nullum 

iMuuiK ifftuetre alterura.' the ace. is quite intelligible, being 

practically governed by the in of illuxere or the idea of 

motion which it contains. But it cannot be admitted that, 

if tHe Bimple luceo was originally neuter, this change of mean- 

g uid construction is anything but surprising. It is true 

"'^t the original meaning (tf luceo may have been active and 

fULTnni !. 11 


:ho center a s;;:^«:-qaent dovelopiceiit. as in ihe Greek iairfo 
which is al?o us-.xi absoiutelv oi* torches to show the wav : 
com pa IV <ia; w a ' torch/ And if this view is thought generally 
sa:;>:Ac:ory. I shaU not oppose it, although I would have 
pretVrrtvi tc* s<'e more example* of the active use. But I 
imagitie t:-.:> is r»o: very likely to happen. I pass then 
to the ikxv-nd i::qu:ry. 

C There is an old word ;-:rV.;f;. 'r'-iii ■■:(■' n — j-'olhtcfu* — 
rrV •"-; — •:•;".' :-:}.\'i< be;or.g:r.g to religious language which 
mear.t to •ctfvr' and is practical'y eciiivalent to j^yrn'cio *to 
stretch o;;t in cdferir.ff/ See the iir-iv^rtant evidence of 
Vsrro L L. 6 § o-t Muiler 'pvHuCtum subst. quod a porri- 
cionc.o est tectum, cura e'.:im ex mtreibus libamenta porrecta 
sunt Hcrcu'.i in anam. turn jv-lluctum est.' There has 
K?en c^ner,il airreomont about the derivation of this word 
wh:»:h is cxrr.nivtcvi with Skt. r. '. Germ, rficlcn, etc., by 
Var.icck Wbuch. p. >07 and the authorities there quoted. 
It does net th^n seem an undu'.y speculative proj^osal to see 
in the »•' v; of Piautus //'. i'^*. the simp^.e of this compound 
i\\* ■■*>:• jvr-lucoi^, ci. pi^r-ricio. pcr-rigo^. pc-l-liceo, etc.) and to 
take it in the sense of • holdinc out ' a ra'per orlinkbov's torch. 
It is not Strang if it c»t contused with the neuter verb 
v/.*/\"» to shine, and it is not impossiKe that the above quoted 
use of yrt^fht^-^y- may K* an outoome of the confusion. Such 
o\>lonring« of one wot\1 by another are nvM uncommon, especially 
in 1«atin and its dojHvndants. One may be quoted here. 
iittmrti ^suginion from sugx^ to 'suck' and therefore properly the 
bnMi*t) oarly obtained a sjxvial reference to the breast of a 
aow (jcNit)« a favourite dish among the Romans. The associa- 
tion of the word with smu became finally so powerful that 
Jnv^nal evtm u(ic« it fi^ a sow, Sats 12. 73. 

MoNiM and the so-called I^tin termination -tryrc. 

This with its diminutive tHCMHr^rftif ^ Alranins, Statins, Petro- 
nius) is A rars irord and means a kind of pastry or cake. It has 
howaTMr gmemlly btwi assamed to be a pare Latin word and 
oonncolad with iMi^ims, Xa{iiK, HcmuK Vanicek p. 826,^ in iq>ite 

L Uk p. 16S (Lcipng, HinaU 1863). 


of the fact that these confectioners' words are prevailingly 
Greek — in one place Ihcuhh is coupled with pemma Varro ap. 
Non. 131. 24 — in spite of the meaning of the word ' a flat pan- 
cake/ TTjyavLTij^ Gloss. Lab., and in spite of its un-Latin ter- 
mination -ini8. Of this I only know three other instances : 
Acherwis (G]s.. 'A-xiptov) Opuns {^Oiroxs) and Arrum Etruscan.^ 
It seems to me to be certainly a LehmcoH and from the Greek 
TrXoicov? {Tr\aKovvro<i) y also a flat cake. The nasal may be 
either an echo of the gen. as seems to be the case in Acheruns^ 
Opuns or indicate a nasalised vowel ; cf. ihemauruSy Scopten- 
aula? The loss of the initial consonant before I need not 
surprise us. Compare laena=Gr. '^XaZva, and probably linier, 
lunter =.Gr, irXwrijp and more examples in native Lat. words 
in Corss. i.* 113.^ For the change of a to u we have a very 
close parallel in iucuna a bye form of lacuna. The unfamiliar 
form of the word assisted the assimilation. Such simplifica- 
tions are not uncommon in borrowed words. Either the 
memory is assisted by a borrowed word being provided with 

' ^^Acrun* is Plautine ; Opuns in Lonjr. Schol. Veron. Virg. Aen. 3. 705 (Neue). 
We know nothing about ^txuNtes (cit^tl bv AVeise, op. eit. p. 45), if, indeed, that 
be the ancient form, which is doubtful. "VVe ct- rtainly do not know what its worn. 
Wftrt. It is not the slightc^st justitication for the ai^um])tion of a native origin to 
appeal to the other tenuinatioun in -//«, which are acknowledged to be genuine 
l^tin endings, as -oiu {fous^ front) ^ -*m {fftns), etc. AVe shall hear next that 
'in* is a native Latin termination. Those who still think that the support of 
-6M«, -r/j«, etc., is sufficient for -unit^ or that the anubi^r}' ol Etruscan forms is any 
warrant for Latin, I would recommend first to consider why it is that we have 
adieHt, obicns, and the like in the nom., while we have a(Uuntem, obcuntem in the 
aoc., and bo on throughout the stem ; and then what they are to do with the 
following passage of Cnarisius, and the quotation from Pliny there, Inst. Gr. i. 
17. p. 106 (Keu Gramm. Lat. i. p. 130), " Frus, haec frus, quia sic ab Ennio est 
declmatum annalinm libro Yii, russescunt frundes, non trondes, 'fros sine n 
littean ne faciat,* inquit Plinius 'frontis,' quasi non dicatur nisi frons rh fidrwrow 
quodseprohare dicit qnoniam antea cum u non recipiebat ;<, sed nee cum m 
uertet {lurtU perf. seems rather required) ; Varro renim rusticarum libro i * ulmos 
et popnlofl unae est fros,' idem antiquitatum Romanarum libro xv 'fros faenum 
meana.' In this passage the best MS. (X.) has qm anticum (or unticum), v. 2. 
redpiebat, «. «. nee cum Q tet in o, i.e. quoniam antea cum m non recipiebat na 
nee cum u uertet in o, nor do I see why Keil deviates from N. But the sense is 
cImt. In old Latin /»o//», a leaf was declined //•«», //-m;///!*, -wis not being admis- 
nble, and the « was also omitted, even when the o was used. Thb, Pliny says, 
does not apply to /ro/iAy/z-o/f/M. 
* The former seems to be rather the case from the numerous instances in which 

Greek worda in -os^ -oKrof, became -ana in I^t. Abansy Atlaua Cic. Tnsc. 5. 3. 8 

(Reg., Gi]d),yirg. Aen. i. 741, etc., Pallana, Athamana^ Garamana. See the 

refereneea in Nene, Formenlehre i. p. 148. 
' It is worth adding that there is not a single Latin word beginning with 


152 BOMB Latin btymologibs. prof, postgate, 

new relatioDS in the borrowing language and being adopted, 
80 to speak, into a native family (Popular Etymology) or else 
the strain on it is lightened by the number of its separate 
constituent sounds being reduced to a minimum and especially 
by a particular vowel being pressed through all its syllables. 
This is the case too where a language is in a state of un- 
settled transition and is the key to several somewhat sur- 
prising phonetic changes, such as the predominance of a in 
Bomanco unaccented syllables where the Latin has e i or 
even u. 

If my view of the word is correct, we shall have to 
recognize Iucuhs as a doublet of placenta {vXaxouiTo.) ' which 
has long been taken as a borrowing from the Qreek. 
licus and lucius. 

In his Etymological Dictionary (s,v. ka) Professor Skeat 
repeats the old derivation from iucere with the additional 
explanation that liictts means an 'open space in a wood.' 
This addition certainly relieves the etymology from its old 
absurdity and involves a perfeotly possible change of meaning ; 
compare ev trcpufiatvo/ih^, Od. 5. 476, for a clearing. But it is 
inadmissible from the fact that lacm does not mean an ' opening 
in a wood ' in Latin for which the proper term is netnuB. The 
sacred character of a lacus is well known. This is due to 
its consisting of trees whose sacred character with the anoie&ta 
it is unnecessary to establish. A reference to the interesting 
passage in Lucan's Pharsalia iii. 399 sqq. may however be 
permitted. Compare Hot. Epist. i. 6. 32 'nirtntem uerba 
putas et lucum ligna,* i.e. thot saored trees are only timber. 
The places where it is actually opposed to nemiit iiru more 
conclusive for its meaning. So in Propertius iv. (v). 9, S 
lucus ubi umbroso fecerat orbe nemns ' Where the saorl 
trees (lucus) bad made a nemitt with their ring of sliade.' 
words are also opposed in Seneca H«rc. Oet. !J5G, Tao. Gen 
9. Now it is quite true that the three words lucttg, i 
and silua ore used with a certain degree of looeeneee; 


that the proper meaning of ttemus ' wooded pasture, glade ' ( — 
the Greek vifWi, with which indeed it is generally connected), 
has been enlarged to that of ' wood,' and that therefore ttemm 
can be used for liiciis, where the sacred character of the latter 
is not insisted on. Tet the converse is by no means true ; and 
lacus the 'trees,' is never used for nemm the 'clearing' or 
' opening ' in the wood. A different etymology then is needed. 
A natural suggestion is that a collection of trees is named from 
its shade ; and Iticus I take to have meant originally ' shade,' 
and to be connected with the Gk. \vy^ 'darkness,' Xvydtm 
'dark,' ri-Xiiy-r), ^Xyf 'darkness,' ^-Xvy-ows (with prosthetic 
1} ; cf. Curt. Gr. Et. 714) ' dark,' hr-TiKuy-di^ta ' to draw a veil 
, over' which have hitherto been underived. colliicare lucum 
Cato de Ke Kustica 139 is to 'make a clearing in a wood,' to 
remove its shade completely. Cf. Fest. ap. Paul. Diac. p. 50 
(a passage which tends to show that, if lucua is to be con- 
nected with colluco, its sacred character was accidental and 
derived from the sacred character of its trees) coUucare 
dicebant cum profanae silitae rami deciderentur officientes 
lumini; in p. 151 he explains it more exactly as succkU 
arboribns locum implere luce. So sublucare arborem Feat. 
p. 34 of pruning a tree, and interlucare and interlucatio more 
than once in Pliny of partial clearing. It will be observed 
that these verbs presume a simple 'liicare to ' clear of shade ' 
to take its bicin from anything, as we speak of 'beheading' 
and of 'heading' and 'tailing' shrimps. 

With lucu» is connected, I believe, lueias, the name of a 
fish that lived in dark pools A >n. Id. 10. 120 
hio etiam Latio rutu pra imine, cultor 
atagnorom, qaernlis nis ii issima ranis, 
Ate^M, obMmn* oIqa oui iq laoonas 
It seems not impossible that for lu{e)tew, the man one 

of whose lights is darkened, i Kaohtigall are from 

the ukmo mot LUK, LUG. "ivative is 

liujeo whiuh properly mp"' uming, in black 

(uerti( lagi^iA* "ft* from the form 

indicating a 


state like splendeo, fl^ueo, fioreo^ etc. Hence the two deriva- 
tions of it (1) connecting it with Gk. Xilfyn to sob and (2) with 
Gk. \try£^6(> bend, Sk. rug break in pieces must be set aside. 
For the meaning * mourning ' I may refer to the dictionaries. 
A good example is Mart. l4. 37 puUo lugentes uellere lanas. 
Other places are Cic. Sext. 14, Plane. 42, Serv. ad Aen. xi. 
211, where he mentions the haliitta mutatio as a distinctive 
feature of /actus. 


DIALECTS. By H,I.H. Prince Lodis-Lucien 

The principal Celtic dialects, comprising Irish, Gaelic, and 
Manx amongst the Gaelic, and Welsh, Cornish, Breton, and 
Breton of Vannes amongst the Cambrian, are undoubtedly 
those which present more than any other the interesting 
property of regular initial mutations, suppressions, or addi- 
tions at the beginning of words, determined by the forms or 
meanings of preceding words. Other dialects, however, as 
I showed for the first time in my " Osservazioni sulla pro- 
nunzia del dialetto sassarese " (prefixed to the translation of 
the Gospel according to Saint Matthew into this dialect by 
the late Canon Spano, London, 1866), possess regular initial 
mutations similar to those of the middle form of the Celtic, 
and also others not to be found in Celtic, but yet taking place 
in a similar manner under the influence of a preceding word. 
In the several Basque dialects, initial mutations, correspond- 
ing to those of the advanced form (the " provection " of 
Zeuss), peculiar to Cornish, Breton, and Breton of Vannes, 
are also to be observed, but only under the influence of bai 
(when meaning 'because' and not 'yes'), and of ez 'not.' 
Amongst the four principal dialects of the Island of Sardinia, 
Logudorese and Cagliaritan, both belonging to the Sardinian 
language (but, as I think, Non-Italian, although Neo-Latin), 
show initial mutations belonging to the middle form of the 
Celtic languages, without reckoning those they have in 
common with standard Italian or Tuscan. And this obser- 
vation applies also to the third dialect of Sardinia, Sassarese, 
which is decidedly Italian, although not to the fourth, Tem- 
piese, which, being even more Italian than the Sassarese, 
possesses hardly any initial mutation not to be found in 
Italian. Regular initial mutations influenced by a preceding 
FliiL Trani. 1882-8-4. 12 



word as in Celtic, do certainly exist in Italian, but tbey do 
not belong to any of the foar Celtic forms, middld, nasal, 
aspirated, or advanced (" provection "). I place them under 
a new form, which I call ''weak," taking into consideration 
this very important fact, viz. that In Tuscan Italian, as well 
as in the majority of the real Italian dialects (such as Roman, 
the two Corsican, Tempiese, Sassarese, Sicilian, the two 
Calabrian, Neapolitan) initial consonants, although written 
single, are generally pronounced as they would be if written 
double. This strong pronunciation of consonants occurs not 
only at the beginning of any isolated word, or of any word 
beginning a sentence however short it may be, but also every 
time the consonant is not preceded by a word capable of 
determining the mutations constituting the '' weak " form. 
It iSf then, necessary to remember that, in Italian at least, the 
sounds which I represent in my tables by the symbols (bb, 
dd, tf, etc.), are the natural forms of consonants beginning 
thoir names in the Italian alphabet, and constituting their 
first or radical form (see note 5, p. 179). The sounds represented 
by the symbols (d, b, f, etc.), are, on the contrary, mere 
mutations of (bb, dd, ff, etc«), and are determined, as in 
Oultic, by a preceding word. 

Hofore i>utering into further details on the initial mutation^ 
of Coltio, Basque, Sardinian, and Italian, it will be as well to 
rt)iiuirk first that they may be determined by two very 
diiloreut causes, according to the nature of the dialects. The 
tlrMt, i>r purely syntactic, depends on the meaning of the 
word \kuA obtaius iu Celtic and Basque, while the second, not 
only syutuotio but phonetic as well, belongs to Sardinian and 
Ituliun. As au iustance, take the word ''heart," as in all 
ilu) (VUio, Sanliuiuu, and Italian dialects here treated: 
I '. li'inh, ovkihe, the Counaught pronunciation of which 
woiild U) (expressed phonetically and with the consonant and 
VMWV'l M) luMs I have adopted and explained in the first table, 
|iy (kiv'io); *^^ Gaelic, m<i/i^, pronounced according to the 
Ihvmimo«4m pixmuumtioa (krid); 3^. Manx, c/ir^, pron. (kri) ; 
I , VVpUh, Ciiion, pr. ^k&llon) ; 5"^. Cornish, colon (kolon) ; 
I Ua^Uui of L<k>n, or simply " Breton/' ealoun (k&lun) ; 


7°. Breton of Vannes, or simply " Vannes," kalon (kalon) ; 
8°. Logudorese, coro (kkoro) ; 9°. Cagliaritan, coru (kkoru) ; 
10°. Sassarese, 11°. Tempiese, and 12°. Southern Corsican, 
cari (kkori) ; 13°. Southern Calabrian and 14°. Sicilian, cori 
(kkori) ; 15°. Northern Corsican, 16°. vulgar Florentine or 
rather Florentine " Cianesco," 17°. Pisan with Livomese, and 
18°. Soman or rather "Ilomanesco Trasteverino ;" 20°. 
Northern Calabrian, core (kkorc) ; 19°. Neapolitan, core 
(kkora) ; 21°. Lucchese, core (kore) ;^ 22°. Standard Italian^ 
cuore (kkuore). All these words being isolated, occur under 
the radical form and begin with the voiceless sound expressed 
by (k), as in Celtic and vulgar Lucchese, or with its strong 
modification expressed by (kk), as in Sardinian and generally 
in Italian. Let us however prefix to them any of those 
words capable of determining an initial mutation, and we 
shall perceive, as in the following examples, that (k) has been 
mutated either into voiced (g), as in Celtic generally, Sar- 
dinian, and Sassarese, or has remained unaltered, as in 
Scottish Gaelic, or been entirely suppressed, as in vulgar 
Lucchese, while the strong modification (kk) has been 
mutated into the simple (k), as in standard Italian and the 
majority of its dialects, or into (h), as in vulgar Florentine, 
or otherwise suppressed, as in vulgar Pisan or Livomese. 
Thus : 1°. Irish, bhur gcroidhe (war gra'ie) your heart, instead 
of (war kra'ie) ; 2°. Gaelic, hhur cridhe (viir kria), id, ; 3°. 
Manx, nyti gree (w//ang gri), to?., instead of (wAang kri) ; 4° 
Welsh, dy gaian (da gallon), thy hearty inst. of (da k&llon) ; 
5°. Cornish, de golon (de golon), id., inst. of (de kolon) ; 6°. 
Breton, da galoun (da gdlun), «/., inst. of (da k&lun) ; 7°. 
Vannes, ha galon (ha galon), f</., inst. of (ha kalon) ; 8°. Lo- 
gudorese, 8u coro tou (ssu goro ddn), literally, the heart thy, 
inst. of (ssu kkoro d6\i) ; 9°. Cagliaritan, 8U coru tuu (ssu goru 
duu), id,, inst. of (ssu kkoru duu) ; 10°. Sassarese, iu to cori 
(llu do gori), literally, the thy heart, inst. of (llu do kk6ri) ; 
IP. Tempiese, lu to cori (llu to kori), id., inst. of (llu to 
kkori) ; 14°. Sicilian, hi to cori (llu to kon), id,, inst. of (llu 

^ As a general rule, Lucchese substitutes the weak for the radical Italian form. 


to kkon) ; 12°. Southern CorBican, u to cori (u \o kori), id.^ 
inst. of (u to kkori) ; 13°. Southern Calabrian, u to cori (u to 
kori), «V/., inst. of (u to kkor*) ; 15°, Northern Corsican, u to 
core (u to kor^), id,^ inst. of (u to kkore) ; 16°. Florentine, 
itto core (itt(J horc), id.y inst. of (itto kkor^) ; 17°. Pisan, er 
tu 'ore {er ttu 6r^), id,, inst. of (^r ttu kkorc) ; 18°. Roman, 
er iu core {er ttu k6r<?), id,, inst of {er ttu kkore) ; 20°. 
Northern Calabrian, lu core tue (Uu kore tu^), the heart thy, 
inst. of (Uu kkor^ tue) ; 19. Neapolitan, lo core tujo {u kora 
tuya), id., inst. of (m kkora tuya) ; 21°. Lucchese, il tu 'ore 
(il tu ore), the thy heart, inst. of (il tu kore) ; 22°. Standard 
Italian, // tuo ciiore (il ttuo kuore), id.^ inst. of (il ttuo 

However numerous may be the instances quoted, they will 

fail however to show the purely syntactic nature of the Celtic 

and the few Basque mutations, and the phonetic Sardinian 

and Italian. I shall speak of the Basque in my explanation 

of Table XIL, which relates to the causative bai (bh&i) and 

negative ez (es) in this language. The purely syntactic 

nature of the mutation in the Celtic languages (whatever the 

ancient original cause may or may not have been), is shown 

by the fact that the very same word, spelled and pronounced 

in the same way, may bring about two different forms of 

mutation in the initial sound of the word that immediately 

follows, as, for instance, by reason of its grammatical gender, 

independently of the nature of its final sound. In Irish, 

Gaelic, Manx, Welsh, Cornish, Breton of L^n,^ the possessive 

adjective expressed in English either by his or by her, is in 

both cases rendered by the same word : a, a, e, ei, y, hi (a, a, 

6^ 4i, e, t), respectively. Now, in Irish, Gaelic, and Manx, 

c, Oy f , meaning his, governs the fourth or aspirated form of 

tion, and meaning her, almost always, the first or radical; 

in Welsh, Cornish, and Breton, ei, y, hi, meaning his, 

the aecond or middle form, and, meaning her^ the 

I irated. The two Celtic branches differ very 

t respect in the application of the same principle. 

' ftl Am. and k^ (KO nMmns her. Ex. i galon (• gal6n}, Att 


The following are instances : 1°. Irish, a chroidhe (a khra'ie), 
his hearty and a croidhe (a kra'ie), her heart; 2°. Gaelic, 
a chridhe (a khria), his heart, and a cridhe (a kria), her heart \ 
3^ Manx, e chree (e khri), his heart , and e cree (e kr!), her 
heart ; 4°. "Welsh, ei galon {i\ g&Uon), his hearty and ex chalon 
(4i khallon), her heart; 5°. Cornish, y golon (a golon), his 
heart, and y holon (a holon), her heart ; 6°. Breton, h6 
galoun (e g&lun), his heart, and h6 c^haloun (e kh&lun), her 

The Sardinian and Italian mutations are phonetic and 
independent of the grammatical character of the preceding 
word. The initial mutation of the second word is due solely 
to the original nature of the final sound of the first word, 
and not at all to the meaning of the whole word by which it 
is preceded (see ray " Osservazioni sulla pronunziadel dialetto 
sassarese ") ; whatever may have been said to the contrary 
by Schuchardt (see " Romania," vol. iii. p. 13, note 1), who, 
as I think, must have not clearly understood my little Italian 
pamphlet, from which, however, he has derived a knowledge 
of a great number of facts previously unknown to him. The 
phonetic cause of the Non-Celtic or Non-Basque initial 
mutations is clear not only in the Italian dialects generally, 
but also in the two Sardinian and Sassarese. These three 
dialects make no exception, notwithstanding that they go so 
far in a purely morphological imitation of the Celtic muta- 
tions, as to simulate the second or middle form perfectly. In 
this respect they are, so to say, even more Celtic than the 
Scottish Gaelic, which has no middle form of mutation. In 
fact, (kria) can only be aspirated in (khria), in this dialect, 
in which the middle form (gria) does not exist. In Irish, 
Manx, Welsh, Cornish, Breton, Vannes, Logudorese, Cagli- 
aritan, and Sassarese, on the contrary, besides the aspirated, 
nasal, advanced, and weak forms, which appear now in one, 
now in another, although never all in the same dialect, the 
middle form constantly obtains in all, as in (gra'ie, gri, 
gallon, golon, galun, golon, goro, goru, gori), respectively. 


Obsertatioxs gs the Fifteex Tables. 

Table I. 

It is only by the adoption of phonetic symbols that the 
comparison of languages becomes possible. Words, in fact, 
ought to be studied as they are or as they have been heard, 
and not as they are seen on paper. It is necessary, however, 
that the usual spelling should constantly accompany the 
phonetic symbols, because words, unfortunately, are not 
known to the despotic public at large as they ought reason- 
ably to be written, but only as they are absurdly spelled. 
This I have done in my quotations and examples, either by 
writing in the text the entire words in both orthographies, 
or by printing in the tables in italics only those letters, 
digraphs, trigraphs, etc., of the usual spelling, which repre- 
sent, whether logically or not, the phonetic symbols. With 
regard to this last, I only regret not having been able to 
make use of my own symbols, consisting of single signs for 
each sound, and to have been obliged to adopt digraphs, 
trigraphs, etc., which, however, always represent the same 
simple sounds, no matter in what dialect they occur. I 
remind my readers, therefore, that they should give their 
principal attention to the strict phonetic value of these 
symbols, and, as regards the common orthographies now in 
general use, that they should not forget that in Irish, Gaelic, 
Logudorese, Cagliaritan, and Sassarese, the spelling is inten- 
tionally etymological and antiphonetic ; that in Manx it is 
in every respect absurd, pretending without any foundation 
to be phonetic, without being at the same time in the least 
etymological ; that in Welsh, Cornish, Breton, Tannes, 
Basque, Italian, vulgar Florentine, Pisan with Livomese, 
Lucchese, Roman, Corsican, Tempiese, Sicilian, Calabrian, 
and Neapolitan, the spelling, without being strictly phonetic, 
is based, more or less, on phonetic principles, particularly in 
the Neapolitan, where the initial strong sounds are in a great 
number of modem books represented by double letters, con- 


trary to the antiphonetic custom of all the other Italian 

As the examples of the sounds given by means of Irish 
and dialectal words, which are not generally known, are 
hardly enough to guide the general reader, I add a brief 
explanation of some of the most difficult, referring, at the 
same time, to the numbers preceding the sounds, as they 
occur in my printed "Lists of vowels and consonants,** 
occupying pp. 1293-1307 and pp. 1352-1357 of Alexander 
J. Ellis's "Early English Pronunciation." These numbers, 
for distinction's sake, are inclosed in []. 

9. dy [135] is the voiced, explosive, and palatalized dental, 
differing both from [172], the Russian voiced, explosive, and 
palatalized aheolar, and from [246], the Hungarian voiced, 
explosive, and palatalized palatal, 

12. dh [134], the voiced and explosive dental, differing both 
from 4d [168], the common voiced and explosive alveolar *d,* 
and from [240], the English voiced and explosive palatal 'd,* 
as well as from 8 dh [138], the voiced and continuous dental 
' th ' in * thee.' 

17. ggj [303], the voiced and continuous guttural whish in 
its strong modification, differing both from 18 ggy [336], 
the Italian voiced, explosive, and palatalized guttural in its 
strong modification, and from 7 ddzh [232], the Italian 
voiced and continuous palatal whish in its strong modifi- 

20. gj [302], the voiced and continuous guttural whish in 
its weak modification, differing both from 21 gy [335], the 
Italian voiced, explosive, and palatalized guttural in its weak 
modification, and from 11 dzh [231], the Italian voiced and 
continuous palatal whish in its weak modification, or from the 
English 'j' in 'jelly.' 

25. hw [328], the voiceless, explosive, aspirated, and 
labialized guttural, only approaching to [81], the English 
aspirated and labial serai- vowel, according to those who still 
decline to pronounce ' wh ' in ' which ' as a simple ' w,' or 
70 w [89], the labial semi-vowel. 

30. kj [299], the voiceless and continuous guttural whish in 


its woak modification, differing both from 36 ky [324], the 
Italian voiceless, explosire, and palatalized guttural in its weak 
moilitieation, and from 61 tsh [224], the Italian voiceless and 
continuous fHiiatal tchUh in its weak modification, or from the 
English * ch ' in • child/ 

3'^. kkj [300], the voiceless and coHtinuous guttural whish 
in its strong modification, differing both from 34 kky [325], 
the Italian voiceless, explo^ice^ and palatalized guttural in its 
strong modification, and from 64 ttsh [225], the Italian 
voiceless and coutinuouji palatal urhUA in its strong modifica- 

4L / [141], the roleetl and liquid d^al, differing from 

42. /A [131], the roiceil and liquid labio-linguaL The 
Manx, 41 / [141]. and the Irish, 42 lA [131], differ also from 
88 Ih [S5S], the Welsh roiceles^ and liquid guttural; [361], 
the PiJish roicetl and liquid guttural; [258], the EngUah 
rt>»(W and liquid palatal^ and 37 1 [1^7], the common roieed 
and liquid ' L'' Sassaresse possesses the sounds 41, 38, 
and 37. 

47. fiA [17$]» the voiced, explosive, and Honalised alreolar, 
dit&riug both from 45 n [175], the common na^ctl alctolar^ 
and tr\>m [24v^\ the English mx^al palataL The sound, 
4r hH^ may be very roughly and not exactly represented 
bv *du.* 

54 ry [269\ the vv>iced^ trilled, and palatalized palatal, 
differiug tWm 52 r ~2t^t>\ the common voiced, trilled, and 
fiC^H-ptLHCu^iseti palatal *r/ 

("O. ty ^l-3o\ the voiceless^ explosive^ and palatalized 
dental* ditleriug both from ^lt>5]. the Russian voieelessy «x- 
pkxjive* and palatalttfed tkeo^ir^ and from [2'fe>], the Honga- 
riAa vciv.vk55tik expkvive. and palatalLaed paiutaL 

o«5. '.k ^l'^«\ the voiceless and exulmice Jenialy differing 
bi."»5h trvui •5c> t ^15iJ\ the common voiceless and exphtMe 
■i.'cf'jinr ' t/ and t*roni '035". the En:riish voiceless and 
rx7jtutt:i>f '/ti.'uc / ' ' t.* as well cfcs from oi^ th T L-3d\ the voic clcaa 
a3>d .Vitciit.iOit^ i'f^ttuu " th ' in 'thin.* 

'5l', '• ^l-7\ nh^f uAsal continuous \idio-^Iett/kily bearing the 
saoiie relation "c o7 v IL>\ th< voiced coatinuooi Mi^ 



dental^ or English ' v/ as 43 m [93], the nasal lahiaJ, or 
English ' m/ bears to 1 b [85], the voiced and explosive 
labial, or English ' b.' 

71. w [98], the nasal and labial semi-vowel, bearing the 
same relation to 70 w [89], the labial semi-vowel, or English 
* w,' as a nasal vowel bears to a non-nasal. 

98. B [254], the voiceless, continuous, and palatal Spanish 
Basque *s,' differing both from 55 s [182], the voiceless, 
continuous, and rather alveolar English ' s,' as well as from 

99. J [310], the voiceless, continuous, and velar \jjutturO' 
palatal^ French Basque ' s.' 

100. ts [234], the voiceless, continuous, and double palatal 
Spanish Basque ' ts,' differing from 60 ts [146], the voiceless, 
continuous, and double alveolar Italian ' z.' These sounds I 
call " double," because, in fact, they may be roughly and not 
exactly represented so : the latter, by 58 t [159], the voice- 
less and explosive alveolar immediately followed by 55 s 
[182], the voiceless and continuous alveolar ; and the former, 
by [235], the voiceless and explosive palatal immediately 
followed by 99 J [254], the voiceless and continuous palatal. 

101. tj, the voiceless, continuous, and double velar French 
Basque * ts ' or * x,' differing from the preceding Spanish 
Basque sound by the former being produced in the soft instead 
of the hard palate. This sound * X] ' is not to be found in my 
"Listsof Vowels and Consonants," where it should form [303 "]. 

The first part of this table treats only of such consonants 
as are concerned in mutation. The second part gives the 
vowels and consonants not concerned in mutation, which are 
necessary to complete the phonetic representation of the 
words cited. No very great accuracy is here aimed at, for 
ex., 82 (a) is used for the English sound represented by ' u * 
in * cuff ' and the French ' eu ' or * ecu ' in ' veuf ' or ' ca^ur,' 
and generally any other related obscure vowels, although the 
French * eu ' in ' peu,' if it occurred in the words cited, 
would, as being too different from * eu ' in ' veuf,' be repre- 
sented by {o). In the same way 91 (ii) is used not only for 
French * u,' but for any other sound nearly related to it. 
The use of the acute, as in (a), to mark tonic accent, and also 


diphthongal emphasis^ on short vowels, has been sapplemented 
by that of the circumflex, as in (&=a), to represent the tonic 
accent, and also diphthongal emphasis, on long vowels. 

Table II. 

This table shows all the initial mutations of which the 
Celtic, Basque, Sardinian, and Italian radical sounds are 
capable. The first column shows the radical sound, and the 
second the sounds into which it is mutated, both expressed 
phonetically, according to the symbols given in the first table. 
No distinction of dialects is made in the second table, but the 
following tables. III., IV., V., VI., VII., VIII., IX., XII., 
XIII., XIV., show the mutations proper to each dialect. I 
have not comprised amongst initial mutations those changes 
in words of the Basque and Sassarese dialects, which are not 
merely initial, but are due to the coalescence of the final sound 
of the preceding with the initial sound of the following word. 
Examples: 1°. Guipuscoan Basque, onak dira, onak halira 
(onatira, onapalira), they are good, if they were good, and in 
the Labourdin dialect, onak dire, onak halire (onatire, onapa* 
lire) . 2°. Sassarese, pal cad^, pal chistu (ppakkadi , ppakkillhu) , 
to fall, for this; pal quattru {ppa,kkhw&ttr\i)f for four; pal gudl, 
pal ghettu (ppagghudi, ppaggh^ttu), to enjoy, for jemry; pal 
guantu (ppa^^rAt^&nttu), for glove; pal te (ppallh^), for thee; 
pal dd (ppa//&), to give. 

Table III. Irish. 

The Irish language presents three forms of initial muta- 
tions : the middle, the nasal, and the aspirated. This is also 
the case with Manx and Welsh. These three dialects have 
two forms more than the Gaelic : the middle and the nasal, 
and also one form more (the nasal) and one form less (the 
advanced) than the Cornish and the two Breton dialects. 
The form called " eclipsis " by Irish grammarians comprises, 
under a single name, both the middle and nasal forms, and, 
accordingly, they express them by fixing to the radical con- 
sonant, which becomes silent, the consonant into which it has 
been mutated and which is therefore the only one pronounced. 


In fact, the sounds (g, (/A, dy, b, w, v), belonging to the 
middle, and {nh, ny, m), belonging to the nasal form, are 
etymologically, although antiphonetically, expressed in Irish 
hy gc, diy bp, bhf^ nd, mb. The sound (ng), however, is not 
represented by ngg, but simply by ng^ as in bhur ngabhar (war 
ngowar) ' your goat,' instead of bhur nggabhar. 

In the aspirated form in Irish, {th, ty) mutate into (h) and 
(s, sh) into (h, thy ty), but (f ) is suppressed. Nothing of the 
sort occurs in Welsh, Cornish, and the two Breton dialects. 
In Welsh neither (f) nor (s) are subject to mutation at all, 
although (t) can be aspirated into (th). In Cornish and the 
two Breton dialects, although (t) is subject to be aspirated 
into (th) in the former and into (z) in the two latter, (s) 
possesses no aspirated form, being only capable of being 
mutated into (z) tdso in the middle form; while (f) is not 
subject to mutation in the two Breton dialects, and in 
Cornish, instead of being suppressed, (f ) is mutated into (h). 

Table IV. Gaelic, 

Gaelic possesses only the aspirated form of mutation, and 
replaces the middle and nasal forms of Irish (see Table XI.), 
by the radical. Thus, the Irish bhur dfonn, bhur nduine (war 
dhBuh, war nhina), your irare, your man, are in their Gaelic 
counterparts, bhur ionn, bhur duine (viir thonh, vur dhuinQ), 

Gaelic diflFers also from Irish in the pronunciation of /, d 
slender. Thus, tir, Dia (tyiry, Dyia), country, God, in 
Irish, are ttr, Dia (tshiry, Dzhia) in Gaelic. 

Table V. Manx. 

Although the Manx dialect is the least known amongst the 
Celtic, I have studied it with more care than any others of 
the Gaelic branch, on account of certain peculiarities which 
it presents. About thirty years ago I went to the pretty 
little island of Man, and there I remained some weeks, taking 
up my abode partly in Douglas, partly in Ballaugh, from 
whence I paid frequent visits to the late Rev. J, E. Harrison, 


Vicar of Jurby, who, with the late Rev. Th. Howard, Rector 
of Ballaugh, Rev. W. Drury, Vicar of Kirk Braddan, and 
other native gentlemen, but particularly with the assistance, 
at my request, of the countrymen throughout the island, 
decided some doubtful points concerning the phonetism and 
initial mutation of this dialect. My best thanks to the living 
and my best wishes for the departed ! It is only in this 
small island, and the very small adjoining island of Calf of 
Man, belonging to the parish of Rushen, that Manx still 
exists, although, unfortunately, in articulo mortis. It is 
rarely heard, and only a minority of the natives can speak it. 
According to Mr. Jenner (see '* Transactions of the Philo- 
logical Society, 1875-6," p. 193), Kirk Arbory was in 1875 
the only church in which Manx was used once a month. In 
1852, however, it was used more or less in every parish 
church, although at present it is not heard even at Kirk 

The Manx dialect, as the Scottish Gaelic, replaces Irish 
(ty, dy), by (tsh, dzh). Cheery Jee (tshir, Dzhi), country ^ 
Oody correspond in fact to Irish tkr, Dia (tylry, Dyio) and to 
Gaelic ilr^ Dia (tshiry, Dzhid). 

With regard to the nasal form (see Table XI.), there is 
a difference between Manx and Irish. This form does not 
exist in Gaelic, as I have stated already, but in Manx the 
sound (b) exclusively is susceptible of it. In Irish, on 
the contrary, not only (b), but also (g, dh, dy) are liable to 
the nasal mutation, while Manx adopts the aspirated form 
for its own (g, d, dh, dzh), represented by g, e/, d^j. Let us 
take the word Ood in the three Gaelic dialects: 1°. Irish, 
Dia (Dyia); dr Ndia (ar Nyia), our God; 2°. Gaelic, Dia 
(Dzhia) ; ar Dia (ar Dzhi^z), id, ; 3°. Manx, Jee (Dzhi) ; nt/n 
Tee (nliBn Yi), id, * These instances clearly show that the 
government of the forms is not always the same in the three 
Gaelic dialects. 

Although Manx is the most corrupted of the three in a 
general point of view, it possesses such striking initial 
mutations, not to be found in the other two, that they re- 
quire some mention. I leave to others the task of explaining 


in a satisfactory manner, either by the most ancient Irish, or 
by the two other modem dialects, the existence in Manx (see 
Table V.) of such initial mutations as the following : 1°. 
♦(k) into (gh) ; 2°. *(k) into (dh) ; 3°. (k) into (h) ; 4°. (g) 
into (nh) ; 5. (g) into (ny) ; 6°. ♦(g) into (v) ; 7°. (g) sup- 
pressed ; 8°. (h) into {dh) ; 9°. (h) into (dzh) ; 10°. (dh) 
suppressed; 11°. (»/*) suppressed ; 12°. (b) suppressed ; 13°. 
(m) suppressed ; 14°. (f ) into (dh) ; 15°. (f ) into (nh) ; 16°. 
(f) into (ny) ; 17°. (v) into (w) ; 18°. (s) into (dh) ; hf. (s) 
into (k) ; 20°. (s) into (g) ; 21°. (s) into (nh) ; 22°. (s) into 
(b) ; 23°. (s) suppressed ; 24°. ♦(sh) into (gh) ; 25°. (sh) into 
(ny) ; 26^ (sh) into (b). These mutations are sometimes 
Tery irregular, and the existence of a few of them, which I 
have marked *, may or may not be doubtful, as I have not 
been able to hear them from a Manxman's own mouth, but 
the majority of them do certainly exist in the spoken lan- 
guage, and all are confirmed either by the Manx Bible or 
by Cregeen's excellent Manx dictionary. 

Table VI. Welsh. 

The Welsh language is the only one in which three 
regular initial mutations in the same word are possible. In 
fact the sounds (k, t, p), written (?, t, p, become (g, d, b) 
g, d, b, in the middle form ; (ngh, nh, mh) ngh, nh, mh, in 
the nasal, and (kh, th, f ) ch, th, ph^ in the aspirated. Neither 
in Irish, nor in Manx, are (k; th, ty, tsh ; p) c; t; p, 
subject to nasality, because words capable of determining this 
mutation either in the Irish sounds (g ; dh, dy ; b) g, d, b, or 
in the Manx sound (b) b, are only capable of determining 
the middle form mutations in (k; th, ty, tsh; p). Exam- 
ples: 1°. Welsh, tad (tkd), father ; (vb nhkd) ft/ nhad, 'my 
father*; 2°. Irish, tal (thdl), adze; (ar dhol) dr dtdl, 'our 
adze' ; 3°. Manx, thaal (thdX), id; (uhQu dh&l) nyn dhaal, 'id.' 
If, on the contrary, a word beginning with (b) be chosen for 
example, then the nasal mutation will appear in the three 
dialects: 1°. Welsh, brawd (braud), brother; (vo mr&ud) /y 
mraird, 'my brother'; 2°. Irish, brdthair (brohiry), brother^ 


friar; (ar mrdhiry) dr mbrdthair, *our brother, friar*; 3°- 
Manx, braar (brfir), brother; (nAaa mrSr) ni/n mraar, 'our 

Table VII. Cornish. 

Cornish, in the majority of those initial mutations which 
are not common to the whole Cambrian branch, follows the 
two Breton dialects (see Tables VIII. and IX.) and but 
rarely the Welsh, but in a few cases it follows its own 
peculiar course. It follows Breton in rejecting the Welsh 
nasal form, for which it substitutes the aspirated, as in 
ow holon (o h61on), my hearty and corresponding to Breton 
va c^haUmn (va kh&lun) ; to Vannes me halon (ma hal6n), but 
differing from Welsh fy nghalon (ve ngh&Uon), and not (va 
kh&Uon), which would have to be written fy chalon^ if it 
were in existence. The analogy of Cornish with Vannes is 
striking in the substitution of (h) for (kh) in the aspirated 
form of (k). 

Cornish, Breton, and Basque possess the advanced form 
which is wanting, at least as a regular mutation, in all the 
other Celtic and Non-Celtic dialects^ although it does not 
appear by the Cornish remains that the possessive adjective 
your is capable of governing this fifth Celtic form, as is 
always the case in the two Breton dialects with words be- 
ginning with (g, d, b). Examples: bara (bara), at L6on, 
and (bard), at Vannes, bread; and hd para ; hou para (d para ; 
hu par4), your breads are not in Cornish, bara ; agas para 
(b&ra ; &gas p&ra), but bara; agaa bara (b&ra ; dgas b&ra), or 
rather (gus b&ra). On the other hand, the advanced form 
mutations sometimes take place in Cornish with the particle 
ow (d), tn, but not (as far, at least, as I have been able to 
discover) in the same way as in Breton ; for the sound (d) 
is the only one in this language which admits of such a 
mutation, either under the influence of the particle 6 (d), 
and corresponding to Cornish ow (o), or under that of the 
conjunctions ^, ma {e, ma), that. In Vannes, ^ (•) represents 
both the particle ow and the conjunctions d^ tna, of the 


Breton of Leon. In Cornish, the particle otc not only 

mutates (d) into (t), but also the initial (g) into (k), (b) into 

(p), andy in a single instance only, so far as I know of, (gw) 

into (f). These last mutations do not occur in the Breton 

dialects, in which the aforesaid particles always determine 

the middle form or mutations of (g) into (kh) or (h) and of 

(gw, b, m) into (v). The following are examples : I. Cornish, 

1°. guerthe (gwertha), ' to sell ' ; ow guerthe (O kw^rtha), 

celling; 2°. guyskel (gwiskel), 'to strike'; ow fyaky (d fiski), 

itril'ing ; 3°. dos (doz), 'to come'; ow toe (d tdz), coming; 

4°. bete (b^u), 'to live'; ow pew (d p^u), living: IL Breton, 

P. gtcerza (gw^rza), 'id.'; 6 c^hwerza (d khw^rza), id,; 3°, 

doM (dot), 'id.'; 6 toilt (o tot), id,; 4°. Uva (beva), 'id.'; 

6 tkta (o v^va), id,; 6°. miret (miret), 'to keep'; 6 virct (d 

Tiret), keeping : III. Vannes*, 1°. guerhein (gwerh^in), ' id.' ; 

i hyerkein (t hwerhein), id, ; 3°. dont (dont), ' id.' ; e tont {% 

tont), id.; 4°. bihuein (bihii^in), 'id.'; i vihuein (/ vihiiein), 

id,; 5". mirein (mirein), 'id. * ; i rirein {i virgin), id. 

Cornish, in a single case quoted by Mr. E. Norris, follows 
Breton and not Welsh in admitting the middle form muta- 
tion of (s) into (z) : aendzhyn (s^ndzhm), 'we consider; ' ny 
ifikdzhyn (na zdndzhm), we do 7iot consider. This sound in 
£bct receives no initial mutation in Welsh, while in the two 
Breton dialects, under the influence of various preceding 
weirds, besides the negative conjunction, it is regularly 
aiTitAted into (z) : sac'h; senfotnp (sakh ; setomp), 'bag; wo 
'ihftj'/ h4 zac^h; n^ zentomp (e zdkh ; ne zetomp), //w bag ; ice 
it} 10^ oiey, and in Vannes, sa/i; sefdamb (sdkh; setamb) ; ^ zah; 
ffi zt^Tir.imb (i z4kh ; na zetamb). 

Ti-r sound (g), which in its middle form can only be sup- 
3r»f»ed in Welsh, may in Cornish not only be suppressed, as 
jB 2«ir:*rrally the case, but also occasionally mutated into (w) 
IT ^-r^-c h). In Breton, (g), not being followed by (w), is 
y>^TyL:^'z\j mutated into (kh), but in the Tr^guier sub-dialect 
X ^i T^) is suppressed as it is in Welsh in every case, 
-w'iiIk 'jz. ordinary L^on Breton, the whole (gw) is mutated 
11.) I *:ngle (v). In Vannes, finally, (g) is constantly 

SJAZ^L into (hj, but this is only very rarely the case in 


Cornish. Examples: I. Cornish, 1°. gavar (gavar), *goat;' 
y avar (e dvar), his goat; 2°. golow (g(Jlo), 'light;' y icolow 
(e wdlo), his light; (this mutation, which is peculiar to 
Cornish, occurs, according to Mr. R. Williams, in words 
beginning with ' go ' or ' gu.') 3°. guydn (gwidn), * white '; 
byuh ichydn, wydn (biuh hwidn, widn), literally, cow tchite; 
II. Welsh, 1°. gafr (g&vr), 'id.'; ei afr (di Avr), id.; 2°. go- 
leu (g(Jl5u) * id.' ; ei oleu {4\ dlsii), id. ; 3°. gwyn (gwun), 'id.'; 
huwch iryn (biiukh wun), id. III. Breton, 1°. gaour (g&ur), 
*id.'; hi c'haour {e khaur), id.; 2°, gouJou (gulu), *id.*; hi 
c^houlou {e khulu), id. ; 3°. gwenn (gw(5n), ' id.' ; bioc*h tenn, 
or wenn at Tr6guier (biok ven, wen), id. IV. Vannes, 1°. 
gavr (g&vr), 'id.' ; i havr (i h&vr), id. ; 2°. goleu (gola'), 'id.'; 
i holeu {i hola ), id. ; 3°. giien (gii^n), * id.' ; buoh huen (biiokh 
hii^n), id. 

Neither Cornish nor Breton possess the two mutations of 
Welsh (Ih) and (rh), these being constantly replaced by 
(1, r) : 1°. Welsh, Uoer ; rhew (Ihoiir; rhfiu), 'moon; frost'; 
ei loer ; ei rew {6\ Idiir; ^i r^u), his moon; his frost; 2°. 
Cornish, lur ; rew (Idr ; r^u), * id.' ; y lur ; y rew (e Iftr ; e 
r^u), id.; 3°. Breton, loar ; rid (loar; rid), *id.'; hi loar ; 
hi rid) {e loar; e rid), id.; 4°. Vannes, luer; rid (lii^r; r^^), 
' id.' ; 6 luer ; i rid {i lii^r ; i red), id. 

Cornish and Welsh entirely agree in the aspirated mutation 
of (t), as well as in the middle mutation of (d), but in the 
two Breton dialects, on the contrary, both (t) and (d), in the 
same cases, mutate into (z) : Welsh, tad (tad), father, is tas 
(t&z), in Cornish; tdd (tad), in Breton; tat (t&t), in Vannes; 
and her father is rendered in the same dialects respectively, 
by ei thad (ai th&d), y thas (e thkz), hi zad {e z&d), hi zat (ht 
z4t) ; while Welsh dyn (diin), maw, is dean (d^an), in 
Cornish; din (d^n), in Breton; din (din), in Vannes; and 
his man is rendered respectively, hy ei ddyn (ai dhiin), y dhean 
(e dh^an), hi zin (e z6n), 6 z^n (i zin). 

The middle mutations of (tsh) and (d) into (dzh), of 
which the first exists also in Manx, belong exclusively to the 
Cornish dialect, the only one of the Cambrian branch which 
possesses the sounds (tsh, dzh). These sounds are replaced 


^y (t> ^f <J^) in Welsh, and by (t, d, z) in the two Breton 
dialects: P. Cornish, ishi (tsh^i), 'house*; y dzhi (e dzhei), 
* his house ' ; df/dh (didh), ' day ' ; y dzhydh and also y dhydh 
(e dzhfdh, e dhfdh), his day ; 2°. Welsh, ty^ ei dy ; dydd, ex 
ddydd (tu, di du ; diidh, di dhiidh), id; 3°. Breton, U, he dl; 
deiz, hdzeiz (tt, e dt; d^iz, e z(5iz), id; 3°. Vannes, ti^ i di; de, 
i zd (ti, i dl ; dt, i, zi), id. 

But the strangest Cornish mutation, which is not to be 
found in any of the Celtic languages, is the change of (f) 
into (h) after the definite article, as in floh (flcJh), ' child ' ; 
an hloh (an hl()h), the child. 

Table VIII. and Table IX- Breton Dialects. 

The following mutations are proper to the Breton language, 
besides those of the advanced form belonging also, although 
imperfectly, to Cornish, and even, although rarely, to Basque : 
I*", (g) mutated into (kh), and 2°. (gw) into (v), both in the 
Leon dialect or ordinary Breton, and 3°. (g) mutated into 
(h), and 4°. (h) into (g), both in Vannes Breton. They 
belong to the second or middle form ; and, as all three 
have been mentioned in the last six lines of p. 169, 1 proceed 
at once to 

Table X. and Table XI. 

Table X. gives the possessive adjectives, as well as the 
definite and indefinite articles, in all the Celtic languages, 
while Table XI. shows the influence of the possessive adjec- 
tives on the initial mutations. The Arabic figures indicate 
the form of mutation of which the symbols that follow them 
are capable. The study of this table is highly important, on 
account of its showing the difierence which exists amongst 
the Celtic dialects (even sometimes amongst those belonging 
to the same branch) in the government of the forms by the 
possessive adjectives, in the number of the forms, and in the 
sounds admitting of mutation. 

PhU. Irani. 1882-8^. 13 


Table XII. Basque.* 

The only Basque words capable of producing regular, 
initial, and syntactic or grammatical mutations as in Celtic, 
are bai (bh&i), yes, or, according to the Souletin dialect, bei 
(bh^i), and ez (6s), no, not. The sounds which undergo 
mutation are (g, d, bh, s, sh), written g, d, b, 2, ch, and the 
mutates themselves are (k, t, p, ts, tsh), written k, t, p, tz, tch. 
These mutations occur almost exclusively in the verb, and, 
according to the nature of the Basque dialects, some of them 
are obligatory, some optional, or even rejected. The Basque 
mutations all belong to the fifth or advanced form, proper to 
Breton and Cornish. The particle ez (6s) always keeps its 
negative meaning, both when it is isolated and when it acts 
as a mutator, but the particle bat, bei (bh&i, bh6i), as a 
mutator, loses its affirmative sense, and either assumes a 
causative signification answering to the conjunction because, 
or else it merely represents the obligatory government, called 
by Inchauspe ** incidental," and by me " causative." Exam- 
ples from the Labourdin dialect : I. bai, 1^ bai, ana da (bh&i, 
on& d4), yes, he is good', 2^. ona baita (on& bhaitd), replacing 
ona bai da (on& bh&i d&), because he is good; 3°. zein ona baita 
(s6in on& bhaitd), who is good, literally, who because is good, 
which, though simply impossible in English, is nevertheless 
imperatively required by the relative pronoun zein (s^in), 
who — one of those words which in Labourdin govern the 
incidental or causative baita (bhaitd), and not the single da 
(da), is — ; contrary to what happens with the English who, 

> Here I cannot help mentioning the following very interesting remark of my 
friend, Capt. Duvoisin, the translator of the Bible into the Labourdin Basaue 
dialect, and one of the best philologists of the Euskalerria : ** Voici une formation 
plus singoli^re, mais aussi plus rare ; elle consiste k remplacer par un m et quelque- 
fois par un 6 la premiere lettre du mot r6p6t6 : handi-mandiak ' les grands de la 
terre,' hautsi-mautsiak Mes transactions ou accomodements/ duda-mudak Mes 
doutes ou perplexit6s/ nahas-mahaa *pdle et m§le,* itau-mitauka * d, raveuglette* 
(here the initial m constitutes an addition and not a mutation), tira^biraka *par 
tiraillement,' zurru-burru * melange d*objet8 de peu de valeur.* Larramendi, 
Prol. du Diet., 1^ Edition, p. 192, dit dans ce dernier sens : Lapiko bat zaduretz 
baduraz beiea *marmite pleine de toute sorte d'ingr^ents.' Cette citation est 
1 une des mille qu*on pourrait faire pour d^montrer cue le mdme esprit preside 
toujoiirs au langage aux deux versants des Pyr^n^es. ' (* De la formation des 
noms dans la langue basque,' Paris, 1874, p. 8;. 



II. "EZf P. ezta ona (estd on&), he is not good, replacing ez da 
ona {<k% d& OD&) ; 2^. ona ezpaita (end espaitd), replacing ona 
ez bai da (on& ^s bh&i d&), became he is not good; 3^ zein ona 
ezpaita (s^in on& espait&), who is not good. 

These instances show that the Basque initial mutations are 
purely syntactic like the Celtic, and not phonetic as the 
Sardinian and the Italian. If they were due merely to the 
diphthong ai of bai and to the z of ez^ other words ended in 
at or s ought to produce the same mutations ; but this muta- 
tive power resides in the non-affirmative bai and in the 
negative ez as such, and not because of their ending in ai or 
f. In fact, negarrez gaude, * we are weeping ' ; negarrez 
daude^ * they are weeping ' ; negan'ez baitaude, * because they 
are weeping ' ; negarrez zaude, * thou art weeping ' ; etsai 
gogorra, ' the hard enemy ' ; etsai damutua, ' the repented 
enemy ' ; ahaidea^ * the relation ' or ' kinsman, kinswoman ' ; 
etsai baty ' an enemy ' ; etsai zauritua, ' the wounded enemy ' ; 
aizea, * the wind,' etc., are not pronounced (neg&rres kdude, 
t&ude, paitaude, ts&ude ; etj&i kogorrd, tamutua ; ahaitea ; 
etj&i p4t, tsauritua ; aitsei), but (negdrres gaude, d&ude, 
bhait&ude, s&ude ; etj&i gogorrd, damutua ; ahaided ; etj&i 
bh&t, sauritua ; aised). With the negative ez and the non- 
affirmative bai, on the contrary, the mutations of (g, d, bh, 
8, ts) into (k, t, p, ts, tsh) will, may, or may not take place, 
as I stated before, according to the nature of the dialects. 
(See the Table.) 

Table XIII. Sardinian and Italian Dialects. 

These dialects, like the Celtic and Basque, are subject to 
regular initial mutations determined by a preceding word, 
but the cause of these changes is phonetic, and not purely 
syntactic as in the two last-named languages. When, for 
instance, the Sassarese Italian dialect of Sardinia mutates 
(kk) of {i kk&rri), written ^ carri, ' it is flesh,' into (g) of 
(11a gdrri), written unphonetically ia carri, ' the flesh,' it does 
80 on account of the original final sounds of the Latin words 
est and iila, the first ended in a consonant and the second in 



an atonio vowel, although each of their Sassarese successors, 
i, la, ends in a vowel. The meaning and grammatical nature 
of these words are not taken into consideration, but only the 
phonetic nature of the original final sounds in Latin, which 
determines or does not determine, as the case may be, not 
only the mutations of the Sassarese, but also those of the 
other Italian dialects in most cases, and of the Sardinian 
without exception. 

The Sardinian language, which ought not to be confounded 
with the two other dialects of the Island of Sardinia— 
Sassarese and Tempiese, — ^is divided into two dialects : P. 
Logudorese or central^ the representative of the Sardinian 
language ; 2^ Cagliaritan or southern Sardinian, the dialect 
of the capital of the island. As the Sassarese mutations, in 
spite of the very decided Italian character of the dialect to 
which they belong, are nearer to the Sardinian than to the 
Italian, I shall speak first of Logudorese, Cagliaritan, and 
Sassarese, and secondly of Tempiese, Southern Corsican, 
Florentine, Pisan with Livornese, Lucchese, Roman, and 
Neapolitan, these being the Sardinian and Italian dialects 
from which the Table XIII. gives some instances of mutation. 

And beginning with Logudorese, Cagliaritan, and Sassa- 
rese, I am very glad to repeat in English what I stated in 
Italian in 1866, that these three very important Neo-Latin 
dialects are the only ones in Europe, and very likely in the 
world, that are in possession of the second or middle form of 
mutation of the sounds (kk, tt, pp) into (g, d, bh), exactly 
as in all the Celtic dialects excepting Scottish Gaelic ; for the 
minute difierence between (kk; tt; pp; d; bh) and (k; t, th; 
fydh; b), according to the dialects, is quite evanescent in this 
particular case. (See Tables III., V., VI., VIL, VIIL, IX.) 
Examples : 1°. Irish croidhe, tonn, port (kra'ie, th^'uh, pa'r^A), 
mutated into gcroidhey dtonn, bport (gra'ie, dh^'nh, be'r^^) ; 
IP. Manx, cree, tonn, purt (kri, thonhy pa'rt), into gree^ donn^ 
hurt (gri, dhon^, ba'rt) ; IIP. Welsh, calon^ tad^ pen (killon, 
tad, p^n), into galotu dad^ ben (khdllon, d&d, ben) ; IV°. 
Cornish, cohn^ tas, pedn (kolon, t&z, p^dn), into golon, dan, 
hedn (golon, d&z, b^dn) ; V°. Breton^ kaloun, tdd, penn 


(kalun, t&d, pen), into galoun, ddd, benn (g&lun, did, Wn) ; 
VP. Vannes, kaian, tat, pen (kalon, tit, pen), into galon, dat, 
ben (galon, dit, ben) ; VIP. Logudorese, coro, terra * earth,* 
pane 'bread ' (kkoro, tterra, ppine), into (goro, d^rra, bane), 
although antiphonetically written coro, terra^ pane ; VHP. 
corvj terra^ pani (kkoru, tterra, ppini), into (goru, d^rra, 
bdni), antiphonetically written coru, terra, pani ; IX°. Sassa- 
rese, eori, terra, pani (kkori, tterra, ppini), antiphonetically 
written cori^ terra, pani. For the meaning and mutators of 
the preceding and following words, see the Tables. 

The mutations of (kk, kkw, tt, tts, pp, ff, vv, ss) into (g, gw, 
d, dz, bh, bh, bh, z) ^ belong to Logudorese, Cagliaritan, and 
Sassarese ; and, although only three of them are to be found 
in all the Celtic dialects, except the Scottish Gaelic, of the 
other five, two exist in one or more of them, and three are 
undoubtedly moulded on the law of initial mutations ; as 
every strong voiceless sound is mutated into its correspond- 
ing weak voiced form : 1°. Logudorese, quadros, cibu, fusos, 
velenos, «aj»fl(/os, pr6nounced, according as they are radical or 
mutated, {kkw&dros, ttsibhu, ffuzos, vvelenos, ssipados), or 
(^icidros, dzibhu, bhuzos, bhel^nos, zipados) : 2°. Cagliaritan, 
quarras, cittadi, fillus, vizius, serras (kkw&rras, gwkTras ; ttsit- 
tidi, dzittidi ; fiillus, bhillus ; vvitsius, bhitsius ; ss^rras, 
zerras) ; 3°. Sassarese, quaranta, zelu, figghi, veni^ sorda 
(M^rardntta, ^w^arintta ; tts^lu, dzelu ; fiiggi, bhiggi ; weni, 
bh^ni : sso/Zu, zollu). 

The mutation of (kky) into (gy) belongs also to the middle 
form and may occur in Logudorese and Cagliaritan : 1°. 
Logudorese, chietu (kkhy^tu, gy^tu) ; 2°. Cagliaritan, chiete 
(kky^te, gyeto). 

The mutation of (bb) into (bh), belonging to .Cagliaritan 
and Sassarese, may be compared to that of (b) into (v) 

* It will be observed that the strong sounds (ff, bb, vv) are all mutated into 
(bh) in their weak form. This astonishes Mr. Schuchardt (see ** Romania," 
vol. iii. p. 12, 1. 31), but his astonishment will cease, if he consider that in 
Logudorese, Cagliaritan, and Sassarese the sound (bh) is always ^ven to the 
letters b and v occurring between two vowels ; a circumstance explainmg in a very 
satisfactory way why (bh) may be the weak mutation not only of (bb), but also of 
(vv) and (ff), and even oi (pp). See the Table. 


occurring in the middle form of all the Cambrian, and in the 
aspirated form of all the Gaelic dialects^ as well as in the 
weak of southern Corsican : 1°. Cagliaritan, baccas (bb&kkaSy 
bh&kkas) ; 2°. Sassarese, bozi (bbodzi, bhodzi) ; 3°. Welsh, 
baray fara (b£ra, v&ra) ; 4°. Cornish, 5°. Breton, bara^ vara 
(b&ra, v4ra) ; 6°. Vannes, bara, vara (bard, var&) ; 7*^. Irish, 
biadh, bhiadh (bio, via); 8°. GaeHc, biadh, bhiadh (blogh, 
viagh) ; 9°. Manx, beaghei/, veaghey (bl^ghe, vlaghe), * food ' ; 
10°. Southern Corsican, bonu (bbonu, vonu). 

The initial suppression of Logudorese (bb) and (dd) is 
quite analogous to that of (g) in the Welsh, Cornish, and 
Tr^guier Breton middle form ; of (s) in the Manx middle 
form ; of (f ) in the aspirated form of all the Gaelic dialects ; 
of (g, dhy nh, b, m, s) in the Manx aspirated form ; of (vv) 
in Tempiese and vulgar Florentine ; and finally, of (kk) in 
Pisan, and (k) in Lucchese ; 1^ Logudorese, boes ; dinari 
(bb6es, oes; ddin&ri, inari); 2°. Welsh, gafr, afr (g&vr, &vr); 
3°. Cornish, gavar, avar (gavar, Avar) ; 4°. Tr6guier, gtcenn, 
wenn (gwen, wen) ; 5°. Manx, sliack, Hack* (slj&k, ly&k) ; 6°. 
Irish, fear, /hear (fir, kr) ; 7°. Gaelic, fear, fhear {Ur, ir) ; 
8°. Manx, fer, er (fSr, ^r) ; gtceeder, tceeder (gwle/Aor, wtrf/ior) ; 
dwoaie, tcoaie (dhdi, 61) ; not, oi (nhoi, 6l) ; btcoaillee, woaiike 
(b(5!le, (5ile) ; mwannal, wannal {mwknal, w&na/) ; sleih, leih 
(sl^i, l^i) ; 9°. Tempiese, vinu (vvinu, inu) ; 10°. Florentine, 
ventd (weritd, eriti) ; 11°. Pisan, carca (kk&rkka, &rkka) ; 
Lucchese, cam (k&ni, &ni). 

The curious mutation of Cagliaritan (ttsh) into (zh) is 
certainly not wanting in analogy with the middle form 
changes in general, (dzh), which is not far from (zh), being 
the voiced sound indicated by theory as the middle mutation 
of (ttsh) : cenas (ttsh^nas, zh^nas). 

The mutation of Sassarese (ddzh) into (y) is, so to speak, 
identical with that of Gaelic and Manx (dzh) into (y), be- 
longing to the aspirated form : I''. Sassarese, gianni (ddzh&nni, 
y&nni) ; 2^ Gaelic, Dia, Dhia (Dzhla, Yia) ; 3°. Manx, Jee, 
Tee (Dzht, Yi). 

Tempiese and Southern Corsican mutate (kkj) and (ggj) 
into (kj) and (y), the first mutation belonging to the weak 


form of standard Italian (Table XIY.), and the second being 
similar to the mutation I have just mentioned of Sassarese 
(ddzb) and Gaelic and Manx (dzh) into (y) : 1^. Tempiese, 
ehiai; ghianda (kkj&if kj&i; ggj&ndda, y&ndda); 2°. Southern 
Gorsican, chiusa; ghialli (kkjusa, kjusa; ggj&Ui, y&lli)^ 

The vulgar Florentine, particularly the so-called "parlare 
delle Ciane di Gamaldoli/' mutates (kk, kky, kkw^ ttsh, ddzh) 
into (h, hy, hw, sh, zh). The first three mutations recall to 
my mind those of Irish, Gaelic, and Manx {thy s, sh) ; Irish 
(ty) ; Gaelic and Manx (tsh) ; and Cornish (f ), all into (h), 
and belonging to the aspirated form: 1°. Florentine, com^ 
chiama; quando; ciahattini; gente (kk6sa, h6sa; kky&ma, 
hy&ma ; kkw&nddo, hwindio ; ttshabattini, shabattini ; 
ddzh^ntte, zh^ntt^) ; 2°. Irish, tonn, thonn ; tir, thir ; %iiily 
%huil; sith, shith {thQ'nh, liQ nh ; tyiry, hiry ; sAly, hAly ; shl, 
hi); 3^. Gaelic, tonn, thonn; tlr^ thlr; auil, shuil; dth, shHh 
[thonh, honh ; tshiry, h!ry ; sfily, hAly ; shih, hih) ; 4''. 
Manx, tonn, honn; cheer, heer; sooill, hooill ; ahee^hee {thonh, 
honh ; tshir, hir ; suly, huly ; shi, hi) ; 5°. Cornish, Jloh, hloh 
(fldh, hldh). 

Pisan with Livornese changes (kky) into (y), and {kkw) 
into (v), while Lucchese mutates its initial and exceptionally 
"weak" (ky) and {kw) into (y) and (w), or also (vu). See note 
1, p. 157. Examples: 1°. Pisan, chiaechieroni (kkyakky^iJni, 
yakky^rtfni) ; quelle {kkic^Of vdlo) ; 2°. Lucchese, chiesta 
(ky^sta, y^sta) ; guaresima (Atrar^zima, war^zima), qtiesto 
{kwesto, vu^sto). 

The Roman dialect, particularly the "romanesco traste- 
verino," shares with the vulgar Florentine the mutation of 
(ttsh) into (sh), and (which the Florentine does not) mutates 
(ss) into (tts) after a preceding word that ends in (1), (n) or 
(r). This happens also in the middle of the word ; but it is 
not my intention to speak of middle mutations. The Roman 
dialect, moreover, is fond of giving to (dzh) and (b) the 
strong sounds of (ddzh) and (bb), even when the preceding 
word requires the weak form in standard Italian. Examples : 
P. cercd (ttsh^rkki, sh^rkkd) ; 2°. sale (ssd^, ttsile) ; 3°. che 
giova ? mi giova (kk^ ddzh(^va ? mmi ddzhdva), instead of 


(mmi dzh(Jva), 'what avails itP it does me good*; 4°. che 
botte ! la botte (kke bb(Jtt^ / Ua bb()tt^), instead of (11a h6iip)y 

* what a tun ! the tun.* 

The Neapolitan dialect presents a very curious mutation 
of (w), which sometimes^ as in standard Italian, may be 
weakened into (v), and sometimes mutated into (b) or even 
(bb). Examples: P. voglio (vvolya), *I will'; varca (vv&r- 
kka), *boat'; 2°. lo voglio vedk {u v61y8 v^^, *I wish to see 
him*; la varca (a v&rkka), 'the boat'; 3°. lo twoglio vedk {u 
bolya ved^), *I wish to see that'; le vvarche {e bb&rkka), 

* the boats.' 

What can be the cause of the mutation of (u volya) of the 
second quotation into (u bolya) of the third, the mutator 
being phonetically the same in both instances? In the 
second quotation, (u) represents Latin ilium, but in the 
third, Latin illud; and, although Schuchardt admits (see 
[Romania, vol. iii. p. 25, 1. 19) that (d) acts as a mutator, he 
does not say why (m) does not act as such. By those, how- 
ever, who admit, as I do, that final Latin m (and I do not go 
so far as to say that it is entirely null, even in its effects), is 
only good, more LuaitanicOy for nasalizing the vowel by which 
it is preceded; ilium (illu), ought to be considered as a word 
ended in an atonic vowel, and, as such, capable of determining 
the sixth or weak initial mutation in the isucceeding word, 
according to the general laws of standard Italian ; although, 
it must be admitted, that these laws are not without their 
exceptions, especially on account of some differences existing 
between the Italian dialects in the quantity and quality of 
the mutators. 

In conclusion, I wish to draw attention to the fact that in 
this Table XIII. I have not given those weak form mutations 
which are common both to these dialects and to standard 

Table XIV. Standard Italian. 

This far-famed classical language, which, after all, in spite 
of whatever may be said to the contrary, is nothing but the 
Tuscan dialect, in its Florentine variety, literarily fixed in 


the thirteenth century by the three great Tuscan luminaries 
of the Italian language, the Florentine Dante, the Aretine 
Petrarca, and the Certaldese Boccaccio ; although (confessedly 
or not) adopted by all the Italians, is not to be heard equally 
well pronounced throughout the Peninsula. The strong 
radical sounds (recalling to mind the Hebrew letters with 
ddghSsh) are, generally speaking, either neglected or not 
pronounced in their proper places, except in Tuscany and 
Rome, although the south of Italy makes a great use of them. 
The north, on the contrary, and even Lucca, as an exception, 
neglect them sadly, so far as to pronounce, for instance, 
a eaaa, *home,* adverbially, not (akkasa), as it ought to be, 
but (akdsa), as if they were Spaniards, Portuguese, French- 
men, or modern Greeks; while others are not ashamed to 
Bay (akdza) with voiced (z) ! I have followed the Tuscan 
Florentine custom, which, with very few exceptions, is also 
the Roman in this particular, in giving the strong sounds 
exhibited by this Table XIV. 

With regard to the name "weak form," I shall only 
observe that, although in my opinion, at least from the 
Italian point of view, the strong sounds expressed in the 
common orthography by a single consonant^ constitute the 

^ The statement that the initial single consonants at the beginning of the 
isolated Italian words, or even of initial or medial syllables preceded by a con- 
sonant, are pronounced as if they were written double, is exact only by approxi- 
mation, although quite sufficient for every practical purpose. It is mipossible, in 
fact, for a Tuscan to perceive any difference, for instance, between the sound 
given to the initial single p of pappa^ *pap' (* soft food for infants), or of il pave, 
'the bread,' or of talpa, * mole,' and the, strictlj speaking, really double sound 
expressed by pp of the same word poppa, which is pronounced (pp&ppa) and not 
(p^ppa). A physiological difference exists nevertheless between the two, if we 
admit Mr. Havet's very interesting analysis of the sometimes double, sometimes 
triple, sound expressed by two similar consonants occurring in the middle of a 
word. (See "Sf^moires de la Societe Linguistique de Paris," vol, ii. p. 76). 
Of the sound of the initial consonants Havet does not speak, but I am quite con- 
vinced by the arguments of this distinguished philologist of the correctness of the 
analysis of the medial double consonants ; and this in spite of the contrary opinion 
of Mr. Schuchardt (see ** Romania," vol. iii. p. 7, note 2), who gives no other 
reason against Mr. Havet's physiological explanations, than the mere assertion of 
^ not being at all convinced by them. The double voiceless and explosive con- 
sonant between two vowels expresses in fact, as Havet says, two sounds slightly 
different from each other ana separated by a stop which I would phonetically 
express by (•). If the two explosive consonants are voiced, the stop is replaced 
W a resonance capable of being continued only for a very short time, while the 
twoToieed consonants remain perfectly explosive, and it is only to the voiced 
resonance that continuity is due. The same applies to the two explosive liquid 
and nasal consonants, so that between them a liquid or nasal resonance takes place. 


radical form, very much in the same way as the Hebrew 
grammarians considered radical their letters with ddghish; 
it will be very easy for any one disagreeing witfi me in my 
appreciation of this matter, to consider my weak as his radical 
and my radical as his strong form. 

of which the duration is indefinite and to which alone continuity is due. The sounds 
(h, d, g, 1, m» n), therefore, are not capable, contrary to what Schuchardt suggests, 
of any quantity, and his reasons do not convince me in the least. These reson- 
ances, voiced, iiouid, and nasal, constitute as many independent vowels as there 
are voiced, liquia, or nasal consonantal pairs, and may be pronounced isolated and, 
when liquid or nasal, even sung. These last differ entirely from the ordinary 
simple sounds called *' nasal vowels,** which are rather nasalized than nasal. If 
it were desirable to express them in a strictly phonetic way (which is altogether 
out of question at present), I would indicate the voiced resonance by ("} ; the 
liquid, by C) ; and the nasal, by ("), while the strong initial simple sound I 
would continue to express by a double consonant without (*). Examples : P. 1"*. 
poppa (ppiip'ppa), ^woman*s breast' ; tetto (tt^'tto), *roof *; eoceola (Kk6k'kkola), 

* berry ; 2". oa^^ (bb&b" bo), 'papa*; daddoh {dAiA'' ^olo, ' insipid jest' ; leggo 
(ll^g^go), « I read' ; 3°. lulla (llfirla), * side boards of the bottom of a cask* ; 
4*. nonno (nn6n"'no), * erand- father * ; mamma (mm&m''ma), ^ mamma.' IF. 1**. 
eampo (kk&mppo), 'fiela* ; monte (mm($ntt«], 'mountain' ; soleo (sstSlkko), 'fur- 
row'; corpo (kk6rppo), 'body*; T. gamba (ggkmbba), 'leg'; mondo (mmcinddol, 
'world'; verga (we'rgga), 'rod' ; 3°. torlo (ttdrllo), 'yolk' ; 4". olmo (<ilmmo), 

* elm-tree * ; urna (6mnaJ, * urn.' IIP. P. il padre (il pp&dr«), ' the father * ; 
il tiglio (il ttilyo), ' the linden- tree* ; tV cane (il kk&n«), ' the dog* ; per easo 
(ppflr kk&zo), 'by chance'; 2°. per hatiere (pwr bbkt'ttfl'tf), 'to beat'; uom 
dabbene (u6m ddab^'b^ne), 'honest man' ; ilaozzo (il gg(Jttso), ' the ggoitre' ; 3^ eon 
lui (kkon lltii), ' with him * ; 4°. a/ noee (al nncttsh^), ' at the walnut-tree* ; per 
mare (pp^ mm&r^), ' by sea.* It will be observed that the strong sound occun 
after tne stop, but not after the resonances. This is easily accounted for in 
admitting their vowel nature. In fact, in Q)p<$p'ppa), the sound following the 
stop is strong only on account of the weak ^) by which it is preceded at the end 
of the first syllaole of the word before the stop. According to these phonetic 
appreciations, in all the words of the Florentine " cianesca'* variety, in wnich the 
article t/, after having lost its final /, coalesces with the following noun, the strong 
sound of the correct languaj^ ceases to be initial and becomes medial ; and, as such, it 
will be pronounced (omy in a strictiy phonetic and rather theoretical sense) in one 
of the following ways : P. as a simple strong sound, if the Italian initial sound 
is continuous and voiceless; 2°. as a aouble sound, the first being weak and ending 
the syllable before the stop, while the second beginning a new syllable after the 
stop IS pronounced strone ; if the initial consonant is explosive and voiceless in 
Italian ; 3°. as two weak sounds separated by a resonance, if the Italian explosive 
initial consonant is voiced, liquid, or nasal. Examples : il bastone (il bbast^n^, 
ital,; ib"bast<Jn<f,>r.), * the stick* ; il eavaOo (il kkavW'lo; ik-kkavfel'lo), 'the 

horse* ; il chiaeso (il kky&Bso; ikykky&sso), 'the noise'; il eiglio (il ttshilyo; 
ittshilyo), ' the eye-brow' ; il dente (il dd^ntt^ ; id^d^ntttf, 'the tooth' ; iljilo (il 

im~rakre), 'the sea' ; il nodo (il nn6do; in"'n6do), 'the knot*; il petto (il pp6t*tto; 
ip'Pp6t-tto), 'the breast* ; i7 quadra (il kkivadro; ikwkkwfiidro), 'the picture* ; 
il re (il rr^ ; irr^'), ' the king* ; il sole (il 9&6\e ; \s&6\e)^ ' the sun ' ; U iriplo (il 
ttriplo ; it'ttriplo), * the triple * ; •/ vino (il vvino ; iv*'vino), 'the wine ' ; il zio 
(il ttsio ; ittsio), ' the uncle ' ; il zero (il ddz^ro ; iddz6ro), ' the zero.* 

It is only amongst the Caucasian languages and in Italian that the initial strong 
sound occurs ; at least so far as I know. Schiefner, with whom I had in London 
a long conversation about the Caucasian sounds, assured me, in hearing from 


Table XV. 

The generally admitted classification of the Celtic dialects 
differs from that which I propose in this Table : 1°. In not 
giving an independent place, as separate languages, to the 
ancient Gaelic, Welsh, Cornish, and Breton languages so 
well studied by Zeuss, in spite of their differing from the 
living or only lately dead languages about as much as 
ancient differs from modem French. 2°. In considering 
Irish and Scotch Gaelic as two distinct dialects, while I think 
that the four principal forms of speech used in Ireland — 
Munster, Leinster, Connaught, and Ulster — with the three 
principal forms of speech used in Scotland — Southern, Interior, 
and Northern — mingle one with the other without solution 
of dialectal continuity. The Munster sub-dialect, for instance, 
differs more from that of Ulster than this does from Southern 
Scotch Gaelic. These seven sub-dialects, in my opinion, 
constitute one single dialect, which I call " Hibemo-Scotch." 
3^. In not giving to Manx all the linguistical importance it 
deserves. If this true second dialect of the " Gaelic language 
in its much wider sense" were in reality what it appears to be 
in its absurd orthography, it would be even more entitled to 
be regarded as an independent language of the Gaelic branch 
than Cornish is of the Cambrian. The difference of Manx 
from Irish and even Scottish Gaelic, however, is great, and 
not all attributable to Manx orthography, and any one willing 
to compare these three forms of speech in a scientific manner 
will not fail to be convinced that if Manx be not entitled to 
be called a language, it is certainly more than a sub-dialect, 
although no one would be justified in denying its nearer 
relation to Scottish than to Irish Gaelic. It must, moreover, 
be well understood that it does not follow in the least from 
this nearer degree of aflSnity that Irish and Scotch Gaelic 

mj month the sounds (kk ; k*kk) of the Italian word eueeo^ ' favourite child,' 
that the J are the same as those of the Kasikumuk kkukku (kkuk'kku), ' nipple,' 
and quite distinct from the Upper German dialectal initial k, followed either hy 
aspiration or any sort of stop. In his " Easikumiikische Studien," St. Peters- 
Wjr, 1866, p. 2, he expresses himself so about the nature of the Kasikumuk 
double sounds : " Diese Laute bloss als Verdoppelungen anzusehen hat in sofem 
seine Schwierigkeiten, als dieselben nicht nur im Inlaute, sondem auch im Anlaute 



are not much nearer one to the other than either of them is 
to Manx. 4°. In admitting two Welsh dialects instead of 
three sub-dialects as they really are, according to inquiries 
throughout Wales made by myself in company with the 
much-regretted Mr. Robert Jones, the well-known Welsh 
scholar. These sub-dialects were considered by the ancient 
Welsh grammarians as three distinct dialects, but they do 
not differ enough to be called more than sub-dialects. 5^. 
In admitting four instead of two Breton dialects. The forms 
of speech of L^on, Tr^guier, and Comouaille, without speak- 
ing of their varieties, constitute, in fact, three sub-dialects of 
one single dialect, while the Yannes dialect is the second of 
the Breton language. 6°. In not recognizing in the Vannes 
dialect the Lower and Upper sub-dialects in the same manner 
that I admit three sub-dialects in the Breton dialect properly 
9v^ oolloil. The two Yannes sub-dialects, it must be admitted, 
ditl^r enough to be regarded as more than simple varieties, 
«uvl tht^ whole Yannes dialect is not nearer to the first Breton 
vU^^Wl than Manx is to Scotch Ghielic. 

Ttt^ wvxnl ** Gaelic," unfortunately, is employed in four 
kKiStW^I wHUww^ It is applied to the "Gaelic" (1) branch, 
vvHj^jsrtwu? mie MUglo language, which is also called the 
* ^^iwtW ^' O'^^ Un^iag^» This is subdivided into the " Gaelic " 
^5^ v»»;y ^"^ Hil^i^nuvSxvtvh ** Gaelic) dialect, comprising the 
*^.>«i.<r It^ ^wvl \h^ thrw ScvUtish sub-dialects, and the Manx 
vl>iiJtW^. tW w^i^iii^ kMT *^ Gaelic " {i) finally, is very improperly 
>i*^>^Ht. <N^ tiW \\>JlWti\^i of the three Scottish sub-dialects, 
>¥«>^;»^ ;wv ^fc^ W\Mf\^ |>«^rtknilarly Gaelic than the four Irish 
uf^K ^W Xsiw^x. tn the fir^l »^nse *• Gaelic" means very 
)n^nf^^ ' Xs?#;A>Mi^\>mn '' ; in the second, not improperly, 
*V <hV^ '^hjft^tJ^ttCV^ x>f iW ttiw4io branch; in the third, im- 
^^vv|KH->v;->l*^\ ^ ; and in the fourth, very improperly, 

^^>\v X sv^vsH^ii^ ^ fa^fw. I ittn$t not fail to acknow- 
\>xK^ -V' sK>iiii?jfNSi^ \ *i» winAwr U> Mr, A. J. Ellis, for the 
^,v.., *vs,.\v> V >v» ^^ l.^l> uImi, both in the revision of 
^v^ ^\>,-W» ^-^^ <S- i^w*>^ XTjii^Vk J^gpe^tions in the arrange- 
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lY.— SPOKEN PORTUGUEZE. By Henry Sweet, M.A. 

The following sketch is the rezult of a careful study with an 
educated nativ of Lisbon.^ I hay also had an opportunity of 
hearing the Oporto pronunciation, tho only cazualy. 

The only other help I hay had has been Prince L.-L. 
Bonaparte's paper On Portuguese Simple Sounds (Trans. 
1880-1, pp. 23-41), together with the dictionaries of Vieyra 
and Joao de Deus (Diccionario Prosodico por A. de Caryalho 
e J. de Deus, Lisbon, 1878), which latter was first made 
known to English foneticians by the Prince, and is especialy 
yaluabl as it is the only complete pronouncing dictionary of 
the language there is. 

But my apreciation of the sounds differs considerably in 
sum respects from that of Deus, whom the Prince generaly 
follows. I am told that Deus is a natiy of Algarves — the 
extreme south of Portugal. It is therfor possibl that his 
divergencies, both from his countrymen and myself, may be 
partly, at least, dialectal. All that I can do is to put my 
obzervations on record, with the conyiction that where I hav 
erd, it has not been from want of care and conscientiousness. 


) following ar the vowels : 

1. 3 (a) amdmos {we luvd) 


2. I (i) desejoso {dezirous) 


3. 1 (e). See 19. 

4. \s (en). See 20. 

5. X (fl) amamos {we luv) 


^ J. C. Mardel, Esq., of 2, Gresham Buildings, Guildhall Street, London. 

' I hay now returnd to Bell's plan of putting the stress-mark be/or insted of 
after the element on which the stress begins. Vowel-quantity is generaly medial, 
and does not require to be markt. 

Phil. Tram. 1882-8-4. 15 









irma (sister) 





si {himself) 





aim (j^es) 





tS (see/) 





vento (tri^w^ 





p^ (foot) 





chuva (rain) 





um (owe) 





boa {good fern.) 





bom (^oofi^ masc.) 





p6 (d^t/S^) 








mais (mor) 





mau (bad) 





tenho {I hav) 




J (enin) 

tern (Aos) 





maior (^rea^) 



lilf (ctnin) 

mae {mother) 





ao (^0 Me) 




1 (anun) 

irmao {brother) 





viu (Ae «flw?) 





reis {kings) 










r^is (reafe) 





c^o (sA-y) 





fui {I was) 




1 (uwiw) 

muito (wweA) 





boi {ox) 




J (owi«) 

poe (/?Mf«) 





joia {jewel) 


and consonants : 




filho (sun) 





raro (rare) 




: (1.*) 

mal {bad) 





cbd (^efl) 





j& {alredy) 





40. zi (Js) gostos (plezures) 

41. ti (38) pasmo (tounder) 

42. s fa9o {I do) 

43. 8 aza (wing) 

^ ' >■ favor I favor) 

45. > (v) J ^ ^ 

46. L {h) banho {bath) 

47. n (nj nono {ninth) 

48. r (m) minimo {least) 

49. a (k) casa ^ house) 

50. a (g) amigo {/rend) 

52. Q5h (dj J ^" " ^ ^ ^ 

53. D (p) papa {pope) 

54. D (b) bebo {I drink) 











The following table will show the relation of the Portu- 
gueze vowels to the general system : 












I now proceed to details. 

1. ] (a): I'rp^Zi amdmos *we luvd' pret. ; ] *« *has'; 
X)3co'cd3cd palrar ' chatter ' ; 381 «»« * wing ' ; ooS^lcoIrx lagrima 


' tear ' abet. ; g}^ goto ' oat.' A.parently identical in forma- 
tion with the English 3. except that, like all Portugueze 
sounds, it is formd with the mouth wide open, which giva it 
a higher tone, and might make an inexperienced ear imagine 
it to be advanced (]^). 

2. I (i) : wTaleJal desy'oso ' dezirous ' ; al que ' what ' ; 
sT'SJu) cessar ' cease ' ; (OtTsT"D[Flef recebemos ' we receiv.' 
Closely rezembls the North Welsh w, but is deeper and mor 
guttural in tone. The Welsh sound is Ti-, the Portugueze 
normal I, perhaps slightly Jt, When I round the two 
Towele, the Welsh one becums the Swedish u in has, while 
the Portugueze Towel becums the corresponding Norwe- 
gian u. 

6. X (ti) '• I'FIFiet amamos ' wo luv ' ; sI-fxtj; semana 
' week ' ; aiecDiLX c<M'ffl'»A(i ' chestnut ' ; Xi\io\ para ' for,' I 
cannot agree with the Prince's identification of this sound 
with the E. \ of man ; it seems to me to be nearly identical 
with the first element of our diphthong in how, which is 
perhaps rather X" than normal X- 

6. It {an) : ItuFX' ''"'"o ' sister ' ; mn ra ' frog ' ; FI'SXI 
maya'apl'; X'll anwo ' year ' ; JSH&^mi dan^ando ' dAncmg' ; 
D(i)X>q1 branco ' white ' ; OXID^ campo ' field.' I agree with 
the Prince in considering Portugueze nazality in this, as in 
all the other nazal vowels, to be less strong than iu French, 
the uvula being, I supoze, less lowerd. This sound closely 
rezembls the bleat of a sheep. 

It may be noted here that the nazality of a vowel followd 
hy a stop is not entirely uniform thruout, an aproximation to 
the pozition of the stop being made towards the end of the 
Towel. This is most noticeable befor the lip stops. Thoa 
tambem 'also' might almost be writn ap3ro\ili, distinct, 
however, from tam bem 'as well'=DxiifB'l_ili. 

7. I (i) : sf «»■ 'himself'; I e 'and'; oil *'»'» 'day'; 
ml-:>lsl(a difficil ' difficult ' ; fIiIfI minimo ' least.' Seems to 
hecum X when unstrest befor another vowel, as in ai'FlcoiJ 
familia ' family.' 

8. Il (in): sit aim 'yes'; alis quinze 'fifteen'; ffOatw 
ingUi ' English ' ; ItiDl inda ' going.' 



9. [ (e) : >[ «?^ * see ! ' ; >[(D ter ' see ' inf. ; ai*D[cDl cahello 

* hair ' ; <D*I*a[8j riqueza * riches ' ; s[zfo\ sexto * sixth ' ; >[riej 
timoa * we see ' ; s\p\ cedo * erly.' 

10. [j (en) : >[5Di t^^w^o * wind ' ; o[ja>l tenro * tender ' ; 
o[nipenna 'pen* ; co[rD(D3(D lemhrar * remember.' 

11. \ (ae) : DX p^ * foot ' ; \ i ^\r* \ x^I ^^ * ^^ ' 5 ^I^'^ 
f^tto * old ' ; XD\f!\zi demos * we gave ' ; Dxokdx pedra * stone ' ; 
B\OZi bebes * thou drinkest.' Vieyra's dictionary, like the 
ordinary Portugueze spelling, distinguishes only i [ and S, 
which a-priori may be either \ or [, and I am not able to 
advance beyond this twofold distinction, but altho I hear the 
open sound mainly as Xt 1 do not undertake to say pozitivly 
that [ does not ocur also. Deus, followd by the Prince, splits 
up the open e into two varieties, which he marks ^ and k 
respectivly, calling the former * acute' (agudo), the latter 
'open' (aberto), but without any further information as to 
the nature of the difference between them. Neither my 
teacher nor I coud perceiv the slightest difference between 
Deus's ^ in decimo, pessinto, and his ^ in pega, depressa, etc. 
Deus also writes ^ in many words where I can only hear [, 
and where Vieyra writes S. 

12. i (u) : 2i>i chum *rain'; (D*ix rua 'street'; >iri /wmo 

* smoke ' ; di:(j)Ui'Q[zi Portuguez * Portugueze.' Becums i 
when unstrest befor another vowel, as in Qjjci)©! quarto 

* fourth ' ; coljaii lingua * tung.' ivisth * whist ' is ilzfO. 

13. h (uw) : i5 um 'one' ny^sc. ; sirsb zumzum 'hum- 
ming ' ; li^ai nunca ' never ' ; z\>7\ chumbo ' led.' 

14. } (o) : d}i boa * good ' fern. ; j'^} av6 ' grandmother ' ; 
QJ'oJcDS quatorze ' fourteen ' ; J'oJ'ji outono ' autumn ' ; D}ai 
pouco * few.' 

15. }i (on) : d}j bom ' good ' maso. ; }s(j)l honra ' honor ; ' 
oojjai longo ' long ' ; sJJDCDJ sombra ' shade.' 

16. J (o) : dJ p6 ' dust ' ; JcDj ora ' now ' ; }oAzi olhos 

* eyes ' ; DOJjai'^]^ procurar ' seek.' 

We now cum to the diphthongs. The elements of these ar 
always formd with perfect clearness, so as to sugest a dis- 
syllabic pronunciation to an English ear. 

17. ^ (ai) : r^izi tnais ' raor ' ; sjx sake ' goes out ' ; o]£ pae 


'father'; 3-^1 ^i^ * nurse'; a3x'>jDl gaivota 'gul'; ojiei 
baixo * low.' 

18. 3* (au): p3i mau *bad'; aJrspiJ caugSo * caution'; 
ajisi causa * cauz ' ; >i>]vDl frattde * fraud.' 

19. \£ (ei) : d\il\ tenho ' I hav ' ; coXlLl knha ' wood ' ; 
>\xLi venho * I cum ' ; ^\lLl venha * let him cum.' This is 
the only way in which close e befor nh is pronounced, the 
combination [l not existing. I was for a long time quite at 
a loss to analyze this sound, but am now tolerably sure of the 
first element. I am not certain whether the X should be 
writn or not, as it is possibl that the diphthongic efect may 
be due simply to the tranzition from the \ to the L. 

20. yii (enin) : uyii tern * has ' ; \fxj em * in ' ; syii sem 

* without ' ; ^r\sis homem * man ' : dJjXjxj poem * they put.' 

21. IX (ai) : FjX'JcD maior 'greater' ; ajx-J-ooi gaidla 'cage.' 
This pronunciation of unaccented ai ocurs only in a few 

22. 1SLS {dn\n) : fjjxj mae ' mother.' Only in this word, 
where the nazality is due to the same forward influence of 
the F as in rlj mim * me.' 

23. II (au) : i^ao' to the' ; i^zi aos ' to the ' pi. ; sxi'a)3Q>I 
saudade ' longing.' Compare JX (21). 

24. IJ15 (dnwi) : Icdtx^w irmao ' brother ' ; risiiZi maos 

* hands ' ; irisii amao * they luv ' ; alcDi'SiJiJ coragao ' hart.' 

25. Li (lu) : >Ii viu ' he saw.' 

26. [x (ei) : (D*[X2< reis ' kings ' ; [x hei ' I hav' ; Q(i>[A creio 
'Ibeliev'; ri'w[mi7nadeiraY wood'; s[xeMci« ' six ' ; a[x*F3cD 
queimar * burn ' ; ^[iDifeito ' made.' 

27. [i (eu) : [i ew ' I ' ; XD\i deu ' he gave ' ; [icdJdi Europa 

* Europe ' ; a)[i2< Deua ' God.' 

28. XX (aoi): ii>k\LZS reis 'reals' (mimey); >I.'i£Zifieis 'faith- 
ful ' plur. ; li'iiizf anneis * rings.' The singulars ar a>«f *3oo 
reaU >I'Xcd fiely in^co annel. \i seems to ocur only in this 
way, as the rezult of inflectional contraction. 

29. p: (oou) : sp: ceo ' sky ' ; ^p v^o * veil ' ; ei'Dp chapSo 
' hat.' 

30. ix (ui) : >i£/ui 'I was' ; Ix hut! 'alas! '; j'slxei azues 

* blue ' plur. 



31. hli (unin) : pijuol muito * much.' The nazalization 
is due to the r, and does not apear to be universal out of 

32. }x (oi) : d}x bai * ox ' ; >}x foi ' he was ' ; m}iai doua 
* two ' ; aJl'Djloji coitado * mizerabl.' 

33. }sis (owiw) : dJjij poe ' puts ' ; Djjuej poea ' puttest ' ; 
3*s}Jl52J acgoes ' actions ' ; ajTjjuaj Camoes. 

34. Ji (oi) : ej-ll joia * jewel ' ; I'cdJx heroe ' hero ' ; (^k}izi 
roes * rolls' ; s}izi soes ' suns.' The singulars of the last two 
ar (D«3-co rol and sj-oo 8o/. 


The following table wil show the general relations of the 
consonants : 


S S 

z e 

> > 





D D 





35. 00 (/) : '>l^filho 'sun'; '>\^\falha 'crack' ; >tCDi velho 
* old ' ; fI'CdJcd melhor * better ' ; sTt[co semelhe * may re- 

36. (Dj (rr) : cd#3(d1 raro * rare.' Mor forward than in 
English, being formd quite close to the teeth-rim. This is 
the only consonant which admits of distinctions of quantity. 
CD seems to be formd by a singl trill, cd# by two or three, and 
is often, tho not necessarily, utterd with greater force. <D* 
is the sound of rr as in Q]<i>A carro ' cart,' compard with 
qJcdI caro ' dear,' D[cD#i perro * obstinate,' }*(D#}<j) horror. Also 
of initial r as in >}xx ^^^^ifoi cl Roma * went to Rome,' com- 
pared with I'CDjrj aroma, r befor the point conss. o, ID, 7, 


especialy the last, is aparently stronger than befor other 
conss., being almost m, as in al(DOl curto * short/ >[qxdI verde 
* green/ aJcDiI came ' flesh.' 

37. CDH( (Ijc) : fJco mal * bad ' ; [co eile ' he ' ; s£*>Iq) dvil 
' civil ' ; sjw «o/ ' sun ' ; '\d\sis alem * beyond ' ; s\tiilwil 
celebre * famous ' ; >](X)Sl /also ' false ' ; sloo^x ^^^^ ' brambl * ; 
od] /a * there ' ; aooj^i ^^^^^^ ' clear.' The Fortugueze /, 
especialy when final or when followd by another consonant^ 
sounds quite different from the French and German co\ as in 
elle, hell, and aproaches the guttural Bussian /, being also 
distinct from the English /. It is aparently formd with the 
back of the tung in the c-pozition, which draws the point- 
contact from the teeth on to the gums, sum distance from the 
teeth. Acording to my teacher it is formd on the same part 
of the palate as i — that is, further back than <D. 

38. z (/) : e3 chd * tea ' ; ai2l*e3(D cuchichar * whisper ' ; 
<D*}ei roxo ' red.' 

39. e (3) ; e] jd ' alredy ' ; oxei T^'o * Tagus ' ; }z hoje 
' to-day.' 

40. zi (js) : a}zfdizi gostos * plezures ' ; zfd] esid ' is ' ; >]zi 
faz * does.' 

41. e< (5«) : Djeipi pmmo * wunder ' ; D[eKDl de%de * sinse * ; 
lefpjcoi e%mola 'alms.' 

These two sounds ar formd in a pozition between e and s. 

42. s (s) : '>\€ifaqo ' I do' ; slsjci) ce%%ar 'cease'; tqI& disae 
' he said.' My teacher finds that he forms s and 8 with the 
tip of the tung against the lower teeth, but that he cannot 
form either z or Zi with the tung in this pozition, but is 00m- 
peld to raize the tip towards the palate. 

43. 8 (z) : 381 ^sfl * wing ' ; s[oA zelo * zeal ' ; m}s doze 
' twelv.' 

44. > (f) : >i'^ favor * favor ' ; ai-(D*3>l garrafa * botl.' 

45. > (v) : >r>i vivo * alive ' ; sxo)> serve * servs.' 

46. L (n): dJlI banho 'bath'; >Il1 vinho 'wine'; in 
unha * nail ' ; sI'lJcj) aenhor * sir ' ; I'QIL acanhe ' may 

47. IH (n J : i}i\ nono ' ninth ' ; rTilli menino ' infant/ 
Formd in the same place as the English n. 


48. r (m) : fItIpI minimo * least ' ; pfsirit meamo * same.' 

49. a (k) : ajsi caaa \ house ' ; I'al aqui * here ' : >Iasi fixo 
*fixt.* a, D and D ar pronounced without any escape of 
breth, =a', etc. 

50. a (g): iTlai amigo *frend'; a(D[ai Orego * Greek.' 
€1, m and D ar pronounced with a less energetic clozure than 
in English, so that they always aproximate to e, w, and 3 
respectivly, and sumtimes ar actualy opend, especialy between 
vowels. My teacher finds the E. g quite distinct from the 
Portugueze, altho he thinks the Portugueze g is closer after 
s, as in rasgar (D#j;era](D. 

51. o (tj: otei tucio 'all'; >Lzfo\ visto 'seen' ; l}xo noite 
'night.' In forming o and W the tip of the tung is protruded 
between the teeth. 

62. Wi- (d J : m]mi dado * givn ' ; mLi dia * day.' Aproaches 
very near in sound to the E. w in thetiy from which it is sum- 
times indistinguishahl. 

53. D (p) : dJdi papa * pope ' ; dcdJqjI prado * meadow.' 

54. D (b) : dxdI bcbo *I drink'; co[rD(D3(D lembrar * re- 
member ' ; DXD bebe ' drinks.' Often almost indistinguishahl 
from 3. 

Reprezentation and Ocurrencb. 

Portugueze spelling is sum what unsetld, the natural diffi- 
culty of symbolizing a complicated sound-system being 
aggravated by the retention of etymological spellings. I 
hav not atempted to carry out any consistent Portugueze 
orthografy in this paper. 

The use of accents varies, and they ar writn universaly 
only in words where they ar required for distinctiv purposes. 
The acute accent is uzed to denote the name-sounds of the 
vowels : a 3, ^ X, d J. [ and } ar writn i, 6. Nazality is 
markt sumtimes by the tily as in irmd, only the first element 
of a diphthong being markt, as in mao, sumtimes by an w, 
as in aim, n and w+cons. ar not pronounced separately, but 
act only as nazal modifiers of the preceding vowel. Hense 
the consonant d, which would otherwize ocur in such words 


as longOy branco, is wanting, as in French, these words being 
pronounced oojjai, Da>iJai. 

The only dubld consonants which differ in pronunciation 
from the corresponding simpl ones are rr, ss, nn and mm, and 
cc when = as. Other dublings, which ocur chiefly in lemed 
words, ar unmeaning, as in effeito, aggravar. 


a : 3, 1. In stress-syllabls ], except befor nazals. When 
final a=3 is accented in many words, especialy monosyllabls 
such as Idy ch&, to distinguish it from a=x. Also in d and 
dSf contractions o{ a a, a as, and in preterits such as amdmos, 
tomdmos xA'V^T^zu i before wA, w, m followd by a vowel, 
except in the preterits just mentiond, in banho, ganho *1 
gain,' and a few rare words in anh-. Unstrest a is 3 in alem 
^'(oyii, and regularly befor I followd by a cons, beginning 
another syllabi, as in palrar d3co*cd3cd, algar 3a)'s3o), algum 
3co*aij, alcangar ]o:iQlS'S](i>, saJtar s3cod3<j), aldeia 3^'^[-fI« 
Often befor silent c followd by a cons., as in acgao ^'S^siiy 
transa^gao D(DiJs3'SlJa:f, actor 3*o}(d. Similarly in adaptagao 
l^]^r^l^^^ and other words. Also in armar, alargar 10)3^*03^ 
[l in marchary eariSo, arder, etc.] ; relaxar (d#Ico3*23<d ; ganhar 
Q3'^3^ (3 thruout) ; aadio s^'xaVi. i not only in most unstrest 
syllabls of polysyllabic words, but also in the unstrest mono- 
syllabic words a (articl, pronoun, prep.), as (plur. fem.), mas 
* but/ Also in both syllabls of the uzualy unstrest dissyl- 
labls para djcdi and cada Qjpi. 

a, -an final (as in gran), an^ am befor cons.=iJ. 

-am final =ifif, as in tarn, amdram, formerly writn So. 

ah /=]. 

Lisbon coloquializms ar agua ]iQil, sangue s^jual, janella 

ai : 3A IA til© latter only ocazionaly in unstrest syllabls 
(see p. 208). 

ae : 3^- P(^> ^^^«; geraes tl'(s>^iziy etc., plurals of tal, geral. 
So also in mhe s^t ' goes out,' sahes s]lZi, from sahir SI*I<D. 

ae : i^xj. Only in mde. 


^^' Ji? li, the latter only when unstrest (p. 208). In 
saude the vowels ar separated — Sl'toT. 

ao ' 3i, Iii the latter only when unstrest (p. 208) . 
ao: pij. 

im, in + cons. : Ij. 

iu : Ii, except when they belong to different syllabls, as in 
viuva >I*i>I. 

e : [, X, [J ; T, I, the latter two only when unstrest. 4, i 
generaly writn when final to distinguish from the unstrest 
sounds. The distribution of [ and ^ is iregular, but there ar 
sum inflectional changes which can be reduced to rule. 

Nouns and adjectivs with [ in the masc. sg. keep it in the 
plur. and fern., except in the pronouns ella, aqtiella, essa^ esta, 
which hav \ against the [ of the masc. elle, aquelle, esse, este. 

The changes in verb-inflections, on the other hand, follow 
the same general rules as those of the }- verbs. It must, of 
course, be understood that we ar concernd only with the 
stress vowels of the verbs, whether root or inflectional. 

A) root vowels. 

1) \ thruout. a) with certain exceptions, detaild under 2, 
in all verbs of the Ist conj. : espero TziO\(iil, velas, cessa, kvao, 
rega ! soletre sI'COX^cdI, arredes, trepem. b) the irregular verbs 
of the 2nd conj. perder and qtierer (see under inflection), c) 
the irregular verbs of the 3rd conj. medir and (im)pedir. 
d) the verbs of the 3rd conj., (rejferir, servir^ advertir, vestir, 
seguir, repetir, take i and \, 

2) [ thruout. a) befor Ih, ch, j, n and m not foUowd by 
another consonant in verbs of the 1st conj., the following 
being the commonest of these verbs : aconselhar, semelhar ; 
fechar ; gracejar ; d^sejar^ trovejar, manquejar, pejar, sohojar ; 
serenar, acenar, condemnar Q]iXDl'l]Q), penar ; remar, Exampls 
ar : aconselho, fechaSy troveja, condemiiatUy remcs. b) In herdar 
[(DOjJcD pesar * griev ' impers., \^pesar ' weigh ' having \ thru- 
out], chegar, as in herdo^ pesa-me, chegue. 

3) The regular verbs of the 2nd conj. hav [ in the first sg. 


pren. indie, and in the pres. nb}^ X ^ ^^ ^^^a ^ xbit 
indie, and in the imper. : [ ifi^, m^eUm, mete^ fwiiww ; ^ 
behe^, dere, metiem, bebe ! 

4) In the ircgular vert* it maj be tboCed tbat e Saml i» 
always [ : l^, fiS, di, ri, also in the 2iid ^. pmaits «RMy iie% 
r/^«. [ aluo in redeffi), and in/fs, ef/inv, <>nfy and m the idbg. 
«^'a, ^«/^a, t'^a. See under Inflectioii. 

B) inflectional Towels. 

1 ) [ </) in -rf/io^ 1st plur. of the fntnre and snbj. fftes. of the 
Ifit oofij.f proi. indie* of the 2nd conj., and pret. indie, of the 
roKuliir 2n<l conj. : amaremon, beberemo9, abriremo^ /artmc9 ; 
(imrmoM, dvmon ; hebamon, fazemoi ; bebemas pret. b) In the 
prot. liMli<». "rulfiftijf 'cram and subj. preL -^m etc., -e«p etc., 
of thn rPKwlur 2nd eonj. : bebeste, bebe^Us, beberam; bebera, 
M*Ptwtwii, hrlwMurn, o) In the infin. -er; beber,/aztr, ier. d) 
III thn 'Jnd fut. of iho regular 2nd conj. : beber^ bebermot^ etc 

y) I ill iho jirot, indio. 'estefaj, -emos, -eram, subj. pret 
'pnu -r««^ Pio., Mild 2nd fut. of the iregular verbs cfcr, e^iar; 
it*9f**\ jU4n\ hiim\ }WilN\ mbfir, trazer; quertr, tir ; par, as in 
hir^^h^ jUpntvn, di^mon^ puzcram / hauvera, riessemos ; der, 

*l*lu» t\«Ui»wln)j \in\M inoludo many of the commoner words, 
m\\ will lihuw iho dintribution of strest [ and x in the other 

( m^iv^^ ♦/ (liilt«»r r/). ^rm, haveres pi. jwrti; ^m> [^m> 
{^%\ M ^»VV*|» /H^i'**!* nlml., uj. ; ^^rfo, c^cd, ff<yr/o, a/vr/o, 
,v/.K\ .^^v♦#♦»iWM » f / lU'llol. p/lt^t rvl'O etc., ^«^re//ff, «r&, coforeh, 
^.^^vvVi, ^vAs ^iS ♦Hi/*«^Ms iUiMh ; fclpa. joelho, otrU^, fiobran- 
.vv/U, v^^vV/W^ w*w*»Mm, iiM/itt : ahhadessa; esse; infetrsae ; 
.v^^^^>« *''vV\*i tsf^vt^ tiMtrmif oerteza etc., Ingieza etc., 
^..wv.w.* v^^vs l>v-^*» ♦/»;/J'^i. dtHpena, mesa, treze. marquez, 
.*...;. c^ ys\,\^. v>v^^, *v-?, ♦•iiN** ^va» JWhoo, este, sexto sfeol, 6e«/a 

Usmv .v'^/<^ ^V'^V^t c *^*^«*^M, t/^**'*** trezeno, peqiieno, feno, 

, ..„ vv'--*- A^^w^^ *V'^*^ <«^<^' fto</<»^flr, labrego; negro. 

^........ ..A.^s ^<^AHv^^^^ A'^*^* iriymto, Mrfe ' thirst,' «tf(to 

^aK. ^^^*^^t rv***\ ^-v^Vs, v4>A* ; iW^v. sebo. 


\. € (letter e), rf * is/ cqfS, atS, pi. hera^ colhir * spoon * 
(colher ai*co[<[) ' gather') vero^ prinuivera, mulher ; serra^ terra, 
rcr.^o riiverso^ herva, inverno, certo, perto *near/ aberto, ella 
fern., fi^ly cruel etc., annel iS'^jp, papel etc., amarello, janella, 
mel, aquellateia.y pelle, hello; selva, velho^ evangelho X^jrexcoi. 
dez, esta fern., I'este ' east,' honesto y^\zvAy festa, hista * bow,' 
mestre, invejay Tejo^ sexagesinio s[asi*ex8lFi. esaa fern., pefa, 
pessimo^ pressa, leve, neve, nevoa, brece, engenho, solemne 
si'toill. leme. secca 'drought' [seca s[ai 'dry' fern.]. 
egua, cego, regra. secrete, sete, moeday sede 'see,' remedio, 
credo; pedra. sebe; lebre,febre. 

[i. In Lisbon mesa is generaly f^[iSl by forward influence 
of the p. 

I, I. ^ is T in the unstrest words Ihe, se^ ne, que, te, Ihes, 
and in most unstrest syllabls, as in preciso, nenhum iI'lIj, 
ceremonia sTcdTtJ^xx, necessario TfTsT*s3(Dd:, beneficentia dTiT- 
>I's[jsxi, even in d^zasete mlsi'Sjp. Also befor two conss., 
as in emprestar, vestir, quebrar, impertimnte, perder, Finaly 
it is often dropt. 

e ' and ' is always I. Unstrest e regularly becums I befor 
another vowel, as in real (d»I'3cd, semear sTpI'3cd, beato. peor 
is sumtimes writn peior, but always pronounced dI'Jcd. So 
also when the following vowel belongs to another word : al 
J<DX2J sis\f que horas sdo ? >JcDal©Ii ^(i>folgo de o ter. 

Intial e befor s+cons. is regularly T, as in estar, esperar, 
esmola Te^pjcoi, where it is often dropt. ex- followd by a 
vowel is [s-, as in exemplo, existir, exhihir. So also in hesitar 

Non-initial [ in sexagesimo s[QSj;t\siri, 

In other cases initial e is T, which in familiar speech 
becums I, as in eterno I'OXCOTfl, heroe I'CdJ-x, heretico I'CDXOlai, 
effeito, educagao. 

Unstrest \ ocurs in the ending el, as in nsivel ^I'sl^xco ; 
befor / followd by a consonant (compare ]), as in delfim, 
delgado; befor cf =s, as in direcgao ojIcdx'SIJIJ ; before ct, pt=, 
o, as in director qjIcdx'dJci), susceptivel sisx*oI>xa) ; and in 
other words, such as reflexdo oilxox'Sl^iJ, vexar >X*^3^> prigar 
' preach ' [pregar 0(dTq](0 * nail '], vidor ^i'w}(i> * overseer.' 



enh : \il. See p. 208. x^ in engenho. 

em, en + cons. : [j. 

em final : \sis. 

ei : [X, XX. 

eu: [i. 

eo: xi. 

u: i. um; nn+cons. : \u 

ni : If, \siu 

o : }, J ; 1. The last only when unstrest. The first two 
often distinguisht as 6, 6, especialy when finaL 

The distribution of strest } and } in verb inflection is as 
follows : 

1) } thruout. a) all verbs of the 1st conj. except sonhar 
(and perhaps sum others), including those whose o=]- and } 
when unaccented: choro, oras (inf. J'CdJcd), conaola, folgatn (inf. 
>J«*€i3<d)» olhe (inf. }'Co3<i>)> goateSy tomem^ toquem, roga, cobro. 
b) the irreg. poder has } in the same forms as these verbs, nL 
jm»* ind. and subj. (the imper. being wanting), c) roer, doer 
hav QH and J* (f) verbs of the 3rd conj. hav u and J. 

^) } thruout. a) in sonhar: sonAo, sonha, sonhem, b) 
wa#\ iVi4r^ CiXit hav on and }. 

3) } and 3* tdternate in the regular 2nd conj. exactly like [ 
^^^ ^_^ iu Ist Bg. pres. indie, thruout subj. pres., } else- 
whv^ whether the unstrest o is i or }: } carro, coma, 
t^v/Aoof* miHH4m; J Mordea, chove, comem, corre!, solve (inf. 

t'tt^v Mr lastly a few izolated forms of iregular verbs. The 
^►iv^it* t^^ <Vi>m poiler and poz from por hav }. In the 
U(>l^ v^i^ <^ i« } thruout befor nh, nl. in the pres. indie, and 

W^ uv^w v^uui to the changes in nouns and adjectivs. 
H^a*,v ^k^^u* auU ai\jootivs ending in o with } in the sing. 
hUiv I i>it ^bk^ \4urv All adjectivs which make this change in 
ih^ HiKwtvs i^v^^ 1^*^^ it «il»o iu the fern. sg. and plur. 

tH (^^¥i¥ w\Mf4» Ihi^ vow^ of the plur. is always the same 
^,^ uh,*j« g4' iW •iuiN Th<> oimvorso change of J to } never 
vK^4i^ IV ^vwi^^ nr typical oxampls : 


novo i}>l ' new ' ; pi. masc. i^>\zi ; fem. sg. ij>i, pi. 

In the following lists the ]-words which change their 
vowel in the plur., or plur. and feminin, ar markt with a *. 
Verb forms ar not givn except ocazionaljr. 

}. av6,pes8oa, boa aj. fem., Liahoa. senhor^ aenhora, amor, 
favor, etc., inferior, flor, cdr ' culor,' p6r inf. ; torre, qiiatorze 
ax'o}<D8T, corco, ^cornOy forma 'mould,' *porco sbst., aj., horto, 
*porto, *morto aj. bolo; bolsa, solto aj. ^olho, folha. roxo 
aj«> poz pret. ; mosca, gosto, posto sbst., aj. hqfe. peacogo, 
fosse vb., mogo, moga, doce, *grosso aj. *formoso etc., doze, 
*esposo, esposa, enxofre, sofrego. *ovo, *tiovo aj., alcova, 
*povo. sonJio, tergonha, ponho vb. outono, nono aj., dona, 
sotnos vb., fomos vb., no)ne, como, porno, boca. *jogOy ^fogo. 
roto aj. todo aj. ; podre. sopa. lobo, loba, sob ; sobre. 

J. s6y avo, n6y p6. melhor, mefwr, historiay ora, hora, de 
cor 'by hart'; Jorgey forma * form,' morte, porta. ITespanhol, 
oleo Jcod:, soly escolay polvora. vds, nds, voz ; costa, poste. 
relogio, foge vb. vosso, nosso. cofre. nove. Antonio, homem, 
fome. logo, optinw J-dIfI, iwtay bota. roda, moda, modo. 
copo ; proprio. obra, cobra, pobre. 

Unstrest o is 1 not only in syllabls, as in amo, amoroso 
irl'(D}s\, Portugal Dl(i)Di'a3cD, impomvel IjDi'sI>xco, but also 
in the unemfatic words o, dOy os, vosy nos (of which c6s, fi^ ar 
the emfatic forms), por, porque d1(DQI. 

It is regularly } when initial (except of course where=]-j) : 
orary horror, olhary ocioso }*sx]-si, officio, onerar, occasido 
Jai'SXXJii, opinido JdItjxxju ; orvalho, ornar, orgulho, fiostil, 
oppresso ]D(i)Xsi, obrary obstante. Also befor 1+cons. : solver, 
folgar, voltary soldado. Also iapolegar, monosyllabo r}rj}*sIa33Di> 
profissdOy provocar DCj)}>i'a3cD etc. 

It is 3" in cdrar * culor,' adopgao l^'^'Slilf, procurar, adoptar 
im}'d]<i> or iaj}-D3<D. 


om, on -f cons. : }i. 

oi : }x, Jx. 

6e: }JX5. 

ou : }, }x. The latter is general in dous, and, in familiar 


speech, in other words as well, such as lausa, coma, Sousa, 
aparently chiefly befor «. ou is i in the pret. Ist sg. of 
the iregular verb saber — soube siD. 


h always silent. In ha ' has/ has ' hast ' it servs to dis- 
tinguish the clear 3 sound from the j of a, as. 

r, rr, rh : <d, cd*. Dropt in rw^ >g-SFl-s[, ^'s[, which 
latter is sumtimes writn vocS — contractions of wssa merci. 

1 : CO. Dropt in arratel X'<D*3oT. 

Ih: 00. 

8 : s, s, ei, ti. s only when initial, and medialy after a 
oous. and befor a vowel ; between vowels s ; finaly befor a 
pauz Zi ; also Zi befor a voiceless cons. ; ei befor a voiced 
cons. : sentar-se s[rD3cDS, /also >]ciis\ ; casa ajsj, os outros -Is 
}D(iAzi; casas o!\sizi\ mto >l2fDi, estd Zfof^, os tempos -izt 
lj[iOlzi ; rasgo (i>¥]eiQ\, esmola T'efFjcoi, as maos -izi riiiszi. 

In such compounds as monosyllabo, resentiry presentir s is 
kept, but not in very familiar words, such as resolter (D«Is}o()'>[a), 
preservar dci)TsTcj)'>3^« « also in transacgao D(DIJ83*SXJ1S etc., 
deshonra mTs}iQ>i, persistir. 

y, SS I o. 

z: s, Zif Zi. s initialy and between vowels: zombar s}i'B'^, 
tezes >[sle$. Zi finaly befor pauz and befor voiceless cons., 
ti befor voiced cons. : vez ^[zi, trez quartos 0(i)[e^ Q^^i^\zii d 
luz de gaz -3 cols^I G!\zi. traze * bring ! ' is pronounced 0(d3^i, 
as if the z wer final. 

sc : eK3, s. ZKX befor a, fi, o, as in escola, cresco QQ>\Zi(A. 
S befor €, i, as in sciencia, disctpuh, crescer^ nascer. 

It wil be seen that altho theoreticaly s and 8 ought never 
to ocur at the end of a word, they frequently do so in speech 
by the dropping of final T, as in sentar-se, disse, doze. 

ch : e, a. The latter only in words of lerned origin, such 
as ChristOy chris'tdo, 'machina, parochia Dl'cojail. 

X: z, s, s, as. s in maximo, proximo D(i)JslFi, reflexao 
(D*TXDX*SXJ1S troupe etc., preterit of the iregular verb trazer, 
and sum others, s in ex* foUowd by a vowel, as in examinar 


[sxrl'ijo). When the ^ 10 followd by a oootonant, the d? has 
its regular sound, as in explanar [enxoX'Tjo)- OS in sum words 
of lemed origin, such as sexagesimo ${QBl*S^tf% MM 0106%, 
erttdyfeo, flexivtl xoxa 'sl^xco. 

j: e. 

W : i, as in wi^th * whist/ 

f , ph : >. 

V : >. In Lisbon travalho is often OOX'dJIcA- 

n : % f . rr initialj and between vow^ in the same woxcL 
5 finaly or befor a consonant, im is n» as in aiifio, eamm^ 
panno ; penna. So also ar pronounced alumnOf i*fAfffi mrnmo, 
etc. Sum lemed words hay final i. amm is 'ffj^, or mor 
ooloquialy ]r\i£i. 

nh: L. 

m : r, f, parallel to n. mm is snmtimes ir, as in ekamnut 
tiiri, immovel l5*p}>x^, but aparently oftener simpl r, as in 
dilemma (Dl'Oo[rx, gomma a}PX> commotfo a}i4o|. mn is often 
simpl 1, as in damnar Ts(\''i^j condemnor, eolemne 6l*aipL 

c : a, s. generaly dropt befor f and t : aefSo ]*SIfti» 
direcgao (dI(DX'8I<3^, character ax'CDjoiO), tits^efo l5*6xpi> frueto, 
victoria >I-oJa)r[. eucceder is slsl'0[a>. 

qu: 01, Q. 01: befor a, 0, as in jtMi/, qwmi, qnoUdiano 
ca^bDi'l^Y. Also befor e, i, in mor lemed words, such as 
quinquagesimo OiIiOiX'^IsM, liquido, ehquente [oo}'CB{$ot. 
regularly befor e^ i, as in que ol, queimar, aqui l^cS, quieto 
oI'XcA. Also befor a in quatorze ox*o}<M* /ijtfor (dI-o}# is 
also writn licor. 

g: a, e. Dropt befor n in signal sl'Vlioi, augmeniar, 
Ignez, f-7[zi. In other words, such as digno, eigno, the 7 is 

gu is ei befor a, (0), as in guarda, Q befor «, t, as in {rtf^rm 

GX<^I» «^«*'« 3QJfi- 
t, th : o. 

d: m. 

p : D. Dropt in psalmo, and generaly befer f and t : Stf5- 
scripgao siDewcDl'SiJii, corrupgao (dxMlrSX^ ; eeptuagmma 
sx^ll'exslpi, op^imo JoM, ^(jcp^o [ef*sxcft. 

b: D. Dropt in «ttMt/ sl'Oloo. 

FhiL Trani. 18S8-S-4. 16 

220 spokbn portugueze. by h. swbbt. 

Quantity, Stress, and Intonation. 

For consonant-quantity see p. 209. 

There is no markt distinction of long and short in the 
vowels, except that the vowels following the stress-syllabi ar 
shorter than those that precede it, which, together with the 
vowel of the stress-syllabi, ar half-long. Such a word as 
visita is therefor pronounced >I*'8l*Di. So also cotnida 
alTloJl, amamos I'PlFiei, amigo, English speakers must be 
careful not to shorten the unstrest x in the last two words, as 
they ar apt to do from the associations of their own language. 
There is a tendency, as in other languages, to shortn the 
second of the two consecutiv unstrest vowels, thus the second 
I of visitar apears to be quite short. I apears to be generaly 
shorter than the other vowels, and in such a word as necessarto 
7lsI*s](Dd the first vowel seems to be almost as short as the 
second. The vowels do not apear to be shortend befor mor 
than one consonant, as in carro compard with caro, vtato, 
quatro, quarto. 

Stress, too, is mor level than in English, the stress-syllabi 
being utterd with only a slight increase of force. 

The intonation, lastly, is also evener. In English such a 
word as Portugueze is pronounced with a low level tone on 
the first two syllabls with a sudden rize and downward glide 
on the last, but in Portugueze in such a word as coragdo 
al<Dl*slJl5 the falling tone with which the word is utterd 
when izolated is begun on the first syllabi, the voice gliding 
evenly down thru all three. An English ear, acustomd to a 
fresh rize or fall on the emfatic syllabi of a word, is apt to 
imagine that such a word as coragao is strest on the first 

Vowel-Quality, Elision, and Contraction. 

One remarkabl rezult of the shortening of after-stress 
vowels is that their vocality is diminisht imtil they ar pro- 
nounced with whisper (not breth) insted of voice. This is 
especialy noticeabl with final 1 after a voiceless stop, as ia 


o Porto, where the difference between the full vocality of the 

first vowel and the whisper of the last is very markt 1 

D}<i}Ob. A cazual listener would eazily imagine that the final 
vowel was dropt altogether. But the only vowel that is 
regularly dropt is I, altho in such words as noite it is sum- 
times difiScult to determin whether the final sound is o^ or 
oTp. In the specimens I hav only ocazionaly markt the whisper. 

When two unstrest vowels in different words cum together, 
they ar contracted as follows : 

a a I I I becums 3 
3 3 I » 3 

i i „ 1 

The only contraction which is obzervd in writing is the 
first, in d=a a, d8=a as. Other exampls, which ar not 
exprest in writing, ar : foi para a cama >}x DX(o3 aiFl, e^era 
ati que eu volte VziO\(if\ oxa[3: ^J'^D. Of the others : estd 
acordado e^ald) xsl\xii\, rasgo o panno (D*3e$i Dini, rego os prados 
i^lQlzi 0(D]iD\zi ; rasga o panno (M]tiO} Oisii, rega os prados 
m\Gi^Zi DCD3aJl2J. The vowels rezulting from these contrac- 
tions ar never whisperd, and this apears to be the main 
distinction between such sentences as rasgo o panno and rasgo 
panno (Dijejab Dxnl, altho, of course, 1 from 1 i is naturaly 
at the same time pronounced with rather mor stress. 

These contractions ar made only when the two words ar 
intimately conected. 


The 2nd pret. indie, sg. and plur. ar here givn in their 
literary forms, but in speech there is a tendency to make 
them into 'Z90Zi and 'Z^[tzi respectivly by the analogy of 
other verbal forms. 

1 Conj. amar (chorar) x'f3^ (2i'<i)3a)). 

Pres. amo (chore) irl (ej-^l) 
amas i^izi {z}-) 

ama IFI {z}-) 













2nd fut. 



feY H. SWEET. 


i-Fipi2j (ei-) 















































































Imper. ama 


pL amais 


Subj.pres. ame 






pL amemoB 






Subj, imp. amanse 






pi. amassemos 






Infin. amar 


Oerund amando 


Partic pret. amado 


2 Conj. beber DT'D[a). 

Pres. bebo 






pi. bebemos 






Imperf. bebia 






pi. bebiamos 






Pret. bebi 






pL bebemos 








Plup. bebera 

pi. beberamos 
M^L beberei 

pi. beberemos 
Condit. beberia 

pL beberiamoB 
2nd/ut. beber 

pi. bebermos 








pi. bebamos 
Subj. imp. bebesse 

pi. bebessemos 



Subj. pres. 




















Infin. beber dT'd[<d 

Oerund bebendo DT'D[ja5i 

Partic. prei. bebido dI'dIcdI 

3 Conj. abrir i'b<^1(6. 

This may be givn mor briefly. 

Pres. abro 3D(Di, abres ]B(Dlzi, abre JdcdT ; abrimos I'DCDlrtei, 
abris l'0(i>lzi, abrem 3d<*)Vx5. Imperf. abria I'DCoIi. Pret 
abri I'DcdI, abriste i*dcj)I2$o, abriu i*d<dIi ; abrimos X'DCDlpiej, 
abristes i'0(o[ziazi, abriram I'dcdIcdijij. Plup. abrira j-d<dI(di. 
Jl*^. abrirei idc»)I'(d[x. (7owc?. abriria xo^^^^I' 2/w/ /w^. 
abrir I'dcdIo). Imper. abre 3©oT ; abri I'DCdI. Subj. pres. 
abra 3dcdx. Swty*. imp. abrisse I'dcdIs. Infin. abrir I'DCdIcd. 
G^^r. abrindo x'D<i>Xja>i. -P^c. pri. abrido X'DwXa>i. 

Iregnlar Verbs, 

estar. Pres. estou z^}^ estds zfd\zi, estd s^ ; estamos 
ZfDiri^zi, estais 2^:3x2$, estiio ziOins. Imperf. estava z^^\. 
Pret. estive 2$dI>, estiveste erol^x^ro, esteve z§o\^ ; estivemos 
2fDr*>XP^2^> estivestes ziol">iZiOZi, estiveram ZfDl>i(i>iii$. 
Plup. estivera ^$I^x^I• P^f^* estarei zfOi'U>[£. 2)id fut 
estiver Zil">i(j!>, estiveres Zfol">i(j)Zi ; estivermos Zfol'^iiorizi, 
estiverdes zfol"^\(j)rDZi, estiverem Ziol'^i(i>yii. Imper. estk 
Zfo] ; estai 2^3-^- Siibj. pres. esteja 2ro[ex, estejas zfo[ziZi ; 
estejamos zioTzirizi, estejais z^Tz]iZiy estejam zfo[zni$. 
Subj. imp. estivesse z^V>\s. Infin, estar 2$d3^» ^^« 
estando z^istA. Ptc. prt. estado z^xs\. 

dar. Pres. dou qj}, d&s xD^zSy da ©3 > damos ojx'^^^j ^^^^ 
©3X2^, dao 051 Jii. Imperf. dava ©J^X- -P^*^^- dei ©[x, d^ste 
TS\z^y deu Q5[i ; d^mos m\T\ziy d^stes ©x^^^** deram XD\(iiis\s. 
Plup. dera QJX^I* -^"^- ^^^^^ o^X'^C^- 2w(/ /w^. der ©x^* 
Imper. dd ©3 > ^^^ ®3-^' ^w^- i?>'^«. d6 ©[, dfes ©[ej ; d^mos 
©[f12J, deis Q5[X2J, deem qjQjxj. Subj. imp. desse ©x^* -^w/?'** 
dar 053^- Ger. dando ©x^Q^i* -P^^* <l^<lo ®3Q'i« 



ser. Pre^ sou s}, 6a \zi, 6 \ ; somoa s^fIsi, sois ^x», 
8ao sx^B. Imperf. era x^^I- Pr^^ fui >lx, foste >}2fO, foi 
:>}x ; fomos >}Fief, fostes >}eioe$, foram >}<dx(». P/tf/'. fdra 
>}<DI. Pii^ serei sT'a)[x. 2nd fui. for >](a, fores >}<02iy etc 
Imper. sS s[; sede s[a). iSif^'. />re8. seja s[ex; sejamoe 
sl'expis^ aejaiB sl'e3£2i| sejam s[ex(». ^t«4/- *'''i'* ^*^)^^ ^]^ 
Jii/l ser s[a>. (7^. sendo s[((d1. P^. side sI(d1. 

ter. Pre9. tenho oIxlI, tens xS\}£sz^ tern o\$xs ; temos 
c{rieiy tendes o[iiDei, teem oX$Xi [the artificial pron. is 
apareatly ofj^^^]. Imperf. tinha dIlx- PreL tive ob^ 
tiveste oI^x^^> ^^^ ^^; tivemos dI->X'^^ tivestes ol^x^^^^i^ 
taTeram of ^x^P^- Plup. tivera oI^x®I« ^^« t^J^i dT'«(jL 
2nd fui. tiver of '>x^* Imper. tern ol$X(; tendeo[faL fifu^f* 
pres. tenha d\xli ; tenhamos oI'LlPlej, tenhais oI'L^lSf, 
tenham d"Lxlx<iJ- Subj. pret. tivesse of ^x^. Infin. ter o[a). 
<r^r. tendo o[$ol. Ptc. tido ofoi. 

haver. Pr^9. hei [x, has 3^^, ha 3 ; hemos [rle$, heis [xss 
hao x^i^- Imperf havia X"^^!- P'^^- houve }>, houveste 
}^X2JO, houve }>; houvemos J^x*^^^* houvestes '^'>\Z90Zi^ 
houveram J^X^I^^- P/«(p. houvera J^X^I- -^^- l^averei 
X^I'(d[x. 2nd fut houver J^X^- Imper. ba 3; havei X'K^ 
Swij/'. /?r^«. haja 3ex ; hajamos x*^IPi2i. Subj. imp. hoavesae 
}^XS- ^l/- haver X*K^« fi^^^« havendo I^CjoL Ptc. havido 

dizer. Pres. digo ofal, dizes ofslef, diz ofe^; dizemoe 
mi'S[v\zi, dizeis of 'd[xe$, dizem ofs\)X). Imperf. dizia of 'sfx- 
Pret. disse of s, disseste of 'SX^^> disse of s ; dissemos of 'Sxrit^ 
Plup. dissera of-sxcDX- Pw/. direi of-cj)[x. 2nd fut. disaer 
of '5X<0' //73/>. dize ofs ; dizei of 'd[x. Subj. pres. diga ofax* 
5i/A/'. imp. dissesse ol'sxs. Inf. dizer oI'd[cD. Ptc. dito ofoL 

fiazer. Pres. fago >3sl, fazes >3^Iei, faz >3^i; fazemos 
>X'8(Fle$, fazeis >I'S[X2J, fazem >3^VX5. Imperf. fazia >X*^'l- 
/V*/. fiz >f2J, fizeste >I*sx^^> ^®z ^^^J fizemos >f"SXFi2i. 
plup. fizera >f sXiDX. Pm^. farei>X'«[^. 2nd fut. fizer>f'SX<0; 
Jm//. fazio3s; fazei >X'S[-^' Subj. pres. fa^a>3^X* Sul^'.imp. 
h/jzkins A'sis. Inf. fazer >l's[(o. Ptc. feito >[xoi. 


perder. Pre«. perco DXOKif^ perdes ojWDtif perde dx^mc ; 
perdemo6 Dl(D'(D[p)e^^ p^eis, Qlp'{D[£e% j^Tdem DX<0QLlf0. 
SMbj\ pres. pero^ D.xcoQX. 

poder. Pres, posso DJ-slt pode« d^i, p6de E^i. 
podemos Di'(D[pl2i, podeis D]t'm[xei> ppdem o^X^-^* Zmp^ 
podia dI'wXi* Pret, pude oio), pud^te D}*a)X?^ P^ 0)^0 ; 
pudemoB Di'iPXi^^* -P/^p. pudera ol'OifX^^* ^St^ib'. pr^* poMk 
ojsx; possamos Di'SlFieii. Subj.imp^ pude^Hse b^*Q)XS« W* 
poder d1'(P[(0. P^e;. podido Di*(pXaJ!j. 

querer. Pre%, quero (x\y>% queres ojimf quev axa>; 
queremos Ql'(D[plei, quereis Ql'tt[X2i, querwi QX^V-^' Imj^Sfff, 
queria qT'CdIx. Pr^^. quiz ol^i^ quiseste ol'SltfOf quiz ofM ^ 
quiz^moa al'SXPlei. P/f(p. quiz^ra oX'SX^X* -^^'* quererii 
•qI(dI'(d[x. 2nd/ut. quizer qI'SXCO. Sulif. pre8. queira Q[i«»I. 
i8w6;. i>/i/?. quizesse al'SXS. Jn/1 querer Ql'a>[(D. Pt^ 
querido qI'CdIqI. 

saber. Pres. sei s[x^ s^bes s]Dei» sabe sJd; sabemot 
sx'D[ri:ei^ sabeis sl'B[izi, sabem sJol^XK Imperf. sabia SX'dIj. 
Pr^^. soube s}d, sId,^ soubeste s]-'DX^^9 80ube s}d; 80ubemo8 
sJdx"^^^' Pli^P- soubera s}'DX<i>X' ^^* saberei sxDl'a>[x. 
2nd fut. souber s}'DX<i>« Imper. sabe 6(|d ; aabei sx'll[x. 
8ubj\ pres. saiba s]XDX* ^¥' i^]^ 80ubease 8}'DXS. Jiff* 
9aber sx'd[<d. Ptc. sabido sx'Dlwi- 

trazer. Pres. trago oiDjeily trazes 0(p38lef, tras cxfl(|af'; 
trazemos 0(DX'3[ple^ trazeis oa>X'9[X0i, trazem CK^Dsliif, 
Imperf. trazia oox'slx* Pr^. trouze 0(D]-6|trouse8te cxo}*^ 
Xefo, trouxe 0(i)}s ; trou^emo9 a(0]-'SXPieK Plup. tiomei^ 
cw}"SX<DX. F^^' trarei D»X'^[^* 2nd fut. trouxer oa^'9X«|* 
Imper. traze 0(i)]s, ocojei ; trazei O(0X'd[x. iSti^*. pres., tragn 
0(d3€ix- S^2^^'* «^i>* trouxesae oc^J-'SXS. Inf. trazer CM^X'^Ctt* 
Ptc. trazido oox'sX©!. 

var. Pr^. vejo >[e3t, vfis >[e<, v6 3{ ; yfimos >[pie(y Tdde* 
^XDZi, T^em >n.^^^- I^P^f via >Xl. rP^^^. ▼! >I> viat© '^SzfO^ 
via >& ; vimos >Msi, vistes >tzfOZi, yiram >I(Dj$i5, PAff}* 
vira >I(DX. i^^. verei >I'(i>(x. 2fwf /w<. vir >X<P. Imper. ri 
>( ; vede >[a>. Sw^'. |?re«. veja 3{ex. 8ubj\ imp. visse. 
/fj/l ver >((D. (?er. vendo >(«l>t Pfc. vioto >UtdL 

^ This foim is evidently due to the analogy of the preterit oi poitr. 



ip. Pre9. vou >},Tai8 >JX2i, xai >Jr ; Tamos >XP^ it 
loii, vao :>is\s. Imperf. ia fi- PreL fui >lx, foste :>Jeio, foi 
>}x ; fomos :>}rte<. P/m;>. fora >^i. Fut. irei I'»[x. ind 
fat. for >}<a. Imper, vai >]x; ide 1©!. Stibj\pres. vi >3> 
Tas >]2j, va >] ; Tamos ^x^i^S Tades >]Q»i, Tab >iaf. 5tiiif . 
j>rtf/. fosse :>}s. /ii/I ir I». Oer. indo I«Di. P/<?. ido bA. 

vip. P/Y«. Tenho >Xxl1, Tens >XfXSS Tem >X'-0> Timos 
>lFiej, Tindes >Ijqj2J, Tem >1jxj. Imperf. Tinha >Ilj[. Pre^. 
Tim >fs Tieste ^I'xefD, Teio >[d:; Ti^mos >I-iFkf, Ti^stes 
>I-Xeaci, Tieram >['i(i>nii. PIup. Ti^ra >I-xa)I. -Ri^. Tirei 
>I\d[x. 2nd fat. Tir >I<D. Jwip. Tem >Vxj; Tinde >I«D. 
Suhj. pres. Tenha >lxLl ; Tenhamos >TLlFiej. Sii%/. iwip. 
^•iesse >I'X5. /w/. vir >Io). (?^r. Tindo >L(d1. Pfe. Tindo 

pedir. Prcs. pe^o Dxsi, pedes ojpzi, pede dxQ' ; pedimoa 
DT'Olrt^J, pedis DT'OJles pedem DX©Vx$. Subj.prea. peya DXSI- 


In the grammars and dialog-books vm'^, samtimes writn 
rocemec^y with the 3rd sg. of the verb, is stil givn as the 
j)ohto form of adrcss. But in the upper classes this pronoan^ 
whioli origiualy was a true pronomen reverentiae, being a con- 
traction of rasm merci 'your grace/ afterwards sinking to a 
gt>noral form of adress to all respectabl peple, is not uzed in 
aiHMiking to equals, the 3rd sg. of the Terb without any pro- 
noun lH>ing uzod insted, the 3rd plur. being uzed in adressing 
soYonil jH^plo. rm^ itself has two forms : >3-spT's[, which is 
ux^hI in adroasing shopkeepers, etc., and a shorter one, >J*5[, 
Humtimos writn voc^, which is uzed in adressing peple of a 
lowor prado. Thus, one would say to a mule-driTor Q\(asi^ 

i^n* a}D^®T ^^^^ Q''^'* ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^) ''''* ^^P^ ^^ tinho f but to 
u sorvHut in an upper-class house ->JsfT s[ajl w] a[i tibi aX 
IW^ dird qn^eu csticc aquiy etc. Exampls of the uzual form 
wil bi^ found in the sentences givn further on. The 2nd sg. 
iH u/c(l to express familiarity and afection, as in other 


A peculiar feature of Portugueze, including the literary 
language, is the conjugation of the infinitiv after the analogy 
of the 2nd future. In the spoken language the group ha de 
* has to/ as in ha defazer isso ]^1>1 s[(S> Isi, is often regarded 
as a verbal form, and a plural is formd on the analogy of 
bebem, so that hdo de fazer isso apears in the extraordinary 
form of 3®V^J>I 8[<^ isi. 

Most of the coloquial forms of the verbs hav been noted 
under Inflection. There is a curious substitute for the past 
partic. oimdo 'herd' in coloquial speech, nl. }'>lzfD\ formd 
on the analogy of visto * seen.' 

A) Sentences. 

1. :o\iLi pljxjoi Djjej ajljej. ajrt zfof^\ Q}fh d3si\ 
iisii pijxjoi o\iii. aJpieJoJspicD 'riiif. -[codI'cd] Q}zfdt 
'\iiA >[cD. :iijijdT*cd[x D[jDiDi(DiI<[) >[05i }e. :>3spi 
^qjTs[j u](j)S. o^SlPxai Q5[xcj)3 [erosT-LjcD. DlxLia5T>i 
8[cDippI slojiplsl LiJSi. -oVxj D(i)xsi'. cdJ-gI^Jcddi (d[I. 
-I m[izi, -p[is l}cd. D[xeiooIie$ rnnzi, -s}ij s[ia(Dl ]m\. 

2. }imlziop[i irt. -I liiDi QjJcDF'. -2Jo3 e](ol^is dCcdI'. 

air3 iziois JcDiej. }jd1jxj3 ijxo :>ixDiCD3 ajFi diju 030)© 
-qT iiiurl DtolcoI^iJ d3cd s[aji xe^oiPi lxj. -I al Jcoiej 
:>}xDi(i)3 aiFi. ']zi Da)[s JcdjsI f[xi. -qI 3-0)12$ sijb. -al 
J-cdXekoTdi Ci)xsaT si^u. JxdId. sli Jxob: z] ^lioiin ^mizi. 
[iuiiisioiol srsiaTpTcoT ^ijoTojT dcdxsi- 

3. a}Fl>3x IjQjl-s[iDicj)Di Q[zi. :^]i LiDh. :u\i£ssjptii 
D3®i'. dVxj -coJiel-QjIsi : D}al} '33a>l'D\xLliDCD[j qjIojI. 
-ml sxcDi^iJFTaT e3t>i cd3>i oyi$. :Q\iis -0303001 ©Is, -[jai 
i}s. D^stel s[cD3co-alFi2$Di cd3x»>I^«oI aj-^. ^J>>1 ^]^ 
s[jDCi)TaTDr>x^}aier i^if. -cj)»T s[xi s[jD(i)Ta5l>i s[<[) [(D*le>. 
'5iJirD\xLi jp[m\: -j coLaiix >3s^co. 


4. -ai Lxsis'Ljo) Fxooi', -xij olaij pM f[i : -al: i{sl 
:®[e«jTDT Q[ii. IlFis] aKiJooi eijotei. -] pbuoiaD: lifib- 
>[ei. al ©3©! dIjxj- -x H'^^} pJ^*- -I JpVwo^I p[x];f 

5. -Di «>xspIaI->iriefD[(DFi ©psi©! D[5Di : 3[xcD];pIqX 

6. -x*a[a)(D#I oaJeiiDVxji ax^oaf x • -t^®! sisi K^I^I 
-sTpx< ©3®Q}^sI^ °3^- -sTdcdI slexa>3® Q^^I a}^X» DXSiriL 

7. -lal qxcdIs-lJcd. -h o]<i>wll -txA^izi. Q^sdt aiaioi. 
axcDl ojjxs} D(D[ei co[jstei — ©[jsieraxsi 3^- QilJolx dimt. 
:[i a32foieT(D3a) f[jd Ififi x^xdI^^I pX'^I* -3 ooV-f^oI 
Q]8ilol pIojx- 

8. -oi F3cDiaTaia5i ijsjal D3sa}jtei •s[ienl aJsAej, -Isl 
rFXJajpT D[sa}rieKDls -JocDiej. Q^iul JF[iizfo['>i(ii[i£iQl>i 
s[(^ IjqJj }dcd1, -fI coJcd. 

9. alx Isi. iai uyn. -dx cDXSxskfo3oi, ajpisljco cftRj 
rajisiol^xssisl ojM. ipis ; inn] ipilioli^ OXJO— -ij"^ 
-al ^3^3 d[txp(^sA i]<i>. q1>}i [zvd\ : -dxcdI s[yl} ^tsibFj; 
dIcox. ->}x sjl K^ol^xs 3^1^21. 

B) Poetry, 

'izi >Io}ieKDlF}j ©[alx pJ^^T ewicDi 
:co}jai D[jDtei CDXJajirlpi- (d3cdiji5;' 

-IdIcdfI fJcdxiI dx^'^IV-^^ '>}^^^ ^i®! 
-lei co3acDlFi2^i CD3a5X2<D(DXi2ol(D F3cDpiJ:' 
-i iIfIooIdI sxcDiiiial Ij©x ^^^I' 
-©isx FjcDlewjI ^[aKalx cdIdi s3cdxjij.' 
>[a5lal >(i>[ziOi >}jdI (d#x€i32^ >cD}(Dlei,' 

-al co3a(Diri3fsiJij 3^y;J3^ '^J'^^I ^3^1^^.' 

-a3 Fjjxiei.' 



D<oi«Dis 3QiI^«Pi ^^^y -QIdi sxrdI' 
-Did) [efoTei >[(D(dT2i aiJOlaKaloHl 03X2^, 

ipi5 S[X (3, djjsls ]QllZi I) 11^15 s[x aiiJtDi 

^{iTDi a}pi>lei ©[lei, -rla3i s][ai, . * 

-JoxdI i}\mlzi Dili, -(DlaT e}dl 
-(DTa}j>T<D D[(Dp[iej aJefoisXjx^Dl s3(Dlei, 
-Did) uIoJiaTrl >Jcal2i oijci opol. 

-[j3l CD[x©Isi2J dMs }dcd1s 3^I^^> 
-oicDDi (d[x Jdcdis 3QiI2w}j r[i Dwpoi. 

-03 r}fXJ2i. 


1. Tenha muito bona dias ! Como est^ P Como passa P 
Nao muito bem. Como est^ seu irmao P EUe terfi gosto em 
o ver. NSo terei tempo para ir vel-o hoje. Fafa favor de 
sentar-se ! D& uma cadeira a este senhor ! Tenho de fazer 
uma visita na vi8inhan9a. Tem pressaP Logo voltarei. 
Adeus, meu senhor ! Beijo-lhe as maos. Sou um seu 

2. Onde estd teu amo*P Ainda dormeP Estd ja levan- 
tadoP Nao senhor, ainda esta na cama. Que vergonha 
estar ainda na cama a estas oras ! Hontem & noite fui para 
a cama tao tarde que nao me pude levantar cedo esta manha. 
A que horas foi para a cama P As tres horas e meia. Que 
horafl saoP Que horas Ihe par^ce que saoP Oito. Sim, oito! 
J4 deram dez. Entao i precise que me levante depressa. 

3. Como vai indo seu PortuguezP Tai indo. Tem se 
adiantado P Bem longe d'isso : pouco ou nada tenho apren- 


dido. Disseram-me que j& o fallava bem. Quern tal Ihe 
disse, enganou-se. Posso dizer algumas palavras de cor. 
Deve fallar sempre que tiver occasiao. Receio sempre de 
fazer erros. Nao tenha medo : a lingua 6 facil. 

4. ConheceosenhorMello? Eantigoamigomeu: conhe50- 
o desde pequeno. lamos & escola juntos. Ha muito que o nao 
yejo. Que idade tem P E yelho ou mo90 P E homem de 
meia idade. 

5. Par^ce-me que vamos ter mudan9a de tempo : cheira- 
nie que vamos ter chuva. Tanto melhor; ser& uma boa 

6. Aquelle relogio tem o. quer que 6 : 6 preciso ver para 
se mandar concertar. Se precisa d'alguma cousa, pe9a-me. 
Fa9a favor de me deitar esta carta no correio. 

7. que quer o senhorP TJm par de luvas. Quanto 
custa P Quero dous ou trez len9os — ^len90s d'assoar. Quanto 
i tudo P Eu gasto geralmente uma moeda por semana, alem 
de casa e comida. 

8. Tom&ra que cada um se occupasse com os sens negocios, 
e se nao mettesse com os dos outros. Quanto menos tiverem 
que fazer um com outro melhor. 

9. Que 6 issoP que temP Pardee assustado^ como 
se alguma cousa tivesse succedido. Nao ; nao ha nada 
importante — ^nada que valha a pena (de) mencionar. Que foi 
istoP Pareceu me ouvir uma bulha. Foi so o vento nas 

B. 1. 

As filhas do Mondego a morte escura 
longo tempo chorando memor4ram ; 
e por memoria eterna, em fonte pura 
as lagrimas choradas transform&ram : 
o nome Ihe puzeram que inda dura, 
dos amores de Ignez, que alii pass&ram. 
V^de que fresca fonte rega as flores, 
que lagrimas sao agua, e o nome amores. 




Brandas aguas do Tejo, que passando 
por estes verdes campos que regaes, 
plantas, hervas, flores, e animaes, 
pastores, nymphas, ides alegrando. 

Nao sei (ah, doces aguas !) nao sei quando 
YDS tornarei a ver ; que magoas taes, 
vendo como vos deixo, me causaes, 
que de torhar jd vou desconfiando. 

Ordenou o destine, desejoso 
de converter mens gostos em pesares, 
partida que me vai custando tanto. 

Saudoso de vos, d'elle queixoso, 
encherei de suspiros outros ares, 
turbarei outras aguas com meu pranto. 



This paper was alredy set up in type, when Mr. Fumivall 
calld my atention to an articl on Portugueze sounds in the 
Romania y which he had just receivd : A. R. Gon9alve8 
Yianna, Essai de phone tique et de phonologic de la langue 
Portugaise, d'apres le dialecte actuol de Lisbonne (Romania, 
1883, Janvier, xii, 45). It gives me great plezure to find 
that the subject has been taken up by a natiy fonetician so 
thuroly wel qualified as M. Vianna evidently is. I only wish 
his paper had been publisht two years ago : it would hav 
saved me an enormous amount of drudgery and groping 
about in the dark. But I hav the satisfaction of finding 
that in almost every case in which I difier from J. de Deus 
and the Prince, M. Yianna is on my side. In sum cases he 
difiers from me, which is, however, aparently often the rezult 
of my not having been able to get at the natural coloquial 
speech — always a difficult aim to acomplish when one has not 
the advantage of a rezidence in the cuntry itself. I wil now 


proceed to quote M. VLmna La ^ important ca^es of ftgree- 
ment with, and diferenoe from my own statements. His 
paper i^ s«3 much fuller than mine taking up nearly aerenty 
clo;se-pr!n:ed pa^res^ that it is quite impc6sibl tor me to do 
judtice to it, except bv emestlv lecomending it to all fone- 

P. 4. T. ' . . . . bien plus etoofe. bien plus ferme que IV 
frangais de w^\ A?.' G.V. 52- 

X. ' . . . . tout a fai: semblable a Tj atone de Tanglais 
aio'^^ h- ;;;.-• r.-;# a ?•>:-*. ' G.V. 31. This accurate com- 
pariaiia inspires one with conddence in the author's identifi- 
cations gcneraly. In mr S>fis.; AVj::s I har expiest the 
E. unsrrt-s: ; by j. 

5. t- '. . . . plus ourer: q-se Yk frascais, d allemand [=[ 
H.S.] : un p<:u n:::n< cependant que I'l bref anglais de bad^ 
lequel ne *<:• retrouve que dans quelques dialectes portugais, 
dans r Alcarve oa Bcira-bGixa. j.«ar exemple.' J. de Deus's 
t is, thtn; :Vr. a brvral provi-cial X- J^^d my refuzal to admit 
two op<::A s is fully ;u*t:£ed. 

Jr. ALVcrding to G.V. 33.4 i and \ in diphthongs ar like the seccni eltments in the E. diphthongs in 
>»ov. *:' '. which nitrans, of course, that tier ar wide — ^r, ». 
For r/:» he givs the pron. >fi p. 3S \ I distinctly hear 
both c!or.:cr«ts narrow :r. this word, but I am not sure about 
the X. 

6. G.V. p. 7'j. givs 3^1.1 as the Lisbon pix>n. of tenho. 
He givs tho N.'»me pron. of clc«sc f befor ,?*, A, wA, stating 
that bttVr -- ;;r.ii ;' -hr j may becum 11, as in ^fja. P. 87 he 
idc-n:it:t> ::.o diphthong in Vs>j with that in mae^ making 
them Ivth ^r* or rather p^ . After repeated hearings of 
my teacher's prcn.. I s:il am inclined to maintain (tho not 
with txr:-. :: mv own analvsis. I bar herd e 
pron. \i \y h:r.i in *' r. -•; ;.. but I hav herd only [ in abelka 
and the ri-st. G.V. analyzes the close ci of rci 'king ' as JX : 
I «til htiir :: viistinctly as [r. 

7. t<. ■ • . , . . est prononCiX* nn pen plus en arri^pe quo 
r sirr.jw:. On trouvera individuellement des r Tibxantes 
"uvuli.irt-s, n-Cmc parmi des gens qui prononcent r simple 


comme une linguale/ G.Y. 48. He seems to describe simple 
r as not being trild. 

8. CD. ' Tandis que le bout de la langue s'appuie centre les 
gencives, ou plutot centre les alveoles des dents incisives 
sup^rieures, le dos s'en eleve vers le point guttural.' G.V. 
48. The description is identical with my own. As regards 
the distribution of the CD( I was inclined to think that the / 
is guttural everywhere, even initialy, where the gutturality 
would naturaly be less markt, and after careful trials with 
my teacher, we both thought there was no difference between 
the / of h and that of sal. But it is quite possibl we may 
both be wrong. G.V. says (p. 49) : ' le / gutturalis^ du 
portugais ne pent que suivre la voyelle ; il la gutturalise en 
memo temps. ... II n'y a gen^ralement que la voyelle a 
qui soit affectee par la prononciation de /, lorsque cette con- 
sonne est mediale, comme dans mal/a, aalla, Bien des per- 
sonnes, cependant, gutturalisent toutes les voyelles devant I 
dans le corps du mot, parce qu'elles gutturalisent aussi le / 
medial entre deux voyelles.' 

z, z ar different from the French, and identical with the E. 
sounds ; G.V. 46. The Portuguese sounds seem, however, to 
be narrow, not wide, as in E. The remarks in my text show 
that Bell's original analysis of « and %h was, in the main, corect, 
and that %h is realy an s aproximated to o, and that he was 
il-advized in transpozing the value of his original symbols. 

G.V. p. 46, says of Port, x and/, 'I'organe actif est un 
point de la surface supcrieure de la langue, plus ou moins 
rapproche de son extremite, selon que la voyelle precedente 
ou suivante est palatale ou gutturale.' This is mor clearly 
put p. 72 : irl=^^I (ils sent prononc^s avec une partie de la 
surface de la langue plus pres de sa partie moyenne, et sur la 
limite du palais et des gencives), 2ra=e»^] (un peu plus en 
avant, etc.). 

His description of zSy zs is vague (p. 46) : ' Les reduites « 
sourde et sonore ne sent que x et j attenu^s/ P. 48 he says 
of them that they ' deviennent plus palatalisees lorsqu'elles se 
trouvent en conjonction avec des voyelles palatales.' So, also, 
p. 72 : /s=l2H, flw=]2^. 

FMl. Trans. 1882-3-4. 17 


O.y. p. 49, says that t and d ar formd much nearer the 
teeth than the Fr. sounds, implying that they ar formd on 
the gums. 

9. Acording to G.V. p. 50, d is generaly w between vowels, 
even in different words. As to e, he says, p. 46, that there 
ar no * fricatives gutturales ' in Portugueze. 

10. G.V. p. 73, note, givs also the pron. of quasi as 

13. Acording to G.V. p. 57, unstrest e and i both becum I 
befor e and e, while befor other cons, t keeps its full, sound, 
and e becums I. ' Dans une suite de syllabes atones dont la 
voyelle sera tou jours t, le dernier i seulement garde le son 
qui lui est propre ; ceux des syllabes qui le pr^cSdent se pro- 
noncent I '. He givs as exampls minisfro, militar rl'lleool, 
fTcoI-dJcd, vicejar, pririlegiado >Isf 'eJcD, dcdMooI ei •3©!. I cannot 
trace these laws in the pron. of my teacher, 

P. 58 he gives the pron. of initial unstrest em as ISj as in 
entrar. This my teacher admitted. He makes initial e I 
befor 2, e, I befor other conss. : chgio Icol'eli, esposo X'ejDjsl. 
I find that the unstrest e befor sty etc., is so faintly sounded 
that its existence is often doubtful, but it sounds to me mor I 
than f or X. 

16. oti generaly = } or } iindifferently, especialy befor O). 
G.V. 61. 

17. G.V. p. 68, does not giv nazality to the e otpenna, etc. 

18. Acording to G.V. p. 88, the differences of stress ar 
greater than in Italian, almost as great as in E. 

The only mention of whisper by G.V. is where he atributes 
it to the second element of diphthongs, p. 33. 

19. * Cos elisions de Ve muet sent assez capricieuses.' G.V. 

24. G.V. 60, 1, gives tei-em, doi-em, 2^oi'emy etc., with 
inserted e. 

If my paper had apeard befor M. Vianna's, I might hav 
claimd the merit of having added considerably to our kno- 
ledg of the language ; as it is, I can only claim that of having, 
with the help of Visibl Speech, perhaps defined the formation 
of sum of the sounds mor closely. I only hope that M. Vianna 


may be induced to publish a complete grammar and chresto- 
mathy of this beautiful and interesting language on a fonetio 

DICTIONARY. By James Platt, Jun., Esq. 

Of this only the first half {a — hwistlian) has appeared, half 
of which {a—firgemtream) is said in Toller's preface to have 
been " finally revised " at Bosworth's death, while so much 
progress had been made with " some succeeding sheets " that 
it would have been a matter of considerable difficulty to make 
any but slight alterations in them. It is a pity the University 
did not cancel the whole on the author's death. "We cannot 
suppose that a wish to avoid trouble or expense or anything 
but regard for Bosworth's memory determined them to carry- 
it through the press, yet even then one would think they 
erred. Would it not have been far better for Bosworth's 
memory to have let the good he did live after him, the evil 
lie interred with his bones, rather than to have thus raked up 
all the errors of the infant Anglo-Saxon scholarship of his 
time and republished them in this year of grace 1882, a con- 
fession of Englishmen's ignorance of the philology of their 
own tongue ? And, what is almost as bad, since no eminent 
scholar would link his name with such a work, the carrying 
of it through has had to be entrusted to an as yet unknown 
hand ; whereas a dictionary needs above all things the very 
best scholarship of its time, especially in the case of an am- 
bitious work like this, issued by our great University and 
fountain of highest learning, and therefore to be reasonably 
looked on by the world as the flower of all that the English 
school of Anglo-Saxon can do. As it is, the continuation of 
the work by Toller appears to be almost as bud as the com- 
mencement of it by Bos worth — and that is saying a great 
deal. It is painful to have to speak thus, but no one who has 
the dear *'01d English" tongue of CaDdmon and Cynewulf, 
JFAivQiSi and iElfric and Wulfstan, as much at heart as I 


have, could well say less in sucli an extreme case as that of 
this Bosworth- Toller Dictionary. The following few remarks 
may prove useful to its readers. A thorough criticism it would 
be impossible to give — a re- writing of the whole book would 
be easier. Even a first glance at the dictionary shows a chaos 
of bad arrangement. The letters (b, ea, eo, p are treated as a-^, 
e-Qy e-o, t-h, the short vowels are not divided from the long, 
and there is no system followed in spelling the catch- words — 
almost every Anglo-Saxon word occurs in several spellings 
with full quotations to each place, and no kind of indication 
whatever as to the relative value, age, or dialect of the various 
orthographies. The miserable student is lost among endless 
varieties, such as abbady abbod, abbot, abbud (abbot) ; fleah^ fled, 
fliiy flid, flig (albugo) ; gceat, gest^ giest, gist, gyd (guest) ; run* 
ning in some cases all over the alphabet, thus OBldu, eldo, and, 
following up the same principle in the coming half, ieldu^ 
ildu, yldu (age) ; how is he to know that celdu is Mercian 
and Northumbrian, eldu Kentish and Oldest West Saxon^ 
ieldu, ildu 9th century West Saxon, and yldu late West 
Saxon spelling of one and the same word P Then the 
confusion is worse confused by the introduction of swarms 
of illegitimate catch- words ; inflections like the prsDt. abealh, 
abulgan, and participle abolgen, from abelgan (anger), one 
inflectional form often occurring in various spellings, as 
frcegin, frmgn, frceng, fregn (praet. of frignan), etc. ; 
phrases like beforan gestihtian (ordain before) treated as 
if they were one word and not two; and words actually 
inserted solely in order to tell us they do not occur in 
Anglo-Saxon, as in the case of blindan! And worst of 
all is the confusion caused by such frequent pieces of care- 
lessness as giving b^ad with no reference but " v. biada,^* 
when upon our finding b^ada there is also no reference but 
" V. biad " ; flaxfdte, floxfdte, flohtenfdte (web foot), with 
a reference for flaxfdte only ; frictrung with instructions to 
''v. fre/W (divination), and hJenan with instructions to 
" V. hdn " (stone), when neither freht nor hdn (both im- 
portant words) are to be found; gednian (long 6) with 
"v. gynian" (long y), and when we find gynian (short y) 



** V. giniany^* and upon finding ginian (gape) " v. geonian '* 
{short o) ; handclap as n. and herecumbol as m., while (and 
correctly) clap (cloth) is marked m. and cumbol (ensign) n. 
In this matter of gender mistakes are very frequent, as the 
lexicographer has volunteered too freely without seeking for 
and giving evidence that would prove the gender of the word. 
AncUo (ancle) is not m. at all but w., ad (pile) is n. as well as 
m,y ddl (disease) is n. as well as /, (Bfest (envy) is not n. at all 
but w., /., (krist (resurrection) is n, as well as «i., /., hismer 
(contumely) is m. as well as n., fcBveld (journey) is m. as well 
as «., fierst is not m. only but n, also in the sense of " time," 
while in that of " ceiling " it is not m. at all but /., falluht 
(baptism) is m.,/., as well as n., gear (year) is m, as well as 
w., h<kp is not /. but m., ;*., hic&tesinedema (wheatmeal) is not 
/. but w^., and so on in numerous other instances ; and such 
is the force of habit and the helplessness of the lexicographer 
that he often puts his chimerical gender to a word when his 
own quotations next following and proving the gender give 
him the lie, thus andlifen (sustenance) is given as ;?., ceder 
(ceder) as /, Cent (Kent) as n., hielfe (helve) as m,y n, ?, in the 
teeth of the clear evidence of the quotations that andlifen is/., 
<;eder n., Cent /., and hielfe f. ! So, too, in the case of inflec- 
tions, the Dictionary's own quotations show it to be wrong in 
the declension it assigns to dc (oak), hniitu (nut), and other 
words. This unlooked-for ignorance of Anglo-Saxon grammar 
appears also in numberless other cases. Thus, when our doubt 
is excited by such an unheard-of catch-word as abboda, and we 
eagerly look to the one reference given to see if it is justified, 
we find that it is not so, the abbodan therein, on which the 
lexicographer founds his abboda, being clearly a dat. plur. in 
the an for ton of the late texts. Then we find andwarde given 
as another form of andweard (present) on the strength of pis 
andwarde, and wlfacinu as an alternative of wlf seine (fair as an 
elf) on the strength of ides celfscinu, though in both cases any 
tyro might have seen that the final vowels are inflectional. 
Then we find b^d and gebed (prayer) with plur. in -w in 
defiance of the law that long neuter monosyllables have no 
u in the plural, the few /-stems like tculU (wight) of course 


excepted. Cuc^m is given as an adjecdve from the accnsatiTe 
cwconn/e ^alive^. G^fe is given as nominatirt from the aocasatiTe 
gffe Bede 516 'from giffu^ gi^.)- Gefole (with foal) is given 
with final e against all laws of mutation. Under grm^U4in 
(melt a genvjUan is given as a qnotation, while an infinitiva 
gemieifan is coined from the third person gemieif, Geneif^fcofvy 
handj^olu f shoal) violate the laws that u is lost at the end of 
long a-feminines. Hddor (brightness) is of course i?.. not jw., 
like all adjectives used as nouns. "Jffa/ «." and "/i^a/ iw. «. /** 
are one and the same word, as '' healh i»." (comer \ ffdfatt^ 
heht (name) and /tdfan, hdite are not two verbs. Henn^i -hens) 
is fern, plural and not a strong masc. nominative singular. 
Hu/^e as a fern. nom. is quite incompatible with the quotations, 
which point clearly to hu/f (spoil). Hicat as the singular of 
htcafa is impossible, /ttoBf (divination) is the only form possible 
by the primary rules of Anglo-Saxon grammar. But the 
Dictionarv does not reallv seem to care much for those rules, 
as the above examples and many others show. And its know- 
ledge of other Teutonic languages and of comparative philology 
generally appears small. We meet with false quantities in 
abundance, ascian, geascian, bid, gehtd^ borian, hmgj dohfor, 
dor, dunt, g^di/re, eg in flat contradiction to h^g, ro^rn in 
flat contradiction to fe dicer, eoten, the very absurd split-up 
oi for into for ^nd. for. forleolc, g(plm in flat contradiction 
to gal, hhder in the teeth of the Germ, ieifer quoted 
under it, similarlv hhiior in defiance of the adduced Germ. 
lanUr, and hridrinn in the face of the Germ, rdfcrn there 
quoted, and so forth. A'niiepe (single) cannot be Grerm. 
einldtifig. The O.H.G. dmeiza is quoted under d^rnfte (ant\ 
yet the lexicographer does not see that it shows the absurdity 
of his derivation from (h and mete. BliUian (bless" is not 
Goth, hh.if^jnn. The ending erne in norpenie (northern) is 
taken from ^/v? in tjie face of the Icel. rrenn, O.H.G. ronL 
So the superlatival est is absurdly taken from the noun e><t. 
Ece is not Gerra. e^ig, Ferian (convey) cannot be Goth. 
farjan^ Icel. ferja and O.S. fdrian. Germ, f'uhr^-n, at one and 
the same time. Fria (lord) is not from *frcahn. Grdtrtn 
(groats) can have no connection with Icel. grautr. And ao 


examples migHt be multiplied — but I will only give one 
more, the worst of all, abitweonum (between) from Sansk. 
abhi ! 

After all this we are not surprised when Bosworth entirely 
mistranslates the not very difficult line of Icelandic (from the 
Altisamdl, he does not say so) dragged in without any 
particular reason under b^ar. " 01 heitir mep monnum^ en 
mep A%um biovy^ does not mean that both men and ^sir call 
ale " beer." It means that what men call '^ ale " is called 
" beer " by the iEsir. 

The dictionary does not even seem to know what a com- 
pound word is. Two or more words like beforan gestihtian 
(ordain before) are often treated as one; compounds are often 
treated as if two or more words ; thus bianpisan is given as a 
quotation (and the only one) to bian (bean) ; East-Engle^ 
JEast'Seaxe, as quotations to a supposed adjective ^ast; and 
iastweard (eastward) as quotation to an equally visionary 
noun iast. 

The leaning of the dictionary on the work of others is the 
same old family complaint from which all our Anglo-Saxon 
dictionaries have so far suffered, Lye copying wholesale and 
without acknowledgment from Junius, all his successors 
carrying on the tradition. It is time we left off reprinting 
Junius with variations and produced an original work. At 
the least the present dictionary should have had some search 
of the printed texts made for it, putting manuscripts out of 
the question; were this done, it would not have to give so 
many words with no quotation at all against them, only 
sometimes " Leo," " Lye," etc., sometimes not even that, and 
it would also find many words which at present it does not 
contain at all. To get an idea of the extent of its defects in 
the last respect, I examined its first 32 pages, and the follow- 
ing is a list of 128 words out of my own collections made 
from printed texts but not contained in those 32 pages — an 
average of 4 words per page not to be found in the dictionary 
at all! 

AbsDran, abb, ablacian, abldwnes, ablegnian, ablindian, 
abn6dan, aburian, acc6glian, acenness, acwacian, acwielman. 


adihtiaiiy adiefan, aduatrian, aefesian, a^htan, afandodlio^ 
afierman, afigao, afliegnesSi afollic, agnere, agnidan, agr&pian, 
agr^tan, agyltend, agyltung, ahangian, ah&tan, ah&tian^ 
ahieldendlic, ahieran, ahlytran, ahopian, ahrs&can, &cbeara» 
&c8tybb, dctdiiy &dexa, 6dfine, ^ung, agenlice, &gnett, alfsety 
socerbrs&du, axserdic, eecerfeld, ax^rgeard, secerhege, eBcerme^- 
um,axser8plott,8DC6rtynung, secerweg, sccerweorc, 8Bfer)>e, sdteeo, 
8ofg£61)>u, eofger^fa, esfgrynde, SDfgydel, 8Dfter£6, aBftergeng^ 
8oftorr{j6po, eofwela, SDlepe, valmead^d, SDlmesf ull, aelmesged&l, 
colmcsgiefu, colmeshldf, oolmesleoht, solmeslice, SDlmesmaniiy 
sulmesponningy eolmesriht, solmessielen, aelmesweorc, aelmidde, 
(olmihtignesSi colren, soraettan, SDppelberende, aBppelcjmn, 
a)ppcl)>orn, ecscbacen, ooscbedd, aescstubb, eescstybb, sesprind, 
tvthrin, (JD)>elfor)>ingwyrt, 8o)>eliDgh4d, £&brucol, eefsostlic, 
tufongowoorc, i6fongl6ma, sbfenglomung, £6gafol, s^ggemang, 
((jgscielly (Miofigy {jGheard, i6hiwe, sblagol, eeldr^ow, cemetbeddy 
Hjtnynde, tfcmyrie, cfcrendschip, ccrhwil, fibriefe, fibristhyht, 
({srlic, (urmorgonlic, sbsceatt, sbscyldgend, sbsmeel, eedmogu, 
({!8wicno88| vbtfxn, d)wowea.Td, d)wegebr6]>ory s^wiell, cbwielma, 
tuwisciiron, tfcwiscHc, cbwrit. 

Any spaco thus gained is absorbed by a strong tendency 
on the part of the Dictionary to act as a history or encyclo- 
])icdia us well as in its legitimate function. This is particu- 
larly noticeable under the proper names, which, by the way, 
ought scarcely to find place in a Dictionary at all. Thus 
under the names of the Anglo-Saxon monarchs wo are treated 
to a Hynopsis of their reigns ; under " Brunanburg " we find 
a whole page descriptive of place and battle and including 
copious extracts from the poem; under "Cynewulf Kemble's 
account of the Vercelli runes is given in full, with the 30 
lines of verse containing them ; and so on. 

The room would have been better occupied by more attempt 
at etymology. As it is now, we are told that gehcernan (burn) 
is from ge and bcernan, that gemdfsidw (meeting-place) is from 
gemdf and stoic, and other things equally obvious at first 
sight to any novice, but scarcely any attempt is made to 
explain less clear words, even such easy ones as hldford (lord). 

On opening the Dictionary it was refreshing to see the 



verbal prefix a without the unjustifiable long accent which 
many scholars, some of whom ought to have known betteri 
have made so familiar to us in this connection. It waSi 
however, disappointing to find that the Dictionary could 
give no reason for the faith that was in it beyond the absurd 
argument that the a was short because some verbs occur 
without it ! Impossible as it may seem, this is actually the 
argument given, the examples quoted being such as that 
aheran^-beran ! I will therefore give my own reasons for 
the shortness of the a and at the same time facts about some 
other prefixes which will strengthen the argument, and 
enable readers of the Dictionary to correct it in many errors 
caused by its ignorance of them. 

The key to the right understanding of the subject is that 
these prefixes are accented before nouns and adjectives, which 
they therefore deprive of their own stress, while before verbs 
they are unaccented, the verb bearing the stress. Hence in 
the older language they always have two forms, as in the 
following table, a fuller one before nouns and adjectives and 
a shorter one before verbs, a distinction which the later 
tongue also generally keeps up, its chief inaccuracy being in 
the op verbs, which often substitute the accented form cbL 
It will be noticed that the unaccented prefixes a and on each 
correspond to Uco accented prefixes. 

Prefixes accexted. Prefixes uxacjcented. 

d-rid (resurrection) a-rhan (aris<^;) 

or-pnnc (device) a-pencan (devise) 

an-ginn (beginning) on-ginnan (bogin) 

amJ-gif-t (understanding) on-giefan ^understand) 

(pf'pnnca /^grudge) of-pyncan danger) 

(ft- grape ^aggressive) op-gnpnn (attack) 

hi-geng ^practice) he-gnngaa (practise) 

fra-cop (bad) for-cgpan (reduce) 

The prefix ge also originally belonged to this class and, 
althout^h ge afterwards came into general use before nouns 
and adjectives, there are still some instances in which the old 


accented form ga is preserved, which, from their interest, I 
give in full. 

ga-fol (tribute, Gothic ga-baur) from ge-beran. 

ga-gol, gw-gl (wanton) from ^ga-gdl. 

ga-men (game) from *ga-mann. 

ga-mol (old) from ^ga-mckL 

ga-ndg (enough, Laws, Pastoral) old form o{ ge-ndg. 

gea-sceajt (fate. Poetry) old form of ge-^ceafty 

gea-Uce (equipments) another form of ge-tdwe. 

The reason assigned by those scholars who mark the verbal 
prefix a long is that it is contracted from original ar. It is- 
true that ar must have originally yielded d, but this original 
a could not remain a in Anglo-Saxon (except before w). It 
must by law become West-Saxon efe, dialectal ^, and that i» 
just what we find in Anglo-Saxon before nouns and adjectiveSf 
that is, ichen it bore the stress, as in the example drist, dialectal 
&ist, above quoted. The a before verbs is therefore clearly a 
shortening of original d, arising from the fact that before 
verbs it was unaccented, the verb bearing the stress. This is 
quite in accord with the case of the only other prefix which 
is long before nouns and adjectives, namely bi, which shortena 
to be before verbs just as ce shortens to a. And in modem 
English the quantitative distinctions are still kept up in both 
cases, thus the nouns oa-him (Anglo-Saxon (k-cumba), by^way^ 
have long prefixes while the verbs a-rise, be-come have short 
ones. A further proof, if one was needed, is that the verb 
ar-wfnan, where the r of the prefix was retained because the 
verb began with a vowel, was wrongly analysed by the 
Anglo-Saxon popular etymology (and is still by Bosworth in 
the Dictionary) as a-rcefnan on the analogy of other words 
prefixed with a, hence rcefnan is found used as the simple 
verb instead of the correct wfnan, whereas ar-wfnan could 
never have been taken as d-rcefnan with change of quantity 
in the prefix. The acute accent in the manuscripts indicates 
only a secondary, fluctuating lengthening for Anglo-Saxon in 
this prefix and others, such as un-^ but not handed down to 
Modern English. 


At the reading of this paper, in reference to the law above 
laid down that in Germanic all prefixes are accented before 
nouns and adjectives but unaccented before verbs, Dr. Murray 
pointed out the interesting fact that this national tendency 
was the cause, hitherto unknown, of the existence in English 
of the difierent accentuations of the first and second of such 
pairs as the noun " rebel " and the verb " rebel," the adjec- 
tive " abject " and the verb " abject," etc. 

My remaining space will only permit a few miscellaneous 
notes on the Dictionary. Ange is no adjective, but an adverb 
to the adjective enge (narrow), like sdfte to s^fte (soft) and 
some others. The use of the adverb with " on his m6de " is 
the regular idiom. JEbesn is an abnormal form, (ef^ean is the 
correct ; I derive it from cpf and *€8n, the Gothic asans, harvest, 
the cefesn being a payment made ofl" the harvest. Abepeeian 
cannot be from a, be, and peccan ; I would take it from a and 
the bcdecian (beg) in the "Pastoral Care" (not in the 
Dictionary), either the d or the / being wrong, ^l (fusci- 
nula) Icel. air is quite different from dwol (fascinula) Icel. dL 
The mistake dktterhppe should not be given and derived from 
hppe when the correct dtorcoppe (cob in cobweb, spider) also 
occurs, just afterwards. Bee is wrong, it should be bceo 
(plural bacas in the Charters), which in fact the quotation 
has, only Bosworth thought ho knew better. Bedrida does 
not come from bedriden, an idea doubtless derived from our 
modern form bedridden ; rida is " rider," formed like slaga 
" slayer " and many others. BUeicite (not bileicit as the 
Dictionary has it ; it is often uncertain about final e ; digol 
for dtgle is another example) "simple" is not from bile and 
hxcitj "white-billed," but as the Dictionary also correctly 
derives the second element from witt (wit) in another place, 
we scarcely know which of the two contradictory etymologies 
we are intended to prefer; for bile compare Germ, biilig, 
Bdtsicdn, which never occurs in Anglo-Saxon and from which 
our boatswain eould not come, is given, necessarily without 
quotation, while bdtsicegn^ which does occur and from which 
our boatswain is derived, is not given at all. Bio-cere (bee- 
keeper) is not to be found in its place ; when we accidentally 


coroo across it, it is under bio-ceorl though a different etymo- 
logy is assigned to it ; the c before the ending ere is interest- 
ing, compare hccpcere (bather). Breden^ bn/den, does not 
mouu "broad," either in the quotation from the Chronicle 
or the still better place in the Homilies, where Thorpe also 
wrongly says *' broad," in spite of the clearness of the text 
which, by contrasting atdknen weall and hryden wdh, shows it 
to bo derived from bred " board," and affords an interesting 
proof of the difference between weall (stone wall) apd icdg 
(plunk wall). Under byrdicge "plumaria" has been mis- 
understood ; it is the feminine to " plumarius," " embroider- 
088 " ; this is however excusable, as the feminine ending icge is 
my own discovery ; other instances of it are dry icge (witch) and 
hunticge (huntress), both unknown to the Dictionary, scericge, 
tiealficge (female dancer), and (given me by Sweet from his 
** Olilost English Texts ") tcipkricge, a corruption of ic(elcyrge 
through the analogy of the ending icge ; icge is an Old Low 
Qorniun peiniliarity, the Dutch still preserving it in dietegge 
(fouialo thief). Another Dictionary statement we cannot 
blume, since it is generally accepted, is the derivation of gew 
(yes) from ged and isi ; I would suggest as preferable ged and 
i^mi : fficd even when uncom pounded often actually appears as 
6r (examples in Grein). Another etymology that might be 
iusertixl is that of a small group of words from haga (hedge) ; 
httgifteuldy hivg/'orn of course, also /urgii'ts (witch, the feminine 
ending <'cw ap^nnirs also in the J'oriegiss of the Pastoral), 
hmjorun (sjiell), and hago^pind (cheek), the hedging or bound- 
ing ** spind *' ^fut) of the face, the hago in these last two being 
the archiiio form of liat/a. 

Finally 1 must say it is surprising that of the many 
cornvtlous of l»oswortirs former Dictionarv made bv Cock- 
ayue nearly twenty years agvv only jKirt have found their way 
into this new eilitiou; the old deticioucies in the cases of 
itcumbuy aniceuui^ binn^ bnlii!iU\ bojitttg^ hcarmUy and other* which wo had iuuiginal eutiivly disjK>sed of. appearing 
hci*e again with a t'iv<*li IvMsii* of life. It ci^rtaiuly shows 
iuaJ\.M.^uacy of pr^'parutiou tor ihi* pr\*Si*ut vxlitiou of Bos- 
wortU*s Auglo-iSaxou Pictionury. 



Rev. Professor Skeat. 

The etymology of mrrotmd is probably less obvious than 
it seems to be. I find that Mahn, like myself, derives it 
from the prefix sur- and the adj. round. Johnson derives 
it from the Fr. surronder, which is an unscrupulous fiction, 
there being no such word. A moment's reflection will shew 
that 8ur-round is a very extraordinary compound ; it would 
be difficult to assign any intelligible meaning to such a 
Latin word as super-rotundare, and I believe that aur-round, 
as it stands, is utter nonsense. 

The history of the word I cannot fully trace, though 
perhaps the " Dictionary " slips might help us. But I may 
remark that the word is rather late, occurring neither in 
Shakspere nor in the Bible. The earliest examples given 
in the dictionaries are all from Milton. Milton uses the 
word seven times in his poems, and I have little doubt of 
two facts : (1) that Milton is the author whose example has 
made the present use of the word common ; and (2) that 
Milton misunderstood the word, and has misled all his 
followers. He speaks of " These yelling monsters, that 
with ceaseless cry Surround me, as thou seest," P. L. ii. 795. 
The other examples are not worth quoting, as they all shew 
precisely the same use ; the references are : P. L. i. 346^ 
iii. 46 ; Comus, 403 ; Ode on the Nativity, 199 ; Psalm v. 
39 ; and Psalm vii. 26. The word is not given in Blount's 
Glossographia, 1674 ; but in Coles's Dictionary of 1684, 
published ten years after Milton's death, we find " Surround, 
to compass about." I submit that he took this from Milton, 
and of course we find the same explanation in Phillips, who 
was Milton's nephew, and in every English Dictionary, I 
suppose, of a later date. 

But if we try to find traces of the word earlier than Milton, 
we find at least two that are very remarkable. Minsheu, in 

-IS rmioLOGT OF "svreocxd." prof, skbat. 

10?7. notices the word, but does not explain it. He merdj 
sirs : " SuRBorxD ; Ki* to Oukrflow." Sherwood's index 
to CotfiTaTe giTes : " Sjrroundy or overflow, ouUre €Wf/er/' 
CotOTiTe himself gives : " OMre collier, to soiroand, or over- 
f ?w/' Xow this suggests quite a different idea, and throws 
us hack upon the notion of a Low Lat. supcrundare, and 
«vr-r:^jiJ with one r: we are all well accustomed to the 
svllable '<'MfiJ from its occurrence in the compound hA-ovim/. 
^»y--9#«hT;ify is merely a Low Latin equivalent of ImJL 
K-^hti-hirf, to overflow: so that a new historv of the word 
is thus opened out to us. Xow although the Fr. surromder, 
with two rs, as in Johnson's Dictionary, is (as I think) a 
Action, a Fr. ^wrviY^r, with one r, is real enough. It is 
entiiviv obsolete in modem French, but that is of no con* 
Siequence. It is duly recorded by the faithful Cotgrave, who 
srives " ArirL-r; ;Vr, to float upon the waves," clearly the same 
word, with a somewhat different meaninet easilv evolved oat 
of fr:«j-fr-!f'ij.7/v. But the sense given by Cot grave does not 
«eem to have been the old one, nor the sense most usnaL 
BuriTJy jrive* ¥'?ro\.U'\ to overflow : Roquefort gives P^roftd^r, 
to overflow, also to abound, with an example from Rutebuef 
in which mp.*"; ;V means 'abounds*: and in mv list of Ensrlish 
words found in Anglo-French. I give three examples of the 
verb i.iny'i'i'.it-r or Aurunu-r, to overflow. I sji'^c these under 
the htiadin? ••Surround." bv wav of suff^estinjr a connection 
between the English and the French words. One of the 
exanii^Ic^ is rx. niurk-ible, occarnUir in the Tie de St. Auban, 
€^1 A-.kinson. 1. hJ'2xK We there And : "'Fort est a cunbitie 
a flo: quVs: ? ":. :c," which the eiitor explains by 'i: is 
ilii£:ul: :o n^h: ar^ius: a bxlv of water which is risen hijh 
in waves.' or. as we m:^::: Ss;v, • a s-arsrlniT wave.' Now it 
>-:n?nis to me :h.i: this is vast where the coniiision of ideas 
con:c> in. A man on a rrvv-x'tinij jv*r::on of lani dnis 


» • .»■* 




F. word suronder, to overflow, was adopted into English, it 
was at first used in its true sense. A surrounding wave was, 
at first, an overflowing wave ; but the word was actually spelt, 
from the first, with two rs, with the inevitable result that the 
sense of ' round about ' was imported into the word, so that 
ere long * a surrounding wave ' was regarded as an encircling 
or encompassing wave. Milton was one of those who mis- 
understood the word, and his authority settled its use for 
many succeeding generations. To restore its true sense is 
now impossible; but we have here a good example of the 
power of English to change the sense of imported words. 
I may add that the doubling of the r seems to have been 
originally merely pseudo-phonetic, as it occurs in Cotgrave 
and IJinsheu before any change took place in the sense. 
Such doubling is very common after a short accented vowel, 
as in marry^ carry, berry, cherry, morroic, borrotc, and the 
like. Perhaps it was influenced by the spelling of surrender, 
I may remark that the word is not noticed at all by Mr. 

H. Murray. 

I AM not aware that atention has as yet been calld to an 
interesting point in the history of OE. verbs in -cyan, such as 
bycgan^ Iccgan, secgan, which I hav recently workt out in 
writing the articl Alt.ay in the Dictionary, and which I did 
not know when I wrote Abye, when it would hav enabled me 
to understand better the relation of the many ME. forms of 
that word. The Gothic conjugation of these vbs. goes thus : 

^ I have loft this paper in its ori<i^inal form, as read before the Society. The 
notes in the Phil. See. Proceedings, at p. xvi, sliow that it requires correction in 
many points of detail. I still tliink that Dr. Johnson's and Bailey's Fr. 
snrrotiihr was a mere guess, or else they would have known its meaning.-- 

w. w. s. 


Pres. lagjtty iag/ie, lagjip ; lagjum^ Ici^ipt lagjand. Impf. 
lagida. Imper. lagei, lagjip. Inf. lag/an. Pple. pres. lagjand ; 
pa. lagid, Whense, by regular fonetic change, the -fly- 
becoming g simply before orig. -* ; but -eg- before a, o, u, in 
OE. Pres. lecge, Ifgeai, lege/>, lecgap. Imperf. legde, Imper. 

legey Ifcgap. Inf. Ipcgan. Pple. pres. Ificgende, pa. Ipgd, In 

late OE. 'Cg- must hav been nearly (as I think Mr. Sweet 
has already on other grounds said) = modern -g- in ginger; 
^ nearly =y; for in ME. the conjugation was Pres. legge, 
leyesty leyfejth; leggen. Impf. lei/de. Imperat. kf/e, leggeth. 
Inf. leggefn). Pple. pres. legging, pa. lei/d, leid. The gg was 
often writn dg, and was our g in ledge, riming with Fr. 
words like abredge. About 1400, a leveling of forms took 
place ; the type lei/, lay was extended to all forms ; the type 
legge, ledge disapeared ; we hav no mor legge, only lay ; no mor 
sedging, only saying ; no mor abidge, only abye. There is 
a partial parallel in -cc- vbs. like feccan, fetch. Not only 
does this throw instructiv light on the late OE. value of ge^ 
and eg, and cc (nearly = mod. tch, in fetch, etc.), but it 
provides an interesting parallel to the fonetic history of 
French and Ital. vbs., where, from purely fonetic laws, there 
was a similar split-up of one original sound into two. Thus 
in OFr., Lat. plicdre gave in pres. tense acording to the 
pozition of L. stress, Pres. pleie, pleies, pleiei, pliona, pliez, 
pleient. Imperf. plioiL Imper. pleie, pliez. Infin. plier. 
Pple. pres. pliant. Pa. pliet. In late OFr. these diflPorences were 
leveld, by extending either ei, or i all thru ; sumtimes as in 
plicdre, by extending both and splitting up the old vb. into 
two, mod. Fr. plier and ployer ; Eng. dis-play, de-ploy. Stil 
mor like 0. and ME. is the Ital., where, as pointed out by 
Prince L.-L. Bonaparte, Lat. video, tides, videt, videmus, 
videtis, rident becum veggio, vedi, vede, veggiamo, vedete, 
vedono. Videbam is vedeva; but videam is veggia ; de befor 
a vowel giving -ggi- dzh ; but de befor a cons, remaining d. 


H.I.H. Prince Louis-Lucien Bonaparte. 

Professor J. P. Postgate's very interesting paper " On the 
Latin words for grapes," printed in the first volume of the 
" Transactions of the Cambridge Philological Society/' 
induces me to extract from my manuscript " Lexicon Com- 
parativum omnium Linguarum Europaearum" and present 
to the Cambridge Philological Society the following list of 
words connected with the vine and numbering over two 
hundred, not only in Latin, Low Latin, and in what I 
consider its fifteen derivative languages, but also in as 
many of their dialects, sub-dialects and varieties (about one 
hundred and forty) as it has been possible for me to collect, 
either from the most accredited lexicographers, or during 
my frequent excursions, undertaken with a merely linguistical 
object, from 1843 to 1869, throughout numerous localities 
of France, Switzerland, the two Neo-Latin Peninsulas, and 
their adjacent islands. This list, notwithstanding its being 
nothing more than a rich comparative collection of words 
without any etymological comment, yet may be useful, as a 
supplementary help, to those who might feel inclined to 
continue or extend Prof. Postgate's etymological researches 
on this attractive topic. 

My object then, at present, is simply comparative ; and, 
in order to obtain the nearest equivalent of each English 
word or definition in the several languages, dialects, sub- 
dialects, and varieties, I have not so much depended on 
bi-lingual lexical works, as on definitions given by the 
most accredited native authors of classical and standard 

* Reprinted from the Tranaactians of the Cambridge Philological Society for 

PhiL TranB. 1882-8-4. 18 


imiional dictionaries, vocabularies, collections of words, etc. 
In languages or dialects, however, which I have spoken 
from childhood, or of which I have a practical knowledge 
acquired on the spot, I have acted on my own responsibility. 
Such are Italian, French, Spanish, and Portuguese, as well 
as the vulgar Florentine and Roman Italian directs and 
the Oallo-Italic Bolognese. 

liesides the numerous manuscript collections of words, 
which I have been able to gather from the countries where 
Nco- Latin dialects are spoken, the following are the principal 
I)rinted works which my linguistic library has permitted ine 
to consult, and which I have generally followed as being the 
best authorities. 


P. 1. Classical Latin : Forceliini, Facciolatiy Fiirlatietio — 
Totius Latinitatia Lexicon. Patavii, 1827-41, 5 vol. 4to.; 
Pasini — Vocabolario italiano-latino. Vocabula Latina et 
Italica. Vonezia, 1841, 2 vol. 4to. ; Valbnena — Diccionario 
ospanol- latino. Paris, 1852, 8vo. ; Salvd — Diccionario latino- 
cspanol. Paris, 1846, 8 vo.; Fomcca{da) — Diccionario portuguez 
latino. liisboa, 1852, foL; Ferreira — Magnum Lexicon 
Latiuum ot liusitanum. Parisiis, 1843, 4to.; Noel — Diction- 
nairo fnin^ais-latin. Paris, 1840, 8vo.; Noel — Dictionarium 
Liitino-(iallicum. Paris, 1841, 8vo.; Thcil — Dictionnaire 
latin-fran<;ais. Paris, 1853, 8vo. ; Ainsicorth — Thesaurus 
liiugiuv Latina> compondiarius : English-Latin and Latin* 
Knglish Dictionary, improved and revised by Beatson and 
Kllis. liinulon, 8vo. ; White and Euhllc — Latin-English 
Diotionary. London, 18i>2, 8vo. 

2, 1a>w Latin : Caiuje yJit) — Glossarium medice et iniimie 
l.<HimiiUis. Parisiis, 1840-50, 7 vol. 4to. ; DiV/cwftcirA — 
liKv^siirium l.;Uino-Gornianioum media^ et infim;T> oetatis. 
Fnuioofurti ad MaMium, 1857, 4to. 

11 \ 1. Tvai.ivn: riVu'o.'.jno dogli AcoadomioidollaCrusca* 
Fiivu^'o, l72i>-rKS i> vol lol.: *;/, 1843, 1 vol lol: fo\ 1863-^^1, 



4 vol. 4to. ; Manuzzi — Vocabolario della lingua italiana. Fi- 
renze, 1833-40, 4 vol. 4to. ; RiguHni and Fanfani — Vocabolario 
italiano della lingua parlata. Firenze, 1875-76, 8vo.; Fanfani 
— Vocabolario della pronunzia toscana. Firenze, 1863, 16mo.; 
Barberiy Bastiy and Cerati — Grand dictionnaire franfais- 
italien et italien-fran9ais. Paris, 1838-39, 2 vol. 4to. ; Alherti 
— Grand dictionnaire fran9ois-italien et italien-fran9oi8. 
Milan, 1826-28, 2 vol. 4to. ; Baretti — Dizionario italiano 
ed inglese. English and Italian Dictionary. Bologna and 
Florence, 1830-32, 2 vol. 4to. 

2. Italian dialects: Nerucci — Vemacolo montalese 
(contado) del sotto-dialetto di Pistoia. Milano, 1865, 8vo. ; 
Politi — Indice delle voci del dialetto senese. Venetia, 1615, 
8vo. ; Raccolta di voci romane e marchiane. Osimo, 1768, 8vo. ; 
Avoli — Saggio sopra alcune voci del dialetto alatrino. Roma, 
1880, 8vo. ; Marcoaldi — Vocaboli piii genuini del vemacolo 
fabrianese. Fabriano, 1875, 8vo. ; Mattei — Pniverbj, detti e 
massime corse. Paris, 1867, 12rao. ;- Traina — Vocabolario 
siciliano-italiano. Palermo, 1873, 8vo. ; VincenUis {de) — Vo- 
cabolario del dialetto tarantino. Taranto, 1872, 8vo. ; Santis 
(de) — Saggio di vocabolario vernacolo barese-italiano. Bari, 
1857, 4to. ; Finamore — Vocabolario dell' uso abruzzese. Lan- 
ciano, 1880, 8vo. ; Savini — La grammatica ed il lessico del 
dialetto teramano. Torino, Roma, Firenze, 1881, 8vo. ; Ritis 
{de) — Vocabolario napoletano lessigrafico e storico. Napoli, 
1845, 2 vol. fol.; Amhrn (d*) — Vocabolario napolitano-toscano 
domestico d'arti e mestieri. Indice Toscano e Napolitano. 
Napoli, 1873, 8vo. ; Boerio — Dizionario del dialetto veneziano* 
Indice italiano- veneto. Venezia, 1856, 4to. ; Patriarchi — 
Vocabolario veneziano e padovano. Padova, 1821, 4to. ; 
Schio (da) — Raccolta di voci usate a Vicenza. Padova, 1855, 
8vo.; Nazari — Dizionario vicentino- italiano. Oderzo, 1876, 
8vo. ; Angeli — Piccolo vocabolario Veronese e toscano. Verona, 
1821, 8vo. ; Nazari — Parallelo fra il dialetto bellunese rustico 
e la lingua italiana. Belluno, 1873, 8vo. ; AzzoUni — Vocabo- 
lario vernacolo-italiano pei distretti roveretano e trentino. 
Venezia, 1856, 8vo. ; Schneller — Die romanischen Volksmun- 
darten in Siidtirol. Die italienischen Mundarten. Gera, 1870, 


8vo. ; Dictionnaire de la langue franque ou petit mauresque. 
Marseille, 1830, 12mo. 

IIP. Sardinian: Spano — Vocabolario sardo-italiano e 
italiano-eardo. Cagliari, 1851-52, 3 vol. 4to. ; Porru-^ 
Dizionariu universali sardu-italianu. Casteddu, 1832, fol. 

IV°. 1. Spanish: Diccionarh de la lengua castellana por 
la Acaderaia Espafiola. Madrid, 1852, fol. ; Dominguez — 
Diccionario universal francos - espanol. Espauol - frances. 
Madrid, Paris, 1853-54, 2 vol. 8vo. ; Frandosini — Vocabolario 
italiano e spagnolo. Yocabulario espanol 6 italiano. Yenezia, 
1796, 2 vol. 8vo.; Diccionario espafiol-italiano 6 italiano- 
espanol. Paris, 1860, 2 vol. 12mo. ; Connelly and Higgins — 
Dictionary of the Spanish and English languages. Espanol- 
ingl^s, Ingl^s-espanol. Madrid, 1797-98, 4 vol. 4to. ; Velaz^ 
quez de la Cadena — Spanish-English and English-Spanish 
pronouncing Dictionary. Paris, 2 vol. 8vo. 

2. Spanish DiALEcrs: Borao — ^Diccionario de voces ara- 
gonesas. Zaragoza, 1859, 4to. ; Hollandsche Spraakkunst 
ten gebruike des eiland Cura9ao. Santa-Rosa, 1849-63, 
3 vol. 8vo. 

V°, 1. Portuguese: Moraes Silva — Diccionario da lingua 
portugueza. Lisboa, 1844, 2 vol. 4to. ; Carval/io, Joao de 
Dem — Diccionario prosodico de Portugal e Brasil. Lisboa, 
1878, 16mo. ; Fonseca (da), Hoqtiete — Diccionario francez- 
portuguez. Portugais-fran9ai8. Pariz, 1841, 2 vol. 8vo. ; 
Costa (da) e 8d — Dizionario italiano e portoghese. Lisboa, 
1773-4, 2 vol. fol. ; Borda — Dizionario italiano-portoghese e 
portoghese-italiano. Rio de Janeiro, 1853-54, 2 vol. 8vo. ; 
Canto (do) e Castro Mascarenhas Valdez — Diccionario espafiol- 
portugues. Lisboa, 1864-66, 3 vol. 4to. ; Bluteau — Tabla de 
palabras portuguezas, remotas de la lengua castellana. Lisboa, 
1721, fol. ; Vieyra — Portuguese-English and English-Portu- 
guese Dictionary. London, 1827, 2 vol. 8vo. 

2. Portuguese dialects: Bluteau — Vocabulario de pala- 
vras do Minho e Beira. Lisboa, 1728, fol. ; Ciiveiro Pinol — 


Diccionario gallego. Barcelona, 1876, 8vo. ; CuM y Sole 
Catalogo de voces del sub-dialecto berciano. Leon, 1861, 
8vo. ; Berrenger — Method of learning the corrupted Portu- 
guese spoken in India. Colombo, 1811, 8vo. ; Callaway — 
English, Portuguese, and Cingalese Vocabulary. Colombo, 
1818, 8vo.; Fox — Ceylon-Portuguese, Singhalese, and English 
Dictionary. Colombo, 1819, 8vo. 

VI°. Genoese : Canaccia — Dizionario genovese-italiano. 
Geneva, 1876, 8vo. ; Olivier i — Dizionario genovese-italiano. 
Geneva, 1841, 16mo. ; Paganini — Vocabolario domestico 
genovese-italiano. Geneva, 1857, 4to.; Andreics — Yocabulaire 
fran9ais-mentonais. Nice, 1877, 8vo. 


VII°. Gallo-Italic : Biondelli — Saggio sui dialetti gallo- 
italici. Milano, 1853, 8vo.; Cherubini — Vocabolario milanese- 
italiano. Milano, 1839-56, 5 vol. 8vo.; Monti — Vocabolario 
dei dialetti della cittd e diocesi di Como. Appendice. Milano, 
1845-56, 2 vol. 8vo. ; Tirahoschi — Vocabolario dei dialetti 
bergaraaschi antichi e moderni. Bergamo, 1873, 8vo. ; 
Zappettini — Vocabolario bergamasco-italiano. Bergamo, 1859, 
18mo.; TirahoHchi — Parre ed il gergo de' suoi pastori. 
Bergamo, 1864, 8vo.; Melchiorri — Vocabolario bresciano- 
italiano. Brescia, 1817-20, 3 vol. 8vo. ; Vocabolnrio 
bresciano e toscano. Indice toscano e bresciano. Brescia, 
1759, 8vo. ; Saniarani — Vocabolario cremasco-italiano, 
Crema, 1852, 8vo. ; Peri — Vocabolario cremonese italiano. 
Cremona, 1847, 8vo. ; Coronedi-Berti — Vocabolario bolognese- 
italiano. Prontuario italiano-bolognese. Bologna, 1869-72, 
2 vol. 8vo.; Ferrari — Vocabolario bolognese- italiano coUe voci 
francesi. Bologna, 1835, 4to. ; id, bolognese-italiano. Bologna, 
1853, 8vo.; Maranesi — Vocabolarietto domestico modenese e 
italiano. Modena, 1867-68, 8vo.; Oalvani — Saggio di un 
glossario modenese. Modena, 1867, 8vo.; Vocabolario reggiano- 
italiano. Reggio, 1832, 2 vol. 8vo. ; Morri — Vocabolario 
romagnolo-italiano. Faenza, 1840, 4to.; id, Persiceto, 1863, 
8vo.; Mattioli — Vocabolario romagnolo-italiano. Imola, 1879, 
8vo. ; Tozzali — Dizionario domestico imolese-italiano. Imola, 


1857, 8vo.; Azzi — Vocabolaiio domestico ferrarese-italiano. 
Ferrara, 1857, 4to.; Nannini — ^Vocabolario ferrarese-italiano. 
Ferrara, 1805, 8vo.; Meschieri — Vocabolario mirandolese- 
italiano. Bologna, 1876, 8vo.; Cherubini — Vocabolario 
mantovano-italiano. Milano, 1827, 8vo. ; MalaspitM — Voca- 
bolario parmigiano-italiano. Parma, 1856-59, 4 vol. 8vo.; 
Peschieri — Dizionario parmigiano-italiano. Borgo San Don- 
nino, Parma, 1836-53, 3 vol. 8vo. ; Foreati — Vocabolario 
piacentino-italiano, Piacenza, 1855, 8vo.; Oambini — ^Voca- 
bolario pavese-italiano ed italiano-pavese. Pavia, 1850, 4to.; 
id. Dizionario domestico pavese-italiano. Italiano-pavese. 
Pavia, 1829, 8vo. ; Manftedi — Dizionario pavese-italiano. 
Pavia, 1874, 8vo.; Sanf Albino — Gran Dizionario piemontese- 
italiano. Torino, 1859, fol.; Ponza — Vocabolario piemontese- 
italiano e italiano-piemontese. Torino, 1847, 16mo. ; Zalli-^ 
Dizionario piemontese, italiano, latino e francese. Carmagnola, 
1830, 2 vol. 4to. ; Capelio — Dictionnaire pi^montai8-fran9ais, 
Turin, 1814, 2 vol. 8vo. 

VIII°. Frioulan : Pirona — Vocabolario friulano. Voca- 
bolario italiano-friulano. Venezia, 1871, 8vo. ; Mainati — 
Dialoghi piacevoli in dialetto vernacolo triestino (dead as a 
Frioulan dialect) colla versione italiana. Trieste, 1828, 8vo. 

IXP. Komanese: Carisch — Taschenworterbuch der rhato- 
romanischen Sprache in Graubunden. Chur, 1848, 16mo. ; 
id. Deutsch-italienisch-romanische Wcirtersaramlung. Chur, 
1836, 8vo.; id. id. Chur, 1848, 8vo.; id. id. Chur, 1821, 
8vo. ; Conradi — Taschenworterbuch der deutsch-romanischen 
Sprache. Zurich, 1828, 12mo.; id, id. romanisch-deutsch. 
Ziirich, 1823, 12mo. ; Flaminio da Sale — Fundamenti della 
lingua retica o griggiona, all' uso di Sopraselva e di 
Sorset. Coir aggiunta d'un vocabolario italiano e reto di 
due lingue romancie. Disentis, 1729, 4to. ; Carigiet — Ratoro- 
manisches Worterbuch, surselvisch-deutsch. Bonn, Chur, 
1882, 16mo.; Codasch da liger an dialect de Surmeir. Coira, 
1857, 12mo. ; Cappol {v.) — Nomenclatura romanscha e 
todaischa. 1770, 8vo. ; Der^ Die, Das oder Nomenclatura. 




Scuol, 1744, 8vo.; Pallioppi — Ortografia et Ortoepia del 
idiom roraauntsch d'Engiadin'ota. Coira, 1857, 16mo.; 
Heinrich — Fuorraas grammaticalas del linguach tudaisch. 
Seguonda ediziun. Coira, 16mo. ; Alton — Die ladinischen 
Idiome in Ladinien, Groden, Fassa, Buchenstein, Ampezzo. 
Innsbruck, 1879, 8vo. ; Schneller — Die romanischen Volks- 
mundarten in Siidtirol. Die ladiniselien Mundarten. Gera, 
1870, 8vo. ; Bottiger — Rhetoromanska spr&kets Dialekter. 
TJpsala, 1854, 8vo. ; Oroden, der Grodner und seine Sprache. 
Bozen, 186i, 8vo. ; Gartner — Die Gredner Mundart. Linz, 
1879, 4to. 

X°. Old Provencal : Raynouard — Lexique roman. Paris, 
1838, 6 vol. 8vo. ; Diez — Altromanische Glossare. Bonn, 
1865, 8vo. ; Bartsch — Chrestomathio, grammaire, glossaire de 
la langue proven9ale. Elberfeld, 1868, 8vo. 

XI°. Catalonian : Diccionari catald-castelld-Mati-frances- 
italid. Barcelona, 1839, 2 vol. 8vo. ; Diccionario de la lengua 
castellana con la correspondencia catalana. Por una sociedad 
literaria. Barcelona, 2 vol. 8vo. ; Labernia — Diccionario 
castellano-catalano-latino. Barcelona, 1844-48, 2 vol. 8vo.; 
id, Diccionari catald-castella-Uati. Barcelona, 1864-65, 2 
vol.8vo.; Saura — Diccionario castellano-catalano. Barcelona, 
1862, 16nio.; id, Diccionario catalano-castellano. Barcelona, 
1869, 16mo.; Lacavalleria, Dulacli — Oazophylacium Catalano- 
Latinum. Barcinone, 1696, fol. ; Nebrissensis — Lexicon 
Catalano-Latinum et Latino-Catalanum. Barcinone, 1560-63, 
3 vol. fol.; Escrig — Diccionario valenciano-castellano. Va- 
lencia, 1851, 8vo.; March Amia^ — Las obras, con el vocabu- 
lario. Valladolid, 1555, 8vo.; Palmyreno — Vocabulario del 
humanista. Valentia), 1569, 3 vol. 8vo. ; Flguera — Diccionari 
mallorqui-castelld. Palma, 1840, fol.; Diccionario complete 
mallorquin-castcUano. Palma, 1859, 8vo.; Soler — Gramdtica 
de la lengua menorquina. Mahon, 1858, 8vo. 

XII°. Provencal : Honnorat — Dictionnaire proven9al- 


fran9ai8 et fran9ais-proven5al. Digne, 1846-48, 4 vol. 4to. ; 
id. Vocabulaire fran9ai8-proven9al, Digne, 1848, 18mo. ; Azdis^ 
— Diction naire des idiomes romans du midi de la France* 
Montpellier, 1877, 3 vol. 8vo. ; Mistral — ^Dictionnaire pro- 
ven9al-fran9ai8. Aix, 1879, 4to. ; Craig — Vocabulary of im- 
portant Proven9al words (Nizza). London, 1863,^ 12mo. ; 
Chahrandy Rochas (de), Aiglun (d*) — Patoia des Alpes Cot- 
tiennes (Brian9onnai8 et vallees Vaudoises). Glossaire quey- 
ra88ien. Mot8 brian9onnai8. Grenoble, Paris, 1877, 8vo. ; 
Moutier — Grammaire dauphinoise. Dialecte de la valine de la 
DrOme. Montelimar, 1882, 8vo. ; Couzini^ — Dictionnaire cas- 
trais. Castres, 1850, 4to. ; Gary — Dictionnaire patois- fran§ais 
& I'usage du Tarn. Castres, 1845, 12mo. ; Cinae Moncaut — 
Dictionnaire ga8con-fran9ai8. Dialecte du Gers. Paris, 1863, 
8vo.; Cauderan — Dialecte-bordelais. Paris, 1861, 8vo.; Lespy^ 
— ^Vocabulaire fran9ais-bearnais. Pau, 1858, 8vo. ; Lespy — 
Vocabulaire bearnai8-fran9ai8. Paris, 1880, 8vo:; Guide {le) 
des Gascons, ou Dictionnaire patoi8-fran9ais [Upper Biarnaia), 
Tarbes, 1858, 4to. ; La Fontaine — Fables eausides en bers 
gascouns. Dicciounariot gascoun & francos. Bayoune, 1776,. 
8vo.; Lagrav^re — Poesies en gascoun. Dictiounariot. Bayonne, 
1865, 8vo.; Ruben — Glossaire haut-Hmousin. Paris, 1856, 
8vo. ; Beronie — Dictionnaire bas-limousin. Tulle, 4to.; 
Vayssier — Dictionnaire patois-fran9ai8 de rAveyron. Rodez, 
1879, 4to.; Doniol — Les Patois de la Basse- Auvergne. Paris, 
1877, 8vo. ; Mahal — Tableau comparatifs des mots fran9ai8» 
pieraontais et bas-auvergnats. Clermont - Ferraud, 1877, 
8vo. obi. 

XIII°. Franco-Provencal: jBrtV^<?/— Glossaire du patois 
de la Suisse romande. Lausanne, 1866, 8vo.; Rectieil de 
morceaux en dialectes de la Suisse franyaise. Vocabulaire 
patois-fran9ais. Lausanne, 1842, 12mo.; Le Due — Les Noels 
bressans de Bourg, de Pont de Vaux et des paroisses voisines,. 
suivis de six noels bugistes. Bourg, 1845, 12rao. ; Monnier — 
Vocabulaire de la langue rustique et populaire du Jura. 
Paris, 1831, 8vo. ; Tisnot — Le Patois des Fourgs, arrondisse- 
ment de Pontarlier, Doubs. Glossaire. Paris, 1865, 8vo.; 



Hdfelin — Die Neuenburger Mundarten. Berlin, 1874, 8vo. \ 
Champolliort'Figeac — ^Vocabulaire du patois de I'lsere. Paris, 
1809, 12mo.; JRividre- Bert rand — Muereglie. Traduction en 
dialecte dauphinois de Mireille, de Mistral, pr^c^d^e de notes 
6ur le langage de Saint-Maurice de I'Exil. Montpellier, 1881, 
8vo.; Gras — Dictionnaire du patois for^zien. Lyon, 1863, 
8vo. ; Onofrio — ^Essai d'un glossaire des patois de Lyonnais, 
Fore.z et Beaujolais. Lyon, 1864, 8vo.; Olossaire g^nevois. 
Geneve, Paris, 1827, 8vo.; Humbert — Glossaire genevois. 
Geneve, 1852, 2 vol. 12mo. ; OilUeron — Glossaire du patois 
de la commune de Vionnaz (Bas-Valais). Paris, 1880, 8vo. ; 
Vermch iiber den Kan ton Wallis. Worter. Ziirich, 1820, 
32mo.; Versuch iiber den Kanton Waat. Ziirich, 1815, 
32mo; Callet — Glossaire vaudois. Lausanne, 1881, 8vo. ; 
Hdfelin — Glossaire des patois romans du canton de Fribourg. 
Leipzig, 1879, 8vo.; Dartois — Coup-d'oeil sur les patois de la 
Pranche-Comt^. Vocabulaires. Besangon, 1855,8vo.; Paulet — 
Essai d'un vocabulaire du patois de Plancher-les-Mines 
(Haute-Saone). Paris, 1878, 18mo. ; Dictionnaire patois- 
fran9ais k T usage des ^coles des Vosges. Nancy, 1842, 

XIV°. Old French : Roquefort — Glossaire de la langue 
romane. Paris, 1808-20, 3 vol. 8vo.; Burguy — Glossaire 
de la langue d'oil. Paris, 1870, 8vo. ; Bartsch — Glossaire de 
Tancien fran9ais. Leipzig, 1866, 8vo. ; Oachet — Glossaire 
roman des chroniques rim^es. Bruxelles, 1859, 4to. ; Chasmnt 
— Vocabulaire latin-francais du xiii® Siecle. Paris, 1857, 
12mo. ; Godefroy — Dictionnaire de Tancienne langue frangaise 
et de tons ses dialectes du xi® au xve siecle. Paris, 1880, 
4to. ; Cange {du) — Glossariura Gallicum. Parisiis, 1850, 4to.; 
Kelham — Dictionary of the Norman or Old French language. 
London, 8vo. 

XV°. 1. French : Dictionnaire de T Academic Francaise. 
Paris, 1876, 2 vol. 4to.; CompUment du dictionnaire de 
TAcad^mie Fran9aise. Paris, 1842, 4to.; Littre — Diction- 
naire de la langue fran9aise. Paris, 1863-77, 5 vol. 4to. ;. 


Fleming y Ttbbins — English and French and French and 
English Dictionary. Paris, 1841-44, 2 vol. 4to.; Spiers — 
Dictionnaire franfais-anglais ; id, id. anglai8-fran9ai8. Paris, 
1851, 2 vol. 8vo. 

2. French dialects : Bracket — ^Vocabulaire tourangeau. 
Paris, 1872, 8vo. ; Jaubert — Glossaire du centre de la France. 
Paris, 1864-69, 2 vol. 4to.; Vallerange — Glossaire percheron. 
Paris, 1861, 8vo.; Fbcafttt/atre du Haut-Maine. Le Mans, Paris, 
1859, 8vo. ; TarW— Glossaire de Champagne. Beims, 1851, 
8vo.; Chambure — Glossaire du Morvan. Paris, Autun, 1878, 
4to.; Oui Barozai — Glossaire bourguignon. Chatillon-sur- 
Seine, 1825, 12mo. ; Mignard — Glossaire bourguignon. 
Dijon, 1856, 8vo. ; id, Vocabulaire du dialecte de Bour- 
gogne. Paris, Dijon, 1870, 8vo.; Adam — Les Patois lor- 
rains. Vocabulaire patoi8-fran9ais et fran9ai8-patoi8. Paris, 
1881, 8vo.; Contejean — Glossaire du patois de Montb^liard. 
Montb^liard, 1876, 8vo.; Oberlin — Essai sur le patois lorrain 
du Ban de la Roche. Glossaire patois-lorrain. Index fran9ois. 
Strasbourg, 1775, 8vo. ; Cordier — Vocabulaire des mots 
patois de la Meuse. Paris, 1833, 8vo. ; Jaclot, de Saulny — 
Vocabulaire patois messin. Paris, 1854, 12mo.; Lorrain — 
Glossaire du patois messin. Nancy, 1876, 8vo.; Rolhnd — 
Vocabulaire du patois messin de R^miUy, Woippy et Landroff. 
Paris, 1873-76, 2 vol. 8vo.; Orandgagnage — Dictionnaire 
etymologique de la langue wallonne. Li^ge, 1845-80, 2 vol. 
8vo.; Forir — Dictionnaire li^goi8-fran9ais. Li^ge, 1866-74, 
2 vol. 8vo.; Hubert — Dictionnaire wallon-frangais. Li^ge, 
1857, 12mo.; Remacle — Dictionnaire wallon et frangais. 
Li^ge, 1839-43, 2 vol. 8vo. ; Chav^e — Fran9ais et wallon. 
Bruxelles, 1817, 18ino. ; Dictionnaire roman, walon, celtique 
et tudesque. Bouillon, 1777, 4to. ; Corblet — Glossaire du 
patois picard. Paris, 1851, 8vo. ; Legrand — Dictionnaire du 
patois de Lille. Lille, 1856, 18mo. ; Debuire — Glossaire 
lillois. Lille, 1867, 8vo. ; Vermease — Vocabulaire du patois 
lillois. Lille, 12ino.; id, Dictionnaire du patois de la Flandre 
fran9ai8e. Douai, 1867, 8vo. ; Hicart — Dictionnaire rouchi- 
frangais. Valenciennes, 1834, Bvo. ; Sigart — Glossaire mon- 
tois. Bruxelles et Leipzig, 1866, 8vo. ; EdUestandy DumMl 


— Dictionnaire du patois normand. Caen, 1849, 8vo. ; Bois 
(du) — Glossaire du patois normand. Caen, 1856, 8vo.; Le 
H^richer — Histoire at Glossaire du normand, de Tanglais et 
du fran9ai8. Paris, Avranches, 3 vol. 8vo. ; Decarde — Diction- 
naire du patois du pays de Uray. Paris, Bouen, Neufchatel, 
1852, 8vo.; Vasnier — Dictionnaire du patois normand de 
Pont-Audemer. Rouen, 1862, 8vo. ; Pluquet — Noms triviaux 
du patois de Bayeux. Rouen, 1834, 8vo. ; Lamarche — Extrait 
d'un dictionnaire du patois de Cherbourg, Yalognes et 
Saint- Lo. Cherbourg, 1843. Saint-Lo, 1851, 2 vol. 8vo. ; 
>Joret — Dictionnaire du patois normand du Bessin. Paris, 
1881, 8vo.; Mitivier — Dictionnaire du dialecte de Guemesey. 
London, Edinburgh, 1870, 8vo. ; Favre — Glossaire du Poitou, 
de la Saintonge et de TAunis. Niort, 1867, 8vo. ; Rousseau — 
Glossaire poitevin. Niort, 1869, 8vo.; BeaucheUFilleaU'^ 
Glossaire des mots poitevins de Chef-Boutonne. Niort, 
Melle, 1864, 8vo. ; L^vrier — Dictionnaire du patois poitevin. 
Niort, 1867, 8vo. ; Boucher ie — Patois de la Saintonge. Glos- 
saire. AngoulSme, 1865, 8vo. ; Jdnain — Dictionnaire du 
patois saintongeais. Royan, 1869, 8vo. ; Mhiiere — Glossaire 
angevin. Angers, 1880, 8vo. 

XVI°. Wallachian ; Bohb — Dictionariu rumanesc, 
lateinesc si unguresc. Clus, 1822-23, 2 vol. 8vo. ; 
Lexicon Valachico - Latino - Hungarico - Germanicum. Budae, 
1825. 8vo. ; Balasiescu — Dictionarium Latino-Romanicum. 
Cibinii, 1848, 8vo. ; Schinnagl — Lectiunariu latinu. Dic- 
tiunariu latinu. Blasiu, 1864, 8vo. ; Frollo — Vocabo- 
lario italiano - romanesco. Pest, 1868, 8vo. ; Vaillant — 
Vocabulaire fran9ai8-roumain et roumain - fran9ais. Bou- 
couresti, 1840, 2 vol. 8vo. ; Poi/enaar, Aaron, Hill — Voca- 
bulaire francais-valaque. Boucourest, 1840-41, 2 vol. 8vo.; 
Codresco — Dictionariu franceso-romanu. lasii, 1859, 2 vol. 
16mo. ; Ponthriant {de) — Dictiunaru romano-francesu. Bucu- 
resci, Gottinge, 1862, 4to. ; Cihac [de) — Dictionnaire d'etymo- 
logic daco-romane. Elements latins. Francfort s/M., 1870, 

8vo.; id. id. Elements slaves, magyars, turcs, grecs-moderne et 
albanais. id., 1879, 8vo. ; Miklosich — Istro- und macedo- 






rumunischeSprachdenkmahler.Istro- und macedo-rumunischen 
Worterbucher. Italienischer Index zum istro-rumunischen 
Vocabular. Wien, 1881-82, 2 vol. 4to. 

Explanation of the Abbreviations used in the 


N.B. — The Jigurti thow the languages according io the list {which see), 

Dauphinois, subd. 12 ; 

dial. 13. 
Engadinese, dial. 9 ; 

var. 9. 
Ferrarese, dial. 7. 
Florentine, dial. 2. 
eor^ien, dial. 13. 
Fourgois, var. 13. 
Franc-Comtois, dial. 15. 
Fribourgcois, dial. 13. 
Galician, subd. 5. 
Gascon, dial. 12. 
Gcncvese, var. 13. 
Gruerin, subd. 13. 
Guornesiais, var. 15. 
Jurassien, subd. 13. 
Langucdocicn, dial. 12. 
Lillois, subd. 15. 
Limousin, dial. 12 ^ 

subd. 12. 
Lorrain, dial. 15. 
Luccbese, var. 2. 
Majorcan, var. 11. 
Manccau, subd. 15. 
Mantovano, subd. 7. 
Marchigiano, var. 2 ; 

subd. 2. 
Mcntoncse, dial. 6. 
Mcssin, subd. 15. 
Milanese, dial. 7. 

1 Names priutiHl in small capitals show the dialects which represent the whole 


Abnizzeso, dial. 2. 



Agenois, subd. 12. 


Alatrino, var. 2. 



Angevin, subd. 15. 


Aostan, dial. 13. 



Aragonoso, subd. 4. 



Ardennois, subd. 15. 



Asturian, dial. 4. 



Auvcrgnat, dial. 12. 



Baresc, subd. 2. 



Bayonnais, var. 12. 



Boarnais, subd. 12. 



Beirao, var. 5. 



Belluncse, subd. 2. 



Berciano, var. 5. 



Bcrganiasco, dial. 7. 



Berrichon, subd. 15. 



Bologncso, dial. 2. 



Bresiiano, subd. 7. 



Brossan, dial. 13. 


Brivadois, subd. 12. 



Broyard, dial. 13. 



Burgundian, dial. 15. 



Castrais, subd. 12. 



Ccvenol, subd. 12. 



. Champenois, subd. 15. 



Comasro, var. 5, 


Corsioan, subd. 2. 



Crcmasco, var. 7. 



Crenioneso, subd. 7. 





Minorc4in, var. 11. 


Eoman, var. 2. 


Minboto, var. 5. 


Bomagnuoloy diaL 7. 


Mirandolese, var. 7. 


Kouchi, subd. 15. 


Modenese, subd. 7. 

Rowrg. Rouergat, dial. 12. 


Montois, subd. 15. 


Boveretano, subd. 2. 


Montbeliardai8,8ubd. 15. 


Saintongeais, subd. 15. 


Montpellierain, subd. 12. 


Sassarese, dial. 2. 


Morvandeau, subd. 15. 


Savoyard, dial. 13. 


!N"amuroi8, subd. 15. 


Sicilian, dial. 2. 


^Nfarbonnais, subd. 12. 


Siennese, var. 2. 


l^eapolitan, dial. 2. 


Tarantino, dial. 2. 


l^eufchatelois, dial. 13. 


Tempiese, subd. 2. 


l^iqard, subd. 12. 


Teramano, subd. 2. 


Kivemais, subd. 15. 


Ticinese, subd. 7. 


Norman, dial. 15. 


Toulousain, subd. 12. 




Tourangeau, var. 15. 

subd. 9. 


Triestino, var. 2 ; 

^ Oherl. 

Oberlandisch, dial. 9. 

subd. 8. 


Padovano, subd. 2. 


Tyrolese, dial. 9. 


Parmesan, dial. 7. 


Valaisan, dial. 13. 


Pavese, subd. 7. 


Valdese, var. 7. 


Percheron, subd. 15. 


Valenciano, var. 11. 


Piacentino, subd. 7. 


Valtellinese, subd. 7. 


Picard, dial. 15. 


Vaudois, dial. 13. 


Piedm ontese, dial. 7. 


Venitian, dial. 2. 


Pisian, var. 2. 


Veronese, subd. 2. 


Poitevin, dial. 15. 


Viervetois, var. 15. 


Quercinois, var. 12. 


Vicentino, subd. 2. 


Queyrassien, var. 12. 


Vosgien, dial. 13 ; 


Eeggiano, subd. 7. 

subd. 15. 


Riojano, var. 4. 


Walloon, dial. 15. 

Other Explanations and Abbreviations. 

fl<?<?. according; ei^t?w«. accusative ; (7o//. collectively ; e?*W. dialect; 
East. Eastern; fern, feminine; North. Northern; jt?/. plural ; South. 
Southern ; suhd. sub-dialect ; var. variety ; West. Western ; + plus. 

'R J Bible y after a Wallachian word, the edition of Jassy, 1865-69, 
is exclusively meant. 

** indicate the Low Latin words, and * is prefixed in every 

^ Names printed in small capitals show the dialects which represent the whole 


lani^na^df dialect, subdialect, or variety to those woitU which aro- 
ttntiqiiiitcHl, or obfkilcte, or uncommon, or not very common, or ]b» 
uiuh], or not principally used, or used in a fig;urative sense. 

NumcH of loculitioB or explicative words are put in a parenthesis , 
and, if thoy bo authors' names or titles of works, they are always 
precfidf'd by the words, ace, to, in order to distinguish them from 
local namoH. 

When the name of one of the sixteen languages is immediately 
followed by that of its dialect, the word quoted belongs only to the 
dialect aiul not to the literary or principal dialect itself by which 
the whole languiigo is represented. 


This list, although very rich in words connected with 
tlio vino, h(i8 no pretension to be complete. It is not such 
for two rouHona : firstly, because it has not been in my power 
to eoUoot uU tho words of this kind in all the Neo- 
Tiutin (lialocts, sub-dialects, and varieties ; and, secondly^ 
Waiiso I huvo purposely excluded from it : 1°. All definitions 
and ot>nj pound words (except the English) ; 2°. Words not 
oxohwivoly used in 8|)oaking of the vine, or at least not more 
partimdrtrly uppHoablo to it; 3°. Regular diminutive or 
uugn\ontutivo forms of words, when no accessory idea is added 
to that of diminution or augmentation ; 4°. Names of peculiar 
qualitit\^ of vines or grapes, and those indicating their par* 
tioular diseases ; 5*^. Names of operations relating to the 
oulturt> of the vine ; 0"^, Names of vessels, etc. ; 7°. Adjec- 
tives, verK^» and similar wonls indicating no material object. 

The I4OW \^\X\n and dialtvtal Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, 
and Kivneh nauuvsi art> not given when they do not differ 
mon^ tvr K\ss in fonu, uu^iuung, or orthography from those 
still iu use in the standanl languagt> to which they belong. 

This applii^s also : l^\ To the Sanlinian, Genoe^, Gallo- 
Italio, Kviulano, and Uon\ani>se wonls^ when they are similar 
iu every iw^jHVt to the Italiau : ^^^'^'^ To tho Ontalonian words^ 
when they do not ditler from the Sj^nish and Old Provencal; 
S'\ to the INvveuv^^al vvwrxls^ when ihev are similar to those 
of tVueh and Old IVveu^^al ; 4 \ To the Frauco-Proven^al 


words, if they be the same as those of French, Old French, 
and Old Proven9al ; 5°. To the Old French words, if they 
be similar to the French ; 6°. To the French dialectal words, 
when they do not differ from the Old French ; and, when 
a dialectal word is given in one of the principal dialects of a 
language, it is not repeated in the other dialects of the same 

The words of the various languages, dialects, sub-dialects, 
and varieties contained in this list are generally given in the 
orthography adopted by the best authors of dialectal dic- 
tionaries. To write all these words in a strictly phonetical 
orthography common to all these forms of speech would have 
been very desirable ; but, unfortunately, what is desirable is 
not always possible. This is certainly the case at present, 
not only because a great number of these dialects have never 
been treated phonetically in any work, but also because the 
most competent phonetists, even belonging to the same 
locality, disagree very often amongst themselves in their 
appreciation of the sounds. In a great number of instances, 
however, and when it has been possible for me to give my 
own appreciation of the sounds of those dialects which I 
know practically or have heard spoken by natives, I have taken 
upon myself (in the impossibility of applying to them a 
strictly phonetic orthography) to assist the future phonetists, 
by adopting several new means ^ for the rendering of certain 
sounds, as italic letters, small capitals, suppressions of letters, 
apostrophes, etc., excluding, however, all new characters, 
which would have altered too much the orthography in 
general use. I enter into some details : 

1. (<7, aej are pronounced as a in fat. 

2. (a; is pronounced as the Scotch a in " man," man. 

3. (5;, nearly as u in much. In Latin, as a in fat her y but 

4. fe, e- express generally the French e, but (e) sounds 
sometimes as semi-open e ; and in the Portuguese usual 

• Latin, ly:"^ Litis. Old Proven<.*al, Old French, and French words are given 
iu tiivir »^»-tu*.-_i»-*j*ii ■- rthocrraphy, and Italian and Spanish words are also, with 
T<ry i».'W *i';*^«T:r:». f^tAinfrd unaltered. The adoption of these new mcan.s, 
tiivrtii<«rt . d'.»et li'.n t/p.j. or applies verj' seldom, to these languages. 


orthography (which I have not dared to alter in this par* 
ticular), (i) sounds as the French i. This applies also to 
the Portuguese dialects. 

5. (e) is pronounced as the French i, 

6« (6), generally, as the French i, except in Portuguese 
and its dialects, where it sounds as the French e, and in 
Eomg., where it receives a peculiar sound of (4. e), verging 
slightly to (10. eu), as in " ande," to go. 

7. (e), as (4. ^), but it occurs only in Romg. 

8. (e, in, im), as the French «/» in "vin," mne, (e) being 
always atonic. 

9. {e, '), both as the French e in " cheval," horse. 

10. (eu), as the French eu in "peu," little, but it occurs in 
the list with this sound only in Genoese, Piedm., Auv., Jur., 
Gen., and Franc. Anywhere else (eu) sounds (4. e+21. u). 

11. (i), as the Wallachian deep I. 

12. (i, in, im), as the Portuguese im in *'marfim/* ivory. 

13. (6, o), as the French o in *' devot/' devout, but (o) 
sounds sometimes as a semi-open o ; and (6), in Portuguese^ 
as the French o in " devote," fern, of "d^vot." This applies 
also to the Portuguese dialects. 

14. (6), as the French o in " devote." 

15. (6), generall}% as the French 6, but in Portuguese and 
its dialects, as the French o in ''d^vot," and in Romg., 
as (13. o), verging slightly to (18. oe), as in "c6r/' heart. 

16. (o), as (13. 6), but it occurs only in Romg. 

17. {o), as 00 in food, but short. 

18. (od), as the French eu in " veuf," tcidower. 

19. (ou), as (21. u), but it occurs in the list with this sound 
only in Proven9al, Franco-Proven9al, French, and their 
dialects. Anywhere else (ou) is (13. 04 21. u). 

20. (ou), as (2. &+21. u), or nearly so. 

21. (u), as 00 in food, but short, except in Proven9aI» 
Franco-Proven9al, French, and their dialects, where (u) is 
(24. u). 

22. (ft), as 00 in good, or nearly so. 

23. {un, um), as French " un," one. 

24. (w), as the French v. 


25. (b, v), as the Spanish b, a continuous bi-Iabial sound, as 
in " haba," bean. 

26. (c), before a, a?, i, o, u, and the consonants, or at the 
end of a word, is generally pronounced as c in calf, but before 
e and t it receives the sound (50. tch) in Italian and its 
dialects, in the Non-Italian dialects of Italy, and in Walla- 
chian ; the sound of (51. th), in Spanish and its dialects and 
in the Portuguese dialects of Spain ; and the sound of a in so, 
anywhere else, including Northern Gal. 

27. (ch) is pronounced as c in calf in Italian and its dialects, 
in the Non-Italian dialects of Italy, and in Wallachian ; as 
(50. tch), in Spanish and its dialects and in the Portuguese 
dialects of Spain ; as the German ch in " nacht," night, in 
Saint. ; and as the English ch anywhere else. 

28. (chj), as a sound intermediate between (50. tch) and 
the palatalized A ; as in Friulano " ras-chje,*' a small bunch of 

29. (dh), as th in the. 

30. (dj), as the English j. 

31. (dz), as the Italian 2 in " la zona,'' the zone. 

32. {dd), as a strong velar dd\ as in Sic. "ariddaru," 

33. (g), as g in go, before a, 0, u, and the consonants, 
but before e and t, as (30. dj), in Italian and its dialects, in 
the Non-Italian dialects of Italy, and in Kutzo- Wallachian ; 
as the German ch in '* nacht," in Spanish and its dialects ; as 
(50. tch), in Valenc. ; as the German guttural continuous g 
in " tage," days, in Saint. ; and as s in pleasure, anywhere 

34. (ghj), as a sound intermediate between (30. dj) and 
the palatalized hard g; as in Temp, "scalughja," a small 
bunch left behind by vintagers. 

35. (gl) before i not followed by a vowel and (gli) before 
any other vowel than % are pronounced as (39. Ih) in Italian, 
its dialects, and Romancse. Anywhere else, as hard g + l. 

36. (h), as the German h, in Gasc, Lorr., Vosg., Mess.^ 
and Wall. Anywhere else it is mute. 

37. (A^), as the Arabian ^ 

Phil. Tranf. 1882-8-4. 19 


38. ( j), as y in yes^ it occurs only in the Italian and Non- 
Italian dialects of Italy ; as the German ch in *' nacht,'* 
in Spanish and its dialects ; as (50. tch), in Yalenc; as the 
German g in '' tage/' in Saint. ; and as 8 in pleasure^ any- 
where else. 

39. (Ih, ly), as the Italian gl in " figli," sons. 

40. (11), as the preceding, but only in Spanish, its dialeotSi 
in the Non-Spanish dialects of Spain, and also frequently in 
French and its dialects. The Italian // is pronounced as a 
strong /, which applies also to the Central and Southern 
Italian. Anywhere else (II) is pronounced as a single /. 

41. {Ic)f as a strong German ch in " nacht." ^ 

42. {Id)y as a strong Manx dental / in "ooyl," apple} 

43. {It), as the strong Welsh // in " colli," to lose. ^ 

44. (w, w) are not pronounced, but the" preceding vowel 
becomes nasal. 

45. (n), as ng in singer. 

46. (nh, ny, ii), as the French gn in **digne," tcorthy. 

47. (s), as 8 in 80, when it does not occur between two 
vowels, in all the words of the list ; and, generally, as the 
English 2, when it does. In a very great number, however, 
of Italian, Tuscan, and Central or even Northern March, 
words, and in all those belonging to the Roman and Southern 
Italian dialects, to Spanish and its dialects, to the Portugueee 
dialects of Spain, to Yalenc, and to Wallachian, 8 occurring 
between two vowels is not pronounced as an English 2, but aa 
8 in so. 

48. (ss), as 5 in so, except in Italian and in its Central and 
Southern dialects, where it is pronounced as a strong voice- 
less 5, as in " osso," hone, 

49. (s)y us the English z, 

50. (tch, tx), as (7/ in child. 

51. (th), as th in thick, 

52. (ts), as the Italian s in "la zappa,'* the spade. 

53. (ty), as a palatalized d\ as in. Beam. " bitatye,*' 

* St'o my ** ("^bsorrations on the pn^nunciation of the Sassarese dialect of 
Saniiuia," in thf ** Tniusactions of tiie SiK-ioty of Cymmrodorion of London." 
Vol. 4, p. 11, lor \lc) aud (//}, audp. 12, for \ld). 


54. (x), as the English sh^ except in Cagl. and Genoese, 
^here it sounds as s in pleasure, 

55. (z), generally, as the English s, but in Italian and its 
<3ialects and the Non-Italian dialects of Italy, as (52. ts) ; and 

in Spanish and in the Portuguese dialects of Spain, as (51. th). 
Jn Northern Gal., however, it is pronounced as « in so, 

56. (s), as (31. dz). 

57. (" ). Tonic accent. These two signs show very often 
^ne and quality of sound at the same time, as in (4. 6 ; 5 d ; 

13. 6; 14.6; 20. on). Whenever they indicate merely the 
tone, they are found expressed in print only : 1°., in the last 
syllable of words ended with a vowel ; 2°., in the last syllable 
but one of words ended with a consonant ; 3°., in the tonic 
syllable of words of more than two syllables. And every word 
bearing no printed accent is understood to have it : 1°., in 
the last syllable of words ended with a consonant; 2°., in 
the last syllable but one of words ended with a vowel. 

These rules do not apply to French and its dialects, where 
the indication of the tonic accent is unnecessary on account 
of the total absence in them not only of proparoxytona, but 
even of real paroxytona. In fact, the numerous French 
Words ended with e bearing no accent are paroxytona for the 
eyes, but real oxytona for the ears. 

68. ("). Long quantity. 

59. ("). Short Latin quantity. (See 3. a). 

Note that double consonants between two vowels are, in 
tbe Non-Italian dialects of Italy, almost always pronounced 
^s if they were written single. 

List of Neo-Latin Words connected with the Vine. 

^1.) Vineyard: a.) An extent of ground planted with vines. 

1. Latin: vineti, *vinia, *palmes; **binea, **vignea, 

**vinera, **vitis, **ceppa, **sarmentum (ace, to. 
Diefenbac/i), saramentum (id.), 

2. Italian : vigna, vigneto, *vignazzo ; Central March, 
cortina {ace, to " Raccolta " ) ; North. Cora, bigna. 

3. Sardinian: Central', binsa ; Smith, hmgio,. 


4. Spanish : vina ; Ast. tnileu. 

5. Portuguese: vinha; Indo- Portuguese: uzera, ouzera, 
vinho, orti, orte, orta. 

7. Gallo- Italic: Berg, egna, igna, vidur, vign61 (jBo* 
mam) ; Bol. vegna ; Romg. *vigii6 ; Farm. vignsD. 

8. Friulano : vignaal, *vigne. 

9. Eomanese : OherL v^gna {ace. to Carigiet) ; Tyr. yig^8&. 

10. Old Provencal : vinha, vinna. 

11. Catalonian: vinya; Vaknc. vinja. 

12. Provencal : vigno ; Lang. Jigno ; Montp, Mgna ; Bay. 

bigne ; Aui\ \igna ; Briv. \egna, 

13. Franco- Provencal : Jur. vena {Saint- Anwur) ; Fourg. 

v'gneu; Loicer VaL yegn'; Vaud.yegna.; Onter.Yiga'; 
South' East. Vosg. vegn' {Vagney) ; v^gn' (irf.). 

14. Old French : vingne, vine, visne. 

15. French: vigne; Berr. *chapo»; Perch, vinn; Upper 
Mane, viwgne ; Champ, viwgg (Marne) ; C/iamp. v^ga 
{Auhe) ; Burg, vegn ; Lorr. viw {Laloeufj^ ' v^na 
(Pexonne), veenn (/V/.), vSnn (id.) ; Vosg. Yin (Le 
ThoIy)y vigneu (Ban-sur-Meurthe), vigni {Moyen^ 
moutier), vegneu (Provencheres), vegni (San/es), v^nhl 
(Vexaincourt); TFall. y'legn, vignoh ; Pic. Yingn; SainL 

16. Wallachian: vie, jie (popularly), via (aec. to the 
Bible), vinia (aec. to SchinnagF) ; Kutzo- Wallachian : 
ginye; Istro -Wallachian : terta. 

(2.) Yineyard : b.) An extent of land laid out in vineyards a.)* 

1. Latin: vinetum ; **biniale, **vignalis, **vignoblum, 

**vinablium, **vinata, **vineale, **vinearium, **vi- 
noatica, **vineatus, **vinena, **vinenea, **vinericia, 
**vineta, **viniale, **vinoblium, **\'inobre, **vino* 

2. Italian: vigneto, *vignaio, *vignato, *vignata; SiV?. 
vignitu, *vignetu, vignali, *vignera, vignazzu; Abr. 
vignal'; Neap, vignalr, vetimraa; Pad. vignale, videgi;; 
Bell, vidig^ ; Rov. vignal. 

3. Sardinian: Central: binsada. 


4. Spanish : vinedo, *veduno, *viduilo, *vidueno. 

5. Portuguese : vinh^do, *viiihar. 

7. Gallo-Italic ; Mil. vidor; Berg, vidur, vigfn61 (jBo- 
mano) ; Parnu vid6ur. 

8. Friulano : vignaal. 

10. Old Provencal: vinnal, *vinnar, vinher, *vinhier, 
vinayres, *vinare8. 

11. Catalonian : rinyer, rinyar, *rinyet, riny^ial ; Valenc. 
vinyedo, vinyedo, *vinyero ; M(y\ viny^t. 

12. PROVEN9AL: vignoble, vigneiredo, vignar^s; Lang. 

Mgneiredo ; Tout. 6ign^, Jign^s ; B4am. Mtaty^ ; 
Central Roiierg. Wgnouople, *Mgnople, Signal (Saint' 
Oeniez) ; Auv. pa;j. 

13. Franco-Provencal : Lower Dauph, vignoblou ; Vaud. 
Vgnoublho, v'noublho, v'gnoladzo, vignoladjo ; South- 
Last. Vosg, vignob*. 

14. Old French : vignou, vignoy, vignau, vigno, vignole, 
vignol, vigneul, P vignon. 

15. French : vignoble ; Berr. vinobl, *cuvaj. 

16. TTallachian : Viet (ace. to Bobb), vinet [id.). 

{3.) A plantation of vines made up of several portions of land. 
1. Latin; **complanatum, **complanctum, **complan- 

5. Portuguese: bacelladr?. 
15. French : complant ; Poif. pliant^. 

{4.) A district of vineyards. 

15. French : Berr. ba/m^e, banni. 

(5.) A farm formed of vineyards held on condition of the 
proprietor's receiving some portion of the produce. 
15. French : Mess, mou^tross. 

{{).) A plantation of young vines. 

1. Latin : novellctum; **planterium, **maleollu8, **mal- 
lieolus, **malholiu8, **malhollium, **maliolus, **mal- 
leoUus, **malliolus, **malloliu8, **vinale, **vinhale, 
**malones^;/., malhones, ^y/., malolem acciis. 

272 WORDS FOR THE ^^NE. — prince l.-l. bonapartb. 

2. Italian : Tar. past'n. 

4. Spanish : majuelo, *6acillar, *tacelar. 

5. Portuguese: b^c^Ilo. 

11. Catalonian : mdWola, niflryolflr, inalloly mayol ; Maj\ 

12. Provencal : planti^, plantado ; Lang, malhol, planti^, 
*plaN ; C^v. malhaou, malhoou, *inalhou, •mayou ; 
Montp. plantada ; Ga^c. planto ; Central Rouerg. 
plontado, *plonti6, *ploN, plontou, inolhouoly *molhol. 

13. Franoo-Proven^al : Jur. plaiit^e ; Bivij. tchapouoar. 

14. Old French : mailhol, malhol, mailole. 

15. French : *plantat ; Poit. pUawtt. 

(7.) A nursery-ground of vines. 
1. Latin : vltiarium. 
7. Gallo-Italic: jRo/w^jt. vid^ra. 
12. Proven^'al : Central Rouerg. plontado, *plonti6. 
15. French : mesa, pipinn ; Lower Mane, poupinierr {acc^ 
to Lor rain). 

(8.) An enclosed vineyard. 
15. French : Berr. ina. 

(9.) A vineyard all in one portion. 
15. French : Saint, pyawtl, pya;/tilt. 

(10.) A detached portion of a vineyard. 
15. French : Berr. 6»car. 

(11.) Vineyard of which the rows are laid out in trellises. 
4. Spanish : tocelar, *Aacillar. 
7. Gallo-Italic : Picm. autiN. 

(12). A vineyard laid out after the fashion of " garnet " vine- 
15. French : Champ, gami^rr {Aiibe), 

(13.) A vineyard upon a hill. 
7. Gallo-Italic : Mil. rowch. 


16. Wallachian : d^al, podgorie, podgoriS {ace. to Pont- 
bn'ant), viet {ace. to Bobb)^ yinet {id,). 

(14.) Vineyards upon hills {coll.). 
7. Gallo- Italic : Mil. roncaja. 

(15.) Vineyards upon hillsy laid out in terraces of steps 

7. Gallo-Italic : Mil. roricaja ; Com. rowch. 

8. Friulano : roNch. 

15, French : Ang. chapio. 

(16.) A place where male vines grow. 
1. Latin : masculetum. 

(17.) A plantation of undressed vines abounding with shoots. 
4. Spanish : 5acelar, *Sacillar. 

(18.) A vineyard of wild vines. 
12. PROVEN9AL : Civ. lambrusqui^iro, 

(19.) Vine : The plant which produces grapes. 

1. Latin: vltis, *vln<?a, *palmes, *uva; **trelhia, **ceppa. 

2. Italian : vite, *vigna ; Central March^ ite {Fahriano) ; 
North. Cora, bita ; Sana, viddi ; Sic. viti ; Tar. cipp5n ; 
Neap, vito; Ven. vida ; Vic. visela; Rov. guida. 

3. Sardinian: Central: bide, *bin3a; South, sermentu, 

*sarmentu, idi {in some places), 

4. Spanish : vid, *parra, *vina ; Ast. ride. 

5. Portuguese^ videira, vid^, *vinha ; Indo-Portuguese : 

vinha, vide, vida. 

7. Gallo-Italic : Mil. vit ; Berg, it, viit, Crem. ida ; 
Bol. vid ; Romg. vida ; Farm, vidae ; Fi^dm. vis, vi. 

8. Friulano : vid, vit ; Triest. wi. 

9. Romanese : Oberl. vit ; Tyr. vigna). 

10. Old Provencal : vit. 

11. Catalonian : cep, *rinyfl, parra ; MaJ. ce^. 

12. Provencal : vigno, vigna {Nimes) ; Lang. Jigno ; 
Montp. Signa ; Oasc. bit ; Bay. ou6^ ; Lower Lim. 
trelho ; Auv. vigna ; Briv. vegna. 


13. Franoo-Proten^al : Bress. cepa ; Iburg. v'gnea ; 

Lovcer Vol, v^gn'; Vaud. vi ; South^East Voag, vegn* 
( Vagney), Tegn' {id.). 

14. Old French : vit, *vingne, *vine, *vi8ne. 

15. French : Tigne; Perch, vinn ; Upper Mane. Tingne ; 

Champ, viwgg {Marne) ; Champ, v^gn {Auhe) ; Marv, 
viwgn ; Burg, vegn ; Lorr. vi« {Lakcu/)^ v^nn 
{Pexonne)y veenn (id.), venn (id.); Vosg. ve» {Le 
Tlioly)^ vigneu {Ban-sur-Meurthe), Tigni (Moyen^ 
mouiicr)^ vegneu (Ptvrcftch^res)^ vegni {Saales)^ venhi 
( Vexaincaftrt) ; WalL vignob ; Pic. vangn ; Saint, vegn. 

16. Wallachian: vitsSi, jiteSi {popularly) yTitae {ace. f4>Bobb)f 

vie {ace. to the Bible)^ viS {id.) ; Kutzo- Wallachian : 
gite ; Idr(h Wallachian : ruje, braids, bro&id^ vinyaL 

(20.) Quality and kind of vine. 

2. Italian : '\'itigno, *vizzato ; Sienn. vitazzo ; Neap. 
vetimmff ; Vcn. '\dgnal. 

4. Spanish : vedufio, *viduno, *vidueno. 

5. Portuguese : vidonho. 

7. Gallo-Italic : Mil. vidor ; Com. vidoo ; Berg, vidur ; 
Bol. vidour ; Romg. vdez, *videz, vid^r, videra. 

14. Old French: cepage. 

15. French : *cepage ; Berr. vii«, cupin ; Saint, visan 

{ace. to Jon a In.). 

(21.) Quantity of vines. 

2. Italian : Ten. vignal ; Vic. vignale. 
7. Gallo-Italic: Mil. \iior; Com.\idbo; Berg, xidur; 
Bol. vidour; Romg. vdez, *videz, videra. 

(22.) Tines arranged quincuneially. 
12. PRovENrAL : platissado. 

(23.) A shrublike vine. 
1. Latin: ** nee (51.). 

(24.) A vine keeping itself up by the twining of its branches. 
14. Olu Fkknch : trexe. 


-16. Wallachian : deal, podgorie, podgoria {ace. to Pant- 
bn'arU), viet (ace, to Bohh)^ vinet (id,). 

-4.) Vineyards upon hills (coll.). 
7. Gallo-Italic : Mil, ro/tcaja. 

^.) Vineyards upon hills, laid out in terraces of steps 

7. Gallo-Italic : Mil, rowcaja ; Com. rowch. 

8. Friulano : roNch. 
15. French : Ang. chapio. 

.6.) A place where male vines grow. 
1. Latin : masciiletum. 

-l7.) A plantation of undressed vines abounding with shoots. 
4. Spanish : />acelar, *6acillar. 

. 38.) A vineyard of wild vines. 

12. Provencal : Cei\ lambrusquieiro. 

^19.) Vine : The plant which produces grapes. 

1. Latin: vltis, *vlneji, *palme8, *nva; **trelhia, **ceppa. 

2. Italian: vite, *vigna ; Central March^ ite (Fabriano); 
North. Cors. bita ; Saf<s, viddi ; Sic. viti ; Tar. cipp6n ; 
Neap, vita ; Ven. vida ; Vie. visela ; Bov, guida. 

3. Sardinian: Central: bide, *binsa ; South. sermentu> 

*sarmentu, idi {in some places). 

4. Spanish: vid, *parra, *viria; Ast. tide. 

5. Portuguese : videin/, vid^, *vinhrt ; Indo- Portuguese : 

vinha, vide, vida. 

7. Gallo-Italic : Mil. vit ; Berg, it, viit, Crem. ida ; 
Bol. vid ; Bomg. vida ; Parm. video ; Piedm. vis, vi. 

8. Friulano : vid, vit ; Triest. wi. 

9. Romanese : OberL vit ; Tyr. vigncc. 

10. Old Provencal : vit. 

11. Catalonian : cep, ^vinya, parra ; Maj\ c^p. 

12. Provencal : vigno, vigna (Nimes) ; Lang, ftigno ; 

Montp. Wgna ; Gasc. bit ; Bay. ou6^ ; Loicer Lim. 
trelho ; Auv. vign« ; Briv. \egna. 


12. Provencal : aoatinado, *ooutiiiado ; Lang. trelh& ; 

Gaftc. trilhado; Central Rouerg. trelhat, •trelhadje; 

North. Rouerg. trilhat {Entrat/gueij. 
15. French : Berr. trillaj, trillaj, *tr^illaj ; Champ, lias 

(Aube), pa/ino (id.). 

(27.) A vine climbing a wall or a tree. 

1. Latin : pergillanS ; **pergula, ♦•camborta. 

4. Spanish : parra. 

5. Portuguese : pTrrSir^. 

6. Genoese : Ment. traja. 

11. Catalonian : parra. 

12. Provencal : trelho, trelha {Nimes)^ trey on {Arks) ; 

Lang, trelho ; Gasc. trilho ; Anv. treglha. 

13. FRANCO-PRovExrAL : Loiccr Dauph. trelh'. 

14. Old French : treix, traix, chambry {ace. to Lorrain), 
charobord {id,). 

15. French: treille; Berr. trill, trill&j, trillaj, tr^illaj, 

cbad^enn ( JVest) ; Champ, otin {Aube), iitin {id.) ; 
Morr. rajignee {neighbourhood of Avallon) ; Lorr. 
chawibre {Allain) ; Mess, cha/wbri, ch&bri {Rimilly) ; 
Ard. chabli. 

(28.) A vine growing on props. 

2. Italian : broncone {ace. to Manuzzi) ; Neap, ten- 
necehia ; Ven. tirdla. 

7. Oallo-Italtc : Romg. tirela {Lnola) ; Piac. tirftx. 
15. French : Berr. jouel. 

(29.) Vines growing on props {coll.). 

2. Italian : broncone {ace. to Manuzzi). 
12. Provencal: *cavaliero. 

(30.) A vino climbing over very high props. 

14. Old French : hautaigne. 

(31.) A vine growing on props parallel to the ground. 

15. French : Champ, fourch (Marne), grapillon {id.) ; 

Champ. 6chamm {Aube), echam^ {id.) 


.) A vine-trellis. 

1. Latin : pergula, trichilS, *trichflum, *tricla, ♦tricleS, 
♦tricUS; **trelia, **trigila, **trigula, **trilia, **trilla, 
**trillia, **parrale, **topia. 

2. Italian : pergola, *pergolato, *pergolaria ; Temp. 

trigghja ; Sa^s. parrali ; Sic, preula, pergula ; Tar. 
prev'l ; Neap, preola, pregola, prevolrt. 

3. Sardinian : Central : pergula, triga, trija, *tricla ; 
North, parra, parrali. 

4. Spanish: parral. 

5. Portuguese : parrSiral. 

6. Genoese : angi6u, teupia, *topia ; Ment. traja. 

7. Gallo-Italic : Mil. topia, pelgora ; JRomg. pergula ; 
Ferr, pergula ; Farm, paergolao ; Fiac. t6ppia ; Fav. 

8. Friulano : piergule, piargule. 

10. Old Provencal : treilla, *trelha, *trilla. 

11. Catalonian : parral, *trilk. 

12. PR0VEN9AL: trelho, trelha (Nimes), treyou (Aries), 

aoutiN, *ooutiN, *fielagno, *fieragno, filagno (Var), 
baN pL (Hierea), baNc pi. (id.) ; Lang, trelho ; Oasc. 

13. Franco-Provencal: Lower JDauph. trelh.' ; Lower Val. 

14. Old French : troille, traille, treuUe, trelle. 

15. French: treille ; Berr. chad^enn {West) \ Saint. 

(26.) Several vine-trellises united together. 

1. Latin: **pergolatus, **trilhatum. 

2. Italian : pergolato, *pergoleto ; Sic. priulatu, pir- 

gulatu, pergulatu ; Tar. privulit ; Ven. pergold. 

4. Spanish : emparrado. 

5. Portuguese : latada. 

7. Gallo-Italic : Mil. topiaa, pelgoraa ; Com. topiada ; 
£ol. pergolat ; Fegg. pergleda ; Romg. pergulSt ; 
Farm. pa3rgola ; Fav. tupia. 
11. Catalonian : emparrat ; Valenc. emparrat. 


13. Provencal : aoutiQado, 'ooutinado ; Lang, trelhi ; 

Qane. trilbado; Central Roucrg. trelhat, tralhadje; 

North. Rouerg. trilhat {Entrai/guen). 
15. French : Serr. trilliij, trilliij, •tr^illaj ; Champ. l^H 

{Aube), panno {id.). 

(27.) A vine climbing a wall or a tree. 

1. Latin: pergilluDfi; •■pergula, ••camborta. 

4. Spanish : parra. 

5. Portuguese: pflrrfiirn. 

6. Genoese : Ment. traja. 

11. Catai.onian : parra. 

12. Proten^ai. : trelho, trelha {Nlmea), tr^you {Arka) ; 

XiTftf^. trelho ; ffiwc. trilho ; Anr. tK^\ia. 

13. Franco- Provencal : Loicer Daiiph. ireW . 

14. Oi.o French : treix, traix, chambry {ace. to Lot-rain), 
chambord {id.). 

15. French : treille ; Berr. trill, trill&j, trillaj, tr^illaj, 
chad^enn ( Went) ; Champ, otiw {Aul>e), utin {id.) ; 
MotT. riijigDee (neighbourhood of Avallon) ; Lorr. 
chafjibr^ (Alliiin) ; Mess. cha»ibri, ch&bri {RfmiUy) ; 
Ard. chabli. 

(28.) A vine growing on props, 

2. Italian : broncono (wcc. to ManuzzC) ; Neap, tea- 
necchin ; Yen. tir^la. 

7. Gallo-Itai.ic : Roing. tirela {Imola) ; Piac. tiriw, 
15. French ; Ben: jouel. 

(20.) Vines growing on props {eoll.). 

2. Italian : broncone {ace. to Manuzzi). 
12. Provenpal : *cavuliero. 

(30.) A vino climbing over very high props, 

14. Old French : hautaigne. 

(31.) A vine growing on -opa parallel to the grownd. 

15. frehch: c/ fifBintiiHftnii ernpiiion < 

Champ, ia 


(32.) A straight and long row of vines held together by 
stakes and poles. 
2. Italian: anguillare; Sasa. bklini; Tar. impalat ; 

Rov. bina. 
S. Sardinian : Central : 6rdine ; South giuali. 
7. Gallo-Italic : Berg, trosa ; Bresc. filii, tiradur ; Bol, 
alva ; Regg, pergl^ ; Rotng. laz^ra ; Farm, tiradeo ; 
Par. topiao; Pied, taragna, filagn, *filagna, wssa {a 
country icord), 
1 4. Old French : bairigne. 

5. French : Bcrr. jouel^e ; Ard. b^rign. 

•) Two or more straight and long rows of vines held 

together by stakes and poles. 
2. Italian : pancata ; Sienn. anguillare, anguillaccio. 
7. Gallo- Italic : Breac. palada ; Mod. pruvana ; Romg. 

laz^ra ; Mant. tirela ; Parm. filagn. 
i3. Franco - Provencal : Vaud. utiw pi. {Coppet)^ oiin 

'- {id.). 

^•^.) Vine carried along from tree to tree. 

1. Latin: rumpus, triidux, fiiniFtum ; **travices pi. 

2. Italian : arbuscello {ace, to Manuzzi), *arbuscella (/t/.), 

*arbucello {id.), *arbucella {id.) ; Country Tuncan (ace. 
to Mattioli) : pert^ola {near Florence) ; tira ( Valdnrno) ; 
salciaia ( Valdiehiana) ; tralciaia {JIugello) ; trecciaia 
{Valdinin'ole); ritbrtsL {Ca.sentino), catena, {id.); pondia 
{Vcrsiglia) ; 7 V.v. peiidugliola {ace. to id,); Lueeh. pen- 
dana; Central March, carneali pi. (Fabriano), tirate 
pi. {id.) ; Ven. tirela. 

7. G ALLO- Italic : Tic.vom^; Bol, hin^iwm; J/b^/. tirela; 
Romg. tire, tirela {Imola). 

8. Friulano: trauli. 

C35.) A place planted with vines carried along from tree 
to tree. 
1. Latin: rumpotinctum. 
7. Gallo-Italic : Piac. filagn ; Pav, vidur. 


(50.) An- uncaltivated old yine. 
2. Italian : Sic. Titusa. 

(51.) A wild vine. 

1. Latin: **labru8ca, **labru8ta, **labu8tra, **laberoaca, 

**labro8ca (all f re ako occurring, as tcell as lambnuca^ 
ace. to Diefenbachy in the sense of (8, 23, 52, 177, 179, 

2. Italian : Bell. vidisoN. 

4. Spanish : la&rusca, parriza, *parron. 

5. Portuguese: l^brusca. 

10. Old Provencal : labrusca, lambrusqnieira. 

11. Catalonian : ll(nnftrus<w ; Valenc. parrissa. 

12. Provencal : lambrusco, lambniscou (Aries), embmsoa 

(Ninics), *lambriisquiero, treilhiero, eigrassiero, bedi- 
gana (Nhncs) ; Nig. bedigana ; Upper Dauph. law- 
brutso; Lang. lam&ruisso, lamiresqui^iro, trelhdiro; 
Cer. lambrusquieiro ; Mont p. lam^^rusca ; Lower Lim. 
lom^rustso; Eouerg. Jit-haougue (ace. to Azdis). 

13. Franco-Provencal : Jar. la/;ibrutsa, lambritsa ; Lower 

Dauph. lawbrusca ; Franc, laiiibrutch', lambritch'. 

14. Old French : lambrunche. 

15. French : *lambruche, *lambrusque, *lambrot, •la- 
brusque ; Berr. law/breuch, e;/?briweh (Lere), embranch 
(iiL)y viann, vigann ( Went.), vicann (id.) ; Upi>er Manic, 
lawibreuche, lawbru;i ; Poit. resinett. 

16. AVallachian : curpene. 

(N.B. — The Latin labrusca, liibniscum, and tJiC Italian 
lambrusca, *lunibruseo, •laiubruzza, do not mean so much "a 
\rild vine," a^i a peculiar kind of it.) 

(52.) A large wild vine. 
1. Latin : **soe (-31.). 

(53.) Wood loft by a vine-dresser after cutting the vine. 
13. FRAN(\)-rROVFNCAL : Gcn. portcur. 
15. French: *oource. 


(54.) The dead wood of a vine. 

12. Provencal: Lang, aouqixet; C^rs^r. souquilhou, souqail. 

(56.) A vine-root, 

16. French: Champ, cour^ {Atibe). 

(66.) Vine-roots {coll.). 

16. French : Mess, hhou^ill. 

(57.) Roots of the vine remaining underground after the 
vineyard has been pulled up. 
2. Itauan : Tar. vitus. 

(68.) The filaments of the roots of the vine. 
15. French : Champ, chevlu [Manie). 

(69.) A vine-branch. 

1. Latin : sarmentum, *duramen, *durumentum, palmes, 
•palma ; **saramentum, **sarmenta, **8erraen8, 
**traucis, **tranix, **tranex, **trance. 

2. Italian : sermento, *8armeuto, *8ermente, tralcio, 
*tralce ; Central March, sciarmiento (Fabriano) ; Sass. 
sermentu; Sic. sarmentu; Neap, chiaccone, tennecchia ; 
Pad. tirela (ace. to Patriarchi) ; Ver. tiroN ; BelL 
ref6s ; Rov. monzina. 

3. Sardinian: Central: sermentu, *8armentu, bidighinisu ; 

South pertia. 

4. Spanish : sarmiento. 

5. Portuguese : s^rm^wto, vid^ ; Qal. sarmento, gromo, 


6. Genoese : puassa ; Ment. traja. 

7. Gallo-Italic : Mil. tr6«, mkvzn. {Upper Mil.); Com. 
vidascia ; Berr/. mader ; Bresc, sermeta, tr6sa ; Bol. 
sermeiwt, sarraeiwt ; Mod, pl6oN ; Regg. ploN ; Romg. 
sarraewt, *serme/it, cadnaza {a country word) ; Mant, 
ma^dar, graspa ; Parm. majder, majdersanaj ; Piac. 
parfil ; Piedm. s^rmenta, *8armenta, meil, *meir, m^*^, 
majeul, *majeu ; Vald. sarmanta, ma^. 


8. Friulano: vidizc^N. 

10. Old Provencal : serment, *ei8ermen, ^issermen, 

11. Catalonian : s«rmdnt, *8prment; Fa/(^(;. eixarment, 
•sarment; MaJ. sarment. 

12. Provencal : avis, vis, *vise, *vi8i, *avf, sarmeiN, 
einsirmeiN, gaVel {Nlmcs)^ paraNgouN, *paravoaN; 
Upper Dauph. vi; Lang, ftis, ftise, Wsi, aJit, ^aMs, 
sarmeN, eissirraeN *8ermew, *is8ermeN, *ei8ermeN ; 
TouJ, eisserraeN ; Agin, ensirmeN ; Oasc. oharmex^ 
eicharmeN, *gaouero : Bianu chermcN ; Loicer Lim. 
sirmcN ; Central lionerg, *goHs ; Am, parasoti. 

13. FRANcx)-PRovKNrAL : • -Bn'.sA?. sarmaw; N^eiif. sdrm' 
{North- Eastern Vignohle) ; Loicer Dauph, sarmaiita* 

14. Old French : serment. 

15. Frknch : sarment ; Berr, cb<?, *ma ; Lorr, sarmott 

(Dowgennain), mann (Landremont) ; Mopitb, serman ; 
Walt, vi ; Pic, gavel ; Saint. essarmcM, essermen. 

16. Wallachtan : vits«1, jitsft (popalarlf/), vitse (ace, to 

Botil)\ cop {ace, to Frolh), vlilstar, vlllstare (ace, to 
'* Lexicon"), vliijar, ciirpen (ace. to Ci/tac), odrjto 
{id')f curpcne (id.), curpenJl (id,), 

(60.) Vine-bran oh OS (cot/,), 

2, Italian : Central March, poderi pi, (Fabriano) ; Tar. 

*capidd pi, (onli/ used in the locution " in capidd**). 
5. Portuguese : vidonho. 

7. Gallo-Ttalic: Mil, tro^ada; Com, troscla; Romg. 
vidora; Piedm. mrlaja (ace, to ^* Psal. 80-11," UdL 
13. Franco-Provexcal : Vaud, boulai, boulay\ 
15. French: Zo;t. fehhatt ;;/. (Mailly), 

(61.) Vine-branches cut to the size of the vine (coll.), 
15. French : More, javal. 

(62.) The chief branch of a vine. 

1. Latin : rCsex, custos, sagitta, poUex. 


2. Italian : sa^ppolo, sa^ttolo, *guardia ; Sienn. saetta ; 

Tar. pedar61 ; Abr. r^s'ch*, scarpetta ; Ven, supioN, 

matoN ; jRai\ sgarz, garz. 
4. Spanish : perchon. 
7. Gallo-Italic : Mil. popolanna ; Bresc. trap^l ; Farm, 


11. Catalonian: pistok, *p61z6. 
15. French : Mess, mariiw. 

(63.) A strong vine-branch, capable of bearing from seven to 
eight buds. 
15. French : Ang, couest. 

(64.) A vine-branch cut shorter than the other. 

12. Provencal : souquilhouN. 

(65.) A vine-branch growing from a new one and hanging 
attached to the soft part. 

1. Latin : materia, materies. 

(66.) A vine-branch grown at the base of the vine. 

2. Italian : viticcio, vignu61o ; Central March, roccetta 

(ace. to " Raccolta *') ; Ven. troza. 
7. Gallo-Italtc : Bol. ploun. 

(67.) A vine-branch turned bow-wise, with the top set in 
the ground. 

1. Latin : mcrgus, *candosoccus. 

2. Italian : capogatto, *mergo. 

4. Spanish : codadura. 

7. Gallo-Italic : Bresc, gobada ; Piedm. cugi6ira. 
11. Catalonian : capficat, toria, colgat. 

14. Old French : marcot, margoute, margote, marguotte, 
planteis, planteir. 

15. French : Berr. jacol, Jacob ; Champ, ployan (Marne) ; 
Lorr. beuildiw {Domgermain)^ caiw (Allain). 

(68.) A vine-branch containing many bunches. 

5. Portuguese : Berc. carrena. 

13. Franco-Provencal : For. vilouw. 

FhU. TraxiB. 1882-3-4. 20 


(69.) A vine-branch covered with buds. 

3. Sardinian : South. carriadr5xa. 

4. Spanish : Arag. alargadera. 

(70.) A vine-branch with its leaves. 
2. Italian : Ven. pdmpano. 

6. Genoese : psimpanu, *pampinu. 

7. Gallo-Italic : Romg. pde^tpan, *p8Diwpen. 

10. Old PR0VEN9AL : pampol. 

12. Provencal : pampo ; Upper Dauph. vi ; Lang. *pam- 
pre ; Upper Beam, pampod ; Lower Lim. *moa80 ; 
Central Rouerg, pompo, *pouompe, *painpe, ^espampe, 
*romo, *ramo ; Auv. pampr^. 

13, Franco-Provencal : For. bran. 

15. French : pampre. 

16. Wallachl\n: curpen {ace. to Cihac)^ curj^n (irf.), 
curpene {id.) curpen^ {id.). 

(71.) A thin and barren vine-branch grown on the lower 
part and near the trunk of the vine. 

4. Spanish: jerpa. 

5. Portuguese : Oal. xerpa. 

7. Galix)-Italic : Valt. rbgnepl. 

11. Catalonian: padrastrc. 

(72.) A cut vine-branch. 

7. Gallo-Italic : Com. vidascia. 

(73.) Cut vine-branches {coll.). 

7. Gallo-Italic : Vait. vidiscion. 

(74.) A vine-branch transplanted with its roots. 

2. Italian: barbatella; Sie?m. barbatello; Central Marek* 
barbato {Fabriano) ; Sic. varvotta, *barbotta ; Nea^. 

4. Spanish: Jar/>ado, *5arftudo. 

5. Portuguese : Oal. 2>ar2>ada. 


7. Gallo-Italic : Mil. rdsol, rasas, magnce {a country ^ 
word) ; Berg, roersur, roersA ; Bresc, predessa ; £oL 
tajol ; liegg, tratora ; Romg. caviluta, *cavluda ; Piac. 
pruvaneiN ; Piedm. barbat^la, capuM. 

12. Provencal: barb^ {Valemole)^ courbe {Les Mies) \ 

Tipper Bauph. barba ; Lang, barbot, ftarJiot ; TouL 
Jar^oulat ; Lower Lim. couidzodi, *ior6ado ; Central 
Rouerg, Joriudo. 

13. Fraxco-Pro VENIAL : -For. barbie; <?^. barbua; Vaud. 

barbuva, barbua. 

14. Old French : chevelue. 

15. French: eautelle ; PoeY. ch'volur; Sam^ ch'vlu. 

(75.) A bundle ef vine-branches. 

1. Latin: **javella, **gavellijt?/. 

6. Genoese : Ment, gavele pi. 

7. Gallo-Italic : Mir, vlup, *vidoN ; Parm. vidsDroQl. 
12. Provencal : gaveou, Mjaveou ; Lang, gaftel ; Civ. 

*bi8e ; Lower Lim. dzovelo ; Central Rouerg. monoul, 
go^elo {Millau) ; South Rouerg. gotel {Nant) ; Querc. 
15. French: javelle; Poit. jaYelon (Ifiort) ; Saint. ja,Yel. 

76.) A bundle of vine-branches with the grapes hanging 
to them. 

2. Italian : p^nzolo, pendolo ; Sic. p^nnula ; Tar. 
privular ; Neap, piennole ; Ten. picagia, rozzada. 

3. Sardinian : Central: pesu, appesile, pesile (Ooceano) ; 

South, appicc6ni. 

6. Genoese : pendessa. 

7. Gallo-Italic : Mil. r6sch, fiocch (a country tcord), 
fiocchet (id.), mazzet (id.) ; Berg. r6a, trosa (ace. to 
Zappettini) ; Br esc, pica j a, pendoes; Regg. ulz; Parm. 
uls, *ro« ; Piac. rcozz. 

8. Friulano : rawezz, arwezz, riw^zz. 

11. Catalonian : p^^njoy, *penjoll; Valenc. pentzoU: 
Mqj. penj6y. 


12. Provencal : cargueto, mouissino, yisado, *trelheto ; 
Nig. Tisada ; Lang, andot, Aisado ; Oasc. ^mouisseno; 
Central Rouerg, pigno, *pino, *pinyo, *pm61, *cargo- 

14. Old French : moessine, moisine, mainnesine {ace. to 


15. French : moissine ; Tour, niosill ; Berr. moussiDn^ 
moui/isinn, mousslinn ; WalL ploy. 

16. Wallachian : visla {ace. to Codresco). 

(77.) A packet consisting of several bundles of vine-branches- 
with the grapes hanging to them. 
12. Provencal : Central Rouerg. pin^lo. 

(78.) Twelve bundles of vine-branches tied with a withe. 
15. French : Saint, javel. 

(79.) A small bundle of vine-branches. 

15. French : Morv. z^val {part of Morvmi niveniais). 

(80.) A small bundle of vine-branches roughly representing^ 
a child coiflFed with a biggin. 
15. French : Saitit. beyinn. 

(81.) An old hardened vine-branch. 
1. Latin : drSco, juniculus. 

4. Spanish : serpa. 

5. Portuguese : GaL serpa. 

7. Gallo- Italic : Mil. bernardow. 
11. Catalonian: t?erguer. 

(82.) A dry vine-brancb. 

1. Latin : sarmentum. 

2. Italian: sermento, *8arraento, *aerraente; Si^. sar* 
■ mentu; Neap, chiaccone; Rov. sarmewta. 

5. Portuguese : sarm^nto ; Gal. t-ides pi. 

6. Genoese : puassa. 


7. Gallo-Italic: Mil. trda; Berg.6^rmed€L{Valie Imagna); 
Bresc, tr68a, sermeta ; BoL sermeint, sarmeiwt ; Mod. 
vlop; Bomg. sarmewt, *8ermewt, cadnaza {a country/ 
word); ManL maedar; Piedm. s^rmenta, ^sarmenta; 
Vald. sarmanta. 

XO. Old Provencal: serment, *ei8ermen, *is8ermen. 

l2. Provencal : avis, vis, *vise, *visi, *avi, sarmeiN, 
einsirmeiN, gavel {Nlmes) ; Lang. 6is, ftise, iisi, aftit, 
*abis, sarmeN, eissirmeN, *8ermeN, *i8sermeN, *ei8er- 
meN ; Toul. eissermeN ; Agin. ensirmeN ; Gasc. char- 
ineN, *eicharmeN, *gaouero ; BSarn, chermoN ; Lower 
Lim, sirmeN ; Central Bouerg. Jitch, *bit, *6its, *oftise, 
oiit (Mi/hu), *obic (id.), *a6ise, *goftit. 

13. Franco-Provencal : Bress. sarmafi. 

14. Old French : serment. 

15. French : sarment. 

16. Wallachian : vitsS, jitsU {popularly)^ vitse {ace. to. 
Bobb), cep {ace. to Frotio), surcea (acc. to Vailiant), 
surcel {ace. to " Lexican "), gStej {ace. to the Bible). 

(^83.) A bundle of dry vine-branches. 
2, Italian : Rov. sarmenta. 
7. Gallo-Italic : Regg. vidoN. 
15. French : Berr. beurtt, burtt. 

(84.) A dead vine-branch used for the purpose of joining 
the extremities of two young vine-shoots. 
7. Gallo-Italic : Mil. posca {Brianza). 

(85.) Vine-branches of the wild vine. 
15. French : Poit. treuillaj. 

(86.) A flexible branch of a wild vine. 
12. Provencal : Lang, iissano. 

{87.) The portion of the vine-branch of the preceding year, 
remaining after the vine has been pruned. 
12. PR0VEN9AL : cargo, cornovi ; Central Reuerg. ouoftro, 
*oJro, *courrotcho, courredjo {Montbazens). 


15. French : *vi6te,. *viette ; Berr. ar9ow, piq-en-t^r ; 
Champ, arc (Manie), courgfee (id,) ; Champ, pliofi 
{Aube)i ployow {id.); Ang. archfi, dag {Beaufort)^ 
couran {id.). 

(88.) The tip of a vine-branch. 

1. Latin: flSgellum. 

2. Italian : Sienn. cacchio. 

5. Portuguese : piwp61ho, g6mo, gommo ; Oal. (acSlo. 
7. Gallo- Italic : Mil. garsoe ; Farm. pl6uN ; Piedm^ 

10. Old Provencal: flagel. 

12. PROVEN9AL : aparouN, apanouN. 
15. French: 2?^rr. vargou; Champ, hrou {Marne); Champ. 
tal {Aube) ; Mess, m&viin {Rimilhj) ; Poit. pooss. 

(89.) • The extremities of the vine-branches all together. 

2. Italian : capaia {only used in the locution " a capaia '* ). 

(90.) The tip of the vine-branch remaining on the vine-stook 
after pruning. 
4. Spanish: saeta. 

11. Catalonian : galet. 

(91.) A vine-shoot. 
1. Latin: pampYnus. 

3. Sardinian : South. pud6ni, ca6udiana. 

4. Spanish : p&mpano. 

5. Portuguese: p&rapano. 

6. Genoese : ptlmpanu, *pi]lmpinu. 

7. Gallo-Italic : Bresc. trosa. ; Crem. mader, madirol ; 
Romg. pjfcwpan, *pa);;ipen ; Farm. pl6uN, 8pT6aK ; 
Piedm. brumbu. 

11. Catalonian : *r(?dolta ; Min. p&mpol. 

(92.) A cutting of a vine. 

15. French: Lorr. mijonj {Landremont). 


(93.) Remains of the pruning of the vine (coll.). 
15. French : More, javal. 

(94.) Abundance of vine-shoots. 
4. SpanIvSh : pampanaje. 
11. Catalonian : pampolada. 

(95.) Second shooting of the vine. 

13. Franco-Provencal : Lower Vah r'byolon. 

(96.) Vine-shoots united and following the direction of a row 
of plants. 
7. Gallo-Italic : Piac. parfiL 

(97.) Braided vine-shoots (cOlL). 

2. Italian : Central March, cortina (acc» to a private and 

reliable informant), 
7. Gallo- Italic : Com. trbsa; Bresc. trossL. 

(98.) A vine-shoot tied to a small stake. 
7. Gallo-Italic : Mil. trbs ; Com. tr6sa. 

(99.) A vine-shoot growing between two vine-branches. 
2. Italian : Tar. custarol. 

(100.) A vine- shoot with bunches, cut off from the vine. 
15. French : Mess, mennch^e. 

(101.) A vine-shoot with two bunches, cut off from the vine. 
2. Italian : Bell, zempede. 

(102.) A brittle young vine-shoot. 
13. Franco-Provencal: Oen. bro. 

(103.) A sterile vine-shoot. 
1. Latin : racemarius. 

(104.) The juice of the vine-shoots. 
4. Spanish: pampanada. 


(105.) A bundle consisting of a few vine-shoote. 
2. Italian : Pad, tirSla. 

(106.) A vine-shoot cut down to two eyes. 
15. French : Berr, art^, arte, pouss6. 

(107.) A vine-shoot cut down to two, three, or four eyes. 
2. Italian : cursoncello, *bazzu61o, *sagoncSllo ; Tor. 
test ; Ven, rdsolo ; Ter. cacch-j. 

4. Spanish : pulgar. 

5. Portuguese : polkg&r. 

7. Gallo-Italic : Mil. c&ved {Upper Mil.) : Bol. sgduii; 
Farm. spr6uN. 

11. Catalonian : firocadfl ; Valenc. breed, brocada. 

12. Proven^^al: cargo, cornovi, escoue, pourtadour; Cfen- 

tral Rouerg. conot. 
15. French : coursou, coursonne, *billon ; Berr. vaij, 
*verj, corne, courj ; Champ, course ; Poit. broch. 

(108.) A layer of a vine. 

1. Latin: propugo, propages; **propagatio, **propa- 

gans (Jboth also occurring ^ as well as ^^ propago** ace. to 
Diefenbach, in the sense of (19, 27, 38, 41, 51, 69, 
67, 70). 

2. Italian : propciggine, propcigine ; Temp, prub&ina ; 

Sass. prubb&ina; 8ic. purpaina, *prupp&ina, *pur- 
pania; Tar. prubasc'n; Neap, prop&jena, calatur^; 
Ven. refosso ; Ver. tratora. 

3. Sardinian : Central : proi&ina, prafi&ina {Marghine) ; 

South, braidina. 

4. Spanish : provena, mugron, *codal, *rastro ; Arag. 


6. Portuguese : m^rgulhao, *m6»rgulho, *m^rgulhia, *pro- 

6. Genoese : Ment. cohus. 

7. Gallo-Italic : Mil. provanna, retraccia (Briapiza) ; 

Berg, proana, refos (Olera) ; Bresc. provana, tratura; 
Bol. pruvana, prupilgin ; Mod, trat(V)ra ; Mant, arf68 ; 
Parm. tractoura) ; Par. pruvocna) ; Piedm, pruvaNa. 



8. Friulano : rifwess, rafw^ss, rivi^, *rivie88e. 

10. Old Provencal: probage. 

11. Catalonian : colgat *prorena. 

12. Provencal : cabus, ^tchabus, ^cabuss^, cabussado 

(Val^nsole), *couaduro, *8oto, *courbaclo, *probaino; 
Lang, caiussal, caiussadOy cafiusset, soumessOy sou- 
messou, *prou6o; Cdv, cougaduro, soumeisso, prou- 
badjo, proubatcho ; Toul, prou&ajo ; Ag4n, prouiaino ; 
Gasc, couriagno, *re^08to ; B^arn. prouiagno ; Lower 
Lim. *ofoDzou; Central Rouerg, co6ou8sado, *co6us- 
sado, *prou/yaine, prouiaino (Marciliac), *prouiatche; 
South. Rouerg, caiussou {Saint-Affrique), coJusset {id.), 
co^ussat (id.), coiussol (fV/.),ca£i8S0u (id.) ; Auv. versadi. 

13. Francx)-Proven9al : For. r'bouna^ ; Sav. provignura ; 

Vaud. provegnura. 

14. Old French : provain, pourvain, .prouvin, prouvain. 

15. French : provin ; Berr. proui;2, p'rouiw, prouaill, 
preugnur, progni, pruw ; Poit. pr'biw ; Saint. nigisSy 

(109.) A layer of a vine during the first three years. 
7. Gallo-Italic : Pa v. vidur. 

(110.) A layer of a vine where a portion of the wood of the 
preceding year has been left. 

1. Latin: malleolus; **maleolus, **malleulus, **mallolus, 

**mellolu8, **palleolu8, * •malholtius. 

2. Italian : magliuolo ; Fhr. maiuolo (Maiano) ; Piat. 
magghiolo (Montale) ; North Corn. magli61u ; Sic. 
magghiolu ; Tar. magghiol ; Neap, magliola ; Ven. 
rasolo ; Ver. tagiol. 

6. Genoese : Ment. majwe. 

7. Gallo-Italic : Mil. muletta (Upper Mil.); Corn. 

rasola ; Bresc. oecieta ; Cremn. madeer ; Mod. tajol ; 
Itomg. *tajul, *laj6, tajo (Imola), sgow (a country 
icord) ; Mant. vidoN ; Parm. toDJO)!, mcejool ; Piac. 
rae^ ; Pav. rasoD ; Piedm. risoira, majeul, *majeii, meil, 
*meir, me}i. 


8. Friulano : rasizz, resizz, risizz, rasuL 

10. Old pROVENCAi. : maillol, •malhol. 

11. Cataloxian : mallol, m^ol, maUoLz, mayola. 

12. Protenpal : malhoou, maToou, ^alhou^ ; Lang. 
malholo, plaN ; Cer, malhaoa, *inalhou, ^mayon, 
pariaiaex ; Central Rouerg, />out, *cap ; South. lUmerg. 
molhouol (Belmont), molhol {icL) ; Auv. magllij^ 
maglheu, mad jo, madju. 

13. Franco- Provencal : Loirer Dauph. ^mayafi ; JFbr. 
chaTonn, chapont? : Vaud. ehapon, tcbapon, tsapon. 

14. Old French : mailhol, malhol, crocete, crosset^, 

15. French: crossette, *avantiii, *maillot, *maiIleto]i ; 
£erf\ cliubo, chapon, *cro88 ; Auff. cuche. 

16. TTallachian : ritea, jitsS {]x>pularly\ Titee {ace. to 


(111.) A bastard cast of a clipped vine. 

1. Latin : ••vitulamen, **vitnlo, •*Tituligo, **vitiilatiiB» 

•*Titiligo, **bituli|ro, ••butiligo. 

2. Italian : femminella, 

4. Spanish : esforrocino. 

5. PoKTTGrESE : Gal, ♦/>orda, *^»orde. 
7. Gallo- Italic : Parnu baPstaerdoN. 

15. French : *ecuver. 

(112.) A Tine-leaf. 

1. Latin: pampmus; **pampenns, **pampilnR, **pan- 
phinus, **papinus, **pripinns (a// fire also occurring^ 
arc. to T^irfrfihnch. in the Hrnmr of (^>\. 


2. Italian : pampano, *pampino, *pnmpana ; SasB. p&m- 
pinu : Sic. pampina ; Neap, chiacconr. 

ri. Sardinian : CchfraJ : pampinu. 

4. Spanish : pampana. 

5. PoRTUGrpsF, : parra, *pfl/?7p^mn. 

7. Gali/»-Ttalic : Eomfj. p/7Tnpa);ma : Ferr, p&mpan ; 
Mir, jiloN. 

8. Frtflanc^ : pampul. 

10. C>LD Pkovencal: pampol. 


11. Catalonian : p&mpol, *parapa, *p&mpflfnfl. 

14. Old French: tain {ace. to Chassant). 

16. Wallachian : eurpen (ace. to Froilo), curpSn (trf.), 
ciirpene (id.), ciirpena {id.). 

(113.) Vine-leaves {coll.). 

2. Italian : Central March, cama {Fabriano). 

^114.) A vine-leaf rolled up. 
1. Latin : pamplnus. 

(115.) Abundance of vine-leaves. 

11. Catalonian : p(nnpolatg^, *pampolam. 

(116.) The bud of a vine. 

1. Latin: gemma; **tnTdux {ace. to Diefenhach). 

2. Italian : Neap, j^mmol^, jemm^. 

7. Gallo-Italic : Romg. sema, gema ; Piac. pl6N ; 
Piedm. g^ma. 

12. Provencal : paraNgouN, *paravouN ; Tonl. (ourrou ; 

Central Rouerg. iourre, *o^i8. 

13. Franco-Proven9al : Vand. bolon ; Franc, bouss', 
boss', boussott'y bossott', beussott'. 

15. French : Ang. gSmm. 

(117.) Vine-buds taken away from the vine {coll.). 
12. PR0VEN9AL : abroutouN. 

(118.) A vine-bud beginning to come up. 

12. Provencal : bourro ; Lang, fiourre ; Central Rouerg. . 
Jourrou, *espaoume, espaoune {Segaln), modjexc 
{Aspriires), *matseNc; South Rouerg. pampe {Re- 
quiata); North. Rouerg. espompel {Viad^ne); Querc. 

15. French: bourre; Berr. tomSx^ {only used in the locution 
" en roudch "), rouch {id.). 

(119.) A bud of the vine, despoiled of its leaves. 
12. PR0VEN9AL : avis. 


(120.)7A bud of the vine, showing the grapes. 
13. Franco-Proven9AL : Franc. SLfsru. 
15. French : Month, dpferu. 

(121.) A vine-bud growing from the collar of the root. 
15. French : Champ, serviniin {Aube) ; Champ, noueu, 
nouou, nouo {Yonne). 

(122.) A small lateral bud of the vine. 
12. Provencal: C(?n^ra/i2ou(?r//. tra&ourrou,*sa(oretratoho« 

(123.) An unfruitful vine-bud. 

15. French : Champ, loubo (Marne). 

(124.) A useless bud of the vine. 

12. Provencal: Central Rouerg. trafiourre, •traftourrod, 

* tchuco Ji, *tchutcho&i ; South . Rouerg. iouorlhe {Saint' 
Sermtn), *6ouorlho {id.), *6orlhe {id.), *6ouorli (trf.), 
iorlho ; North Rouerg. (ouorlio {Lagui^le). 

13. Franco-Proven^al : Vaud. laou, leou. 

(125.) A knot of the vine. 
15. French : Berr. cornS. 

(126.) A bunch of grapes. 

w V w 

1. Latin : uva, botryo, *botrio, *botryon, ^botruB, 
*botruu8, raccmus ; **ra8emu8, **nacermu8 {both also 
occurring, as icell as " racemus,** ace. to Die/enbaeh, in 
the sense of (I, 19, 38, 41, 59, 70, 134, 155, 161, 174, 
177, 184), ♦*botria, ♦*botro, ♦♦po^^rus {the three 
occurring, as well as " botrus,^* ace. to Diefenbach^ in the 
sense o/*(149), **grappus, **grapa, **grappa, **ra8pa, 

2. Italian: gn\ppolo, *grappo, *raspo, *racimolo, ^graspo, 
*pigna ; i2o;n. rampazzo ; ^^^r. pennia; Temp, hutroni; 
Sass. buddr6ni ; Sic. rappa, *rappu, *grdppulu ; Tar. 
grap, grap'l; Bar. cann^ch'l; Abr. raccidp'l, ^schianda; 
Ter. ciappanett* ; Neap. *grappa ; Ven. *gra8pa; Ver. 
arzimo ;' Bell, regia ; Rov. picca, rasim, br6ccoL 


3. Sardinian : Central : budr6ne ; South, gurd6ni. 

4. Spanish : racimo ; Arag. uva ; Aat. recimo. 

5. Portuguese : cacho, *rrtciino ; Beir. gaipo ; Oal. 

recimo ; Lido-Portugnese : escol, ouva, uva. 

6. Genoese : rappu ; Ment. rap, raca, rasirae pi. 

7. Gallo-Italic : Mil. sgrazza, grappa, wga ; Com. sgraz, 
sgraza ; Berg, grata ; Crem. grapdl, sgratd,, r&mpol ; 
Cremn. grapell ; Bol. grap ; Mant. s-chjaNch ; Par. 
sgras, grap^ ; Piedm. rapa. 

8. Friulano : rapp, *grapp, *grasp. 

9. RoMANESE : Oberl. madargnuN, *madergnuN, *bar- 

dagliuN, *batuN, eua, *euva, *jeua, *jua, *juva, *uga, 
*iva, *aua ; Oherh. *barduN ; Lower Eng. zocb, *80ch, 
wa, *?(ja, *Mva ; Upper Eng. puNcbj^l, puNchj^r ; Tyr, 
piccao (Fassa), rusgiN {Oardena), rosin {id., ace. to^ 

10. Old Provencal : uva, razims pi., *ra8im8 {id.), 
•razains {id.). 

11. Catalonian : rrtfhim ; Valenc. rabim ; Maj.^ r^yna, 

reym ; Min. rem. 

12. Provencal : grapo, *ratcho, *rapugo, *gala8po, *pein- 

doii, peindoi {Grasse), rasiN, *riN, *reiN ; Queyr. aro; 
Lower Bauph. rasi» ; Lang. *lain&rusco ; C4v. raco ; 
Bdarn. gaspe; Montp. grapa; Bay. grap^; Central 
Rouerg. pigno, *rosiN, *ro'iN ; South Rouerg. mouisselo 
{Saint- Affrique) ; Auv. grap«. 

13. Franco-Provencal : Vaud. rapa ; Franc, rap' {Plan- 
ch^r-leS' Mines). 

14. Old French : grape, crape, bourgon, bourgeoun, 
borjoun, bromest. 

15. Frknch : grappe, raisins pi. ; Lorr. grep {Luneville) ; 

Month, r^p ; Mess, r'bo ; Wall, tree, rehin ( Villers) ; 
Nam. tropp ; Ard. brom^ ; Lower Norm, cral^e ; Poif. 
rapp ; Saint, rasiw. 

16. Wallachian : strugur, strugure {ace. to the Bible), 

ciorchinS, ciorcbin {ace. to Frollo), grapS {ace. to the 


{127.) Bunches of grapes {coll.). 

1. Latin : •*acinarium, **acmatiuni, * *acmaoiam) 

(128.) A suspended bunch of grapes. 
4. Spanish : colgajo. 
6. Portuguese: pendura. 

12. Provencal : peindilhado ; Civ. pendilhado. 

13. Franco- Provencal : Jur. biu, blu. 

(129.) A bunch of grapes preserved. 
1. Latin : botryo, *botrio, *botryon. 

(130.) A large bunch of grapes. 

1. Latin: **bumastha,**bumasta,**bumastus,**buma8te8, 
**buma8tis, **buma8te, **bamaste, **bruma8ta, **bru- 

14. Old French: bromest. 

(131.) A small bunch of grapes. 

1. Latin : **grapium. 

2. Italian : Sic. sgaNgu ; Ven. rechjo ; Ver. rechja. 
4. Spanish : Arag. carrazo. 

6. Portuguese : Gal. caNga ; Berc, gallo. 

6. Genoese : sc-chjaNcu. 

7. Gallo-Italic : Berg, gramostel ( Valle Gandino), gra- 
m6stol (id.), gremostel (id,), grembstol (id.) ; Romg. 
garavel ; Pav. sgrsoslei, sgrsesliN, sgrsesld. 

8. Friulano : ras-chje. 

9. RoMANESE : Oberl. *torclet, *turclet. 

12. Provencal : rapugo, souNgl^ ; Lang, lamftret ; Civ. 
lambro ; Narh. cascamel ; Lower Lim. orlot ; Central 
Rouerg. ioutel, *6outil, *loinJrot, tra^ut {E»iaing\ 
niouisselo {Peyrehm) ; South. Rouerg. lam&rot ( FS/fo- 
franque), pinelou (/(/.), iraousselhou (id.), mouiaafil 
(Sainf'Ajfrique), *em6ouissel (id.). 

15. French : Month, grepillow ; Wall. ri/ihaL 



(132.) A very small bunch of grapes. 
12. Provencal : Gasc, chiNglouN. 
16. French : Wall, riwhtal. 

(133.) A bit of a bunch of grapes. 

2. Italian : Central March, rancischia. 
7. Gallo-Italic : Piedm. s'chjaNch. 
12. Provencal : rapugo, souNgl^ ; Gasc. chiNglouN. 

(134.) A stalk of a bunch of grapes. 

Latin : sciipus ; **acinarium {acd, to Diefenbach), 

2. Italian : raspo, graspo ; Piat. racchio (Montale) ; 

Central March, ticcio (Fabriano), ticchio (id.) ; Temp. 
scapslcciula, scapdcciulu ; Sass. ilcubikzzulu. ; Tar, rasp; 
Neap, strepponf', streppa, rasprt ; Ven» graspa. 

3. Sardinian : Central, carena ; Svuth. scorili. 

4. Spanish : esco&ajo, raspa, *rampojo ; Arag. garraspa. 

5. Portuguese : ey/ga9o ; Berc. JaNgallo. 

6. Genoese : rai)pw88u, *raspwssu ; Ment. raca. 

7. Gallo-Italic : Mil. sgrazza ; Bresc. rdspol, spelegata ; 

Cremn. gratta ; BoL sgrapoja, graspoja ; Mod. graspa ; 
Reyg. vinazz pL ; llomg. rasp ; Fcrr. graspuja ; Parm. 
grasp ; Piac. racca ; Pai\ grapao ; Piedm. rapu«. 

8. Friulano : raspolou. 

11. Catalonian : rapa ; Valenc. raspall. 

12. Provencal : race, *ratcho, raca (Nimes), *racado, 

*visado, *mesque; Lang, grapo, gaspo, rapugo; Montp. 
grapa ; Agin, gaspil ; Lower Lim. lierpi, nierpi ; Cen- 
tral Rouerg. *crapo, carpo (Campagnac), *grepe. 

13. Franco-Provencal : Franc. tchac6, tchac6. 

14. Old French : rape. 

15. French : rafle, rape, *raffe ; Champ, ribo (Marne) ; 
Lorr. r'bo {Lamlremont) ; Wall, hemm, hSnn, *hey6min, 
Poit. rapp. 

16. Wallachian: ciorchin^ (ace. to Vaillant and to Frollo), 

carcel {ace. to Ciha^i). 

(135.) A stalk of a bunch of grapes dried on the plant. 
12. PROVEN9AL : arasto. 


(136.) Sour taste of the stalk of a bunch of grapes. 
2. Italian : raspo. 

7. Gallo-Italic: Breacraspi; Bomg.rasp; Jferr. raspiN; 
Parm, nespeiN. 

(137.) A bunch left behind by vintagers. 
13. Franco-Proven9al : For. r'simola. 

(138.) A small bunch left behind by vintagers. 

2. Italian: raspollo, *ra9po, *racchio; Temp, scalughja; 

Sass. i/caluggia ; Sic. racioppu ; Tar. raciiHep ; Ter. 
schiand'; Neap.T&spole,gTiL8po\e; Fl?n. rechjo, rechjoto; 
Ve7\ rechja. 

3. Sardinian : Central: iscalusa ; South. sciscill6ni. 

4. Spanish: redrojo,*redruejo,cencerron,re6uscayreia8co; 

Arag. racimo. 
6. Portuguese : r^bisco, r^busca, r^busco ; Gal. refugallo. 

6. Genoese : sc-chjaNcu. 

7. Gallo-Italic : Mil. grappf^U ; Berg, r&mpol ; Bre9C. 
robsem, rcosSmbol ; Bol. garavaol ; Romg. garavdl ; 
Farm, s-ch jaNch ; Fav. ra3spw«, / sgroBsl^i, sgreesliN, 

8. Friulano: ras-chje. 

11. Catalonian : gotim, *6flgot, *agrassot, ^singlet, 

12. Provencal : rapugo ; C^v. tchabrioul^. 

13. Franco-Provencal : For. boutilhoun. 

(139.) TJnripe small bunch left behind by vintagers. 
2. Italian : agrestino. 

(140.) A bunch with few clusters of grapes. 

2. Italian : racimolo, *gracimolo ; Tar. raciiHep ; Neap. 
rappolc, rapp(?, grappa. 

(141.) Small bunches of grapes which are late in ripening 
12. Provencal: Central Rouerg. vouibveAo {{Feyrelau)^ 
*re6oui6rado {id.). 


(142.) An unripe small bunch with few vine-berries. 
2. Italian: racchio. 

6. Genoese : sc-chjaNcu. 

7. Gallo- Italic : Romg. garavel. 

15. French : Berr. albott, *ablott, *damos^l. 

(143.) Small bunches of grapes that never ripen (coll.). 

4. Spanish: agrazon. 

11. Catalonian: Valenc. SLgrasso. 

13. Franco-Proven9al : Fated, a.gri pi, 

(144.) A bunch of sour grapes. 

5. Portuguese : Gal. acio. 

12. PROVEN9AL : Upper Dauph, aigr&. 

(145.) A small bunch of sour grapes. 
11. Catalonian : agrassot. 

(146.) A bunch of grapes not yet developed. 

15. French : Berr. lamm, atach ; Upper Mane, lame ; 
PoiL form ; Saint, formawss. 

(147.) An abortive bunch of grapes. 

15. French : Champ, ewveuill, vrill, vrillfett (Aube) ; 
Champ, ^polon {Yonne), 

(148.) Refuse bunches of grapes (coll.), 
15. French : Champ, detour {Mame), 

(149.) A cluster of grapes in a bunch. 

1. Latin : liicemus. 

2. Italian : racimolo, *gracimolo, schidntolo {ace, to 
Forestt) ; Sic. sgaNgu ; Neap, lAppole, rappe, grappa. 

4. Spanish : gajo ; Arag, raspa. 

5. Portuguese : ^sc&d^a ; Minh, gaipo ; Berc, gallo. 

6. Genoese : sc-chjaNcu ; Ment. rapwgh. 

7. Gallo-Italic : Berg, r&mpol; Cremn, s-chjaNchell ; 

i?o/. garavael; jBo/w^. garavSl; Parw. s-chjaNch ; Piac. 
rasanell, s-chjaNch^ll ; Pat. sgrsesl^i, sgraDsliN, sgrsesle. 

Phil. Trans. 1882-8-4. 21 


8. Friulano : ras-chje. 

11. Catalonian : gotim, *bagot, *agraB9ot, * singlet, 
*x^glot ; Valenc, txinglot ; Min. penjoy. 

12. Provencal: rapugo, *grapilhouN, souNgl^, alo, *aro ; 
Lang, lamiret ; C^v. lambro, broutigno, *broutilho, 
tcbabrioul6 ; Narh cascamel ; Caatr. lamftrusco ; Ceti' 
tral Houerg. ftoutel, *&outil, *lom6rot, traJout {Estaing)^ 
mouiss^lo (Peyreiau) ; South Rouerg. lamfirot ( Fi/fe- 
franque), pineloii (tV/.), iraousselhou (iW.), mouissdl 

{Saint- Affn'que), *ein6oui88el (id.); Querc. mouissolo. 

13. Franco-Provencal: Neuf, r^ssai (La Paroisse), Teseta 

(id,) ; Lower Dauph. Ihicota ; Lower VaL grap'dhon ; 
Vaud, grap'lhow. 
15. French : grappillon ; Bcrr. rapillow. 

(150.) Clusters of buncbes of grapes (colL). 

12. PR0VEN9AL : Lang. mouisseluN. 

(151.) A cluster of grapes cut from a buncb. 
4. Spanish : carpa. 
11. Catalonian : gotim ; Valenc. txinglot. 

(152.) A cluster at tbe top of a buncb of grapes. 

13. FRAN00-PR0VEN9AL : Gen. epola. 

(153.) Tbe stalk of a cluster of grapes in a buncb. 
1. Latin: r&ccmus ; **moissina, **marcum. 

(154.) Tendrils and buncbes appendant to tbe vine-branches 
15. French : Berr. atacb ; Champ, assizz. 

(155.) Tbe tendril of tbe vine. 

1. Latin : clftvictil&, capr(55lus ; **corimbu8, **corymbu8, 
**corinibus, **corinibi, **comubius. 

2. Italian : viticcio, vignu61o ; Central March, roccetta 

(aee. to '' Baccolta ") ; Ahr. gravijuol' pl.\ Neap. 
oorrinl^ ; Ven. p&mpano, vigiarole pi. ; Rov. cavriol. 



3. Sardinian: CWi/ra/. lorighitta; iSoti^A. sinzillu, inzillu. 

4. Spanish : tijereta, tijerilla. 

5. Portuguese : tesounnhflr. 

7. Gallo-Italic : Mil. cavrioe; .Ber^. cavrioel; Crem, 
cavriol ; Cremn. cavriool ; Bol. pl^un, *p8li»pen, 
cariulein, caveriol ; Romg. cariulen, *cavari61, caveri6 
(Imola) ; Mir. cavariol ; Farm, caeveerioel ; Piac, 
cavaride ; Pav. riss. 
8. Friulano : cwarn, raculiN, gritul, vidizze. 

1^1. Catalonian: tisoreto, ^stisoreta, espotsim. 

i2. Provencal: filheirouN, *filheiroou, *fureirouN, *fioii, 
♦filholo, *fiolo. 

i 5. French : vrille, *cirre, *mlle ; Champ, vrillett {A ube). 

i 6. Wallachian : circeiu, cSrceiu, c^rcel, cep (ace. to 
Frolh)y curpen {ace. to Cihac), curpllA (id.), curpenc 
(id.), eiirpend (id.). 

^6.) The string coming out of the wood when the vine is 

i 5. French : Ard. pawpinee. 

^7.) The blossom of the vine. 

4. Spanish: cierne [only used in the locution " en cierne*'). 

^^^8.) An abortive vine-blossom, 
il. Catalonian: caragolet. 

^159.) The blossom of the wild vine. 
11. Catalonian : Uam&rusca. 

\l60.) The stamen of the blossom of the vine. 
4. Spanish : cierna. 

(161.) Grapes (coll.) : The fruit of the vine. 

1. Latin : uvS, *vltis (metonymy) y *racemus {synecdoche). 

2. Italian : uva ; Sass. u6a ; Sic. racina ; Ven. ua ; 

Lingua Franca : rasiN {Algiers). 

3. Sardinian : Central, ua, ighina {Marghoie), aghi- 

niddsL (Olzai) ; South, dxina. 


4. Spanish: viya;Ast. recimos pL; Curassao Spanish: 
weindreif {a Dutch tcord), raseentji. 

5. Portuguese : uva ; Indo-Porfugueae : ouva. 
G. Genoese : t^ga ; Ment, rasim. 

7. Gallo-Italic : Mil, f<ga ; Berc;. oea ; Jargon of the 
shepherds of the Province of Bergamo: limbroescay 
mocia ; BoL u ; Romg, ova, ova (Imola) ; Ferr, vo ; 
Farm. uv8d ; Piedm. wva, Ma. 

8. Friulano : ue, uve. 

9. KoMANESE : OberL eua, *euva, *jeua, *jua, *juva, *uga, 

♦aua ; Oberh. iva, jeva ; Lower Eng, tia, *uja, *t*va ; 
Tyr, Mae {Ladin\ uae {Gardena). 

10. Old PROVEN9AL : razim, *ra8im, *razain, *uva. 

11. Catalonian : rahim; Valenc. rahim; Mqf. r6ym, 

reym ; . Min. rem. 

12. Provencal : rasiN, *riN, *reiii ; Nig. ram ; Upper 

Dauph, rasiN ; Ganc. arrasiN ; B^am, arrasim ; £ay. 
arresiN; CentralItouerg.Tosijf,ToiN; Auv^raain^cepSLn. 

13. Franoo-Proven^al : Netif. r^ssa! (La Paroisse), resdm 

{id,) ; 8av. r^ssfe ; Vaud. r'sin, r'si ; Aost, r^Btn ; 
South.'Hast, Vosg. resm. 

14. Old French : reisin, roisin, rosin, rasin, ragin, resin. 
16. French : raisin ; Berr. *venda/?j ; Perch, reeisiit ; 

Champ, r'sin (Marne), r'san (id.), rijiw (id.), risin (frf.), 
rusin {id. at Somme^Tourbe) ; Champ, rajin {Aube) ; 
Morv. rasiw ; Lorr. rajiw {Domgermain), rahhtn {Lund' 
tHIe) ; Montb. resin, rejiw ; Ban-de-la^Roche : rdstn ; 
Mess, r^hhm, r*ji», r'hhm {R^miilg); Wall, troc; 
Nam. reujiw ; Ard. r^chiw, r^ssin, rou^ssin ; Picm 
rou^san ; Li II. roji/» ; Pouch, reusin {Bavai) ; Mont. 
roujiw ; Guern. grapp. 
IG. Wallachian: strugure, strugur, poamS ; Kutzo-Wal^ 
lachian : aud ; Istro- Wallachian : grozdft^ grozge^ 
grozda, grojd^. 

(1G2.) Fresh grapes put in to restore wine. 

6. Genoese : Ment. vinassa. 

15. French i rfipe. 


(163.) Ghrapes growing at the latter end of the teaaon* 
12. PRoy£N9AL : rapugo ; . Tout. lam&rosoo. 

(164.) Small grapes produced after the first growth* 
15. French : Mess, rwayno, r'vnott. 

(165.) A second growth of grapes showing itself at the 
extremities of the branches. 

15. French : Champ, bouvieu {Marne). 

(166.) Abundance of grapes. 
4. Spanish : uvada. 

11. Catalonian: rahimada; Valeno. rahim&y rahimada ; 
Mqf. Tejm&da. 

12. PR0VEN9AL : Toul. grumo. 

(167.) A strewing of grapes lying on the ground. 

12. Prov£N9al: Cl^n/ra/iioti^r^. grunadO|gronado(^uifn). 

(168.) Grapes left behind by vintagers (coll.). 

16. French : Berr. albott, *ablott. 

(169.) Gathered grapes not yet pressed. 

13. Franco-Proven9al : Vaud. v'nindj* (Lavaux). 

(170.) The result of the gleaning of grapes. 
16. French : Berr. graptaill. 

( 171.) The quantity of grapes which a wine-press can contain. 
15. French : Berr. parsouer^e. 

(172.) The quantity of grapes filling the wooden vessel 
called " bftss'." 
15. French : Berr. hassle. 

(173.) Grapes when they become darkened by the heat. 
2. Italian : saracini pi. 
7. Gallo-Italic : Bresc. sarasi pt. 


(174.) Raisins {eolL): Dried grapes. 

1. Latin : ^^passacaa, **passaneria,**pa8sa]iella,*^ 

ara, **aciiiaciuin {ace. to Diefenbaeh), 

2. Italian: Rom. paasarina (ace. to " liaccolta **) ; Sie, 
p&ssula ; Tar, pas'l ; Neap, passolc. 

3. Sardinian : Central : pa&assa. 

4. Spanish: pasa. 

5. Portuguese: passa; Indo-Portuguese : eaacsBpL 

6. Genoese : Merit. «en«ibu. 

9. RoMANESE : OberL eueta, •jeueta, *jueta, uita (ace. to 

Carigiet)y euveta (ace. to the Bible) ; Oberh, ^juet ; 

Lower Eng. tieta. 
] 1. Catalonian : pans/i ; Valenc, pansa. 
12. Provencal : panso, *passureIo, passeriya {Ntmen) ; 

Cic. passarilho ; Central Rouerg. ' posaorillos pL^ 

*passari]los {id.), ooudje&i {Millau). 

14. Old French : passerilles />/. 

15. French: Wall, rouesi/i, rosin ; Ard. passreill, pasarilL 

16. Wallachian: stafidS, stafide {ace. to Vailiant amd 
Robh), strafidll, strafide {ace. to the Bible) ; Kuizo* 
Wallachiani stafidhft. 

(17o.) Grapes dried by the sun {coll.). 

16. Wallachian: roscichinS, rosicliin^ {ace. to Vailiant). 

(170.) Grapes beginning to ripen {coll.). 
15. French : Champ, able {Marne). 

(177.) Sour grapes. 

2. Italian: agresto; S^tc. agresta, agrdstu ; Fen. gresta; 
Rov. agrest. 

3. Sardinian: Central: agrazzu; SowW. agresti. 

4. Spanish : agraz. 

5. Portuguese : agra90 ; Gal, acio. 

6. Genoese : agrassiu ; Mcnt. aigret. 

7. Gallo-Italic : BoL agncst, agherstoun ; Piedm. agr^t. 

8. Friulaxo : agrest, *gr^st. 

10. Old Provencal : agras, •eygras. 


11. Catalonian : agr&s ; Valenc. agr&s. 

12. Provencal : aigras, eigras, eigrassado ; Lower Dauph. 
aigr& ; Gasc. ierjus ; Central Rouerg. ogras. 

14. Old French : aigrest. 

15. French : verjus ; Berr. 6grS, *varju ; Champ, ^grun 

(Marne) ; Ard, 6gra, ^grin. 

16. Wallachian : agurid&y aguride {ace. to the Bible). 

(178.) Sour grapes of the extremity of the vine-branch. 
15. French ; Berr. vardin, *verdin. 

(179.) Wild grapes. 
4. Spanish : agrazon. 
6. Portuguese : labrusca. 
11. Catalonian: llamirusca; Fa/<^n^. agrasso. 

13. Franco-Proven9al : Jur. lambrutsa, lambritsa. 

14. Old French : lambrusche. 

15. French : *laTnbruche, *lambru8que, *lanibrot, •la- 

brusque ; Berr. trillo. 

(180.) Grapes of the wild vine when it flourishes. 

I. Latin : oenanthe. 

(181.) Picked grapes separated from the bunches. 
4. Spanish : granuja. 

II. Catalonian : Valenc. granulla, *granutxa. 

(182.) Picked grapes which remain in the basket where the 
bunches were. 

4. Spanish: garulla. 

5. Portuguese : Oal. garula, garulla. 
11. Catalonian : gran^Uadei. 

(183.) Yine-berries accumulated at the bung. 
15. French : Champ, chapo (Marne) ; Ang. chapio. 

(184.) Grape : A berry of the vine. 

1. Latin : Scmus, Sclnum, *acina, *racemi /?/., uvft {ace. to 


2. Italian : icmo, *uve pL ; Bam. vaco ; Central March. 
vago (Fabriano) ; Sass. pupi6ni ; Sic, coccia; Abr. vach'. 

3. Sardinian: Central: pupuj6n6; South. pibittmL 

4. Spanish : *uva8 pi. 

6. Portuguese : *uv(i, *Acino ; 6aL Jago ; Indo-Partu- 
guese : cami. 

6. Genoese : axinella, *iigSL 

7. Gallo-Italic : MiL pi/fcirds ; Piedm. asin^I, •five 
pL, tie (id.). 

8. Friulano : asin. 

9. RoMANESE : Oberl. *eaa8 pi., *euvas pi., ♦juvas pi. ; 

Oberh. *iva8 /?/., *jeva8/>/. ; Lower Eng. *iia8 />/., •iijas J9/. 

10. Old Provencal : *razim8 pl.y *rasim8 pl.^ *razain8 j9/.y 

•uvas pi. 

11. Catalonian: Valenc. ^rahims />/. ; Maj. •reyms />/., 
rdyms p/. ; Min. rems p/. 

12. Provencal : adji, aidje, •uvos pL; Lang, adje, atclie ; 

Gasc. gniN, *gru, gruo, chiNglouN ; Central Rouerg. 
grut, *grup, *gnido, *gnid, *gruno ; Auv. groimo. 

15. French : Champ, grumm (Aube) ; Morv. greumm, 

gr^mm ; Wall, rehin, rinhin. 

16. Wallachian : acin& {ace. to Frollo), boanS (ace. to 
Balaaiescu), broboanS (te/.), borboanS {ace. to " Lexicon "), 
•struguri pi. ; Kutzo- Wallachian : agoridh& ; I^tro^ 
Wallachian : grozde pl.^ grojde id. 

(18«5.) A large grape. 

1. Latin: **buma8tha, **buma8ta, •^bumastas, **bu- 
masteSy^^bumastis, **buma8te, **bama8te, **bruma8ta, 

(186.) A grape with its stalk. 

1. Latin : botryo, *b6trIo, botiyon. 

(187.) A stalk of a grape. 

1. Latin : scopio, scopTum, scopus, *botryD, *botrfo^ 


botryon, *8armeiitum ; * *esna, * 'raspatium, •^moissmay 
* *marcuui. 


7. Gallo- Italic : Com. pinciroe. 
14. Old French : raste. 

(188.) A small grape that dries before ripening. 

13. rRANC0-PR0VEN9AL ! Vaud, mdh'rin. 

(189.) A raisin : A dried grape. 

1. Latin : **pas8ula. 

2. Italian : p&ssola, p^ula ; Neap. pass^. 

9. SrOMANESE : Oberl. euetas />/., *jeuetas (tVf.), *juetas (/rf.), 
uetas (id,f ace. to Carigiet), ^euvetas {id., ace. to the 
Bible, Ed. of Coire, 1818). 

11. Catalonian : pansa; Valene. pansa. 

12. Provencal : pansos pi., passurelos (id.), passeriya (id., 
Nimes); Ck'p.passarilhos^/.; Ci^/t/m/ iZot^^r^. possorillos 
pL, ^passarillos (id.). 

14. Old French: passerilles ^/. 

15. French : Ard. passreill pi. passrill (id.). 

16. Wallachian: stafidS {aec. to ** Lexicon"). 

(190.) A grape dried by the sun. 

16. Wallachian : roscichinft, rosichin& (ace. to Vaillant). 

(191.) Vine-berries beginning to grow. 

13. Franco-Proven9al : Gen. agr^ pi. {only used in the 
locution " en agri "). 

(192.) Small abortive vine-berries without juice (coll.). 

13. Franco-Proven9al : Vavd. desa/mei j?/. (Montreux). 

(193.) A wild grape. 

1. Latin : **, see (51). 

(194.) The skin of a grape. 

1. Latin : vlnac(!us ; **vinacium, **vinaceum. 

2. Italian : fi6cine ; Sienn. fi6cino ; Tar. scarp. 

3. Sardinian : South, ioddi. 
6. Genoese : beretta. 


7. G.vllo-Italic : BoL gofla; Ferr. graspaja; Piedm, 
bu&et, bursot. 

8. FRirL-Ofo: ciifuL 

11. Cataloman : J/ri/. p^Ilofa, *pellfr6fo. 
15. Frenxh : Birr, bourss. 

u9*3.> The skin of the trodden grapes. 
11. Cataloman : prllofii, ^pallofa, 

,196. • Grape- skins and grape-stones either to be trodden or 
alreadr trodden. 
7. Gallo- Italic : Com, vinasc. 

(197.' Pressed grapes ico/O. 
15. French : Ard, trulee. 

>L^S.^ Pressed grapes from which the must has not been 
2. Italian : T-ir. past ; Ten, grandna. 
13. Franco-Provencal: Jbr. genoo. 
15. French: JWr. jon ^Clamecv', 

(199/. Besiduum of grapes after expression. 

1. Latin: Tlnact-a, vinacea />/., *brisa: •*vinacia,**rina- 

cium, ••vinatium, ••idnasium, ••vinaceum, ••rina- 
cinum, **Tinarium, ••acinarium. 

2. Italian : >-inaccia, *grasse />/• ; Crntral JfareJL friseo- 
lata Fahrttitfo : S^-t^*. binazza ; ^/r. rinazza, Tinazzu, 
Tor. vinaz : Xrap^ venacciff, Tenaeciaw ; FVn. gra^ie 
;..■.. sarpe /i/.' ; Pad. graspajole; Vic. zarpepL; BelL 

Z. S \ RPiNi AN : Cf' »* trr, ' : binat ta ; 5i^»' fh . binazza, binaocia, 

4. Spanish : orujo, casca, *lia; Arng. ^'risa. 

5. PoRTUcrESE: K^gac"'. burusr*: (rri/, f-aguUo; BercbvUo. 
«i. Genofsf : rappi/sjsu, rappu ; J^rht. asene. 

7. Gai.lo-Itai.ic : Com, vinascia ; Bera. grate pL ; Bol. 
vinazza. irraspa. graspoja ; Ft-rr, gnipa : J/i>. gra^ 
/■'.'.: M'lnr. graspe /*/. ; PtS'm. vinass ; Pieif, 
Par. gussab /»/., craspi ^id, .. 


8. Fritjlano : trape, ciarpe. 

9. Homanese : Lower Eng, arsuclas pi. 

10. Old Provencal : vinaci. 

11. Catalonian : brim ; Valenc, brisa. 

12. Provencal : destregnado, ^destrignado, race ; Upper 

DaupL iDer, dratsi ; Biarn. druse ; Lower Lim, aseno ; 
Central Rouerg. tr^co, *draco; North. Bouerg. trace 
(JEntrapgues) ; Auv, ass^. 

13. Franco- Provencal : Neuf, dzlgno (South- West. Vig- 
noble) \ Loirer Bauph. jmna,; For. troulha, drouacha; 
Vaud. djeino {Lavaux)^ dzeino {id.) ; Franc. djSn'. 

14. Old French : aisne, esne, aesne, aiesne, ainsne, asne, 
aine, ayne, anne, gen, gehne. 

15. French : mare ; Berr. rap ; Month, djeunn ; Mess. 
m^er; Wall, pacin, hfimmy *li^y6mm, *mor; Poit. 
rapp ; Ang. sep. 

16. "Wallachian : tiseovinft, teseuvin^ [ace. to Vaillant and 
Pontbriant), tescoina {ace. to Cihac)^ teseuime {ace. to 
Frollo), trevere, *treavele {ace. to Pontbriant and 
** Lexicon *')i treavere {id., id.); Kutzo- Wallachian : 

(200.) What is trodden at a time of grapes. 

12. Provencal : destregnado, *destrignado, destretcho ; 

Lang, raeado, prensado, prenso. 
15. French : marc ; Champ, s^r {Marne) ; Saint, treuill^e. 

(201.) The pulp of a grape. 

7. Gallo-Italic : Parm. grass. 

(202.) Must : unfermented wine. 

1. Latin: mustum, r&eemus ; **mustaticum. 

2. Italian : mosto ; North. Cors. mostu ; Sass. mu//u ; 

Sic. mustu ; Tar. must ; Abr. milost ; Neap, must^ ; 
Rov. most. 

3. Sardinian : Central: mustu. 

4. Spanish: mosto. 

5. Portuguese: mdsto. 


6. Genoese ; mostu ; Ment most. 

7. Gallo-Italic: Mil. most; Cremn.*miist&r; Bol.mduBt 
Regg. mbst ; Mir. mos'c ; Piedm. must. 

8. Friulano : most. 

9. Romanese: OberL muost, *must, *most, mdst (aa 

to Carigiet). 

10. Old Provencal : most. 

12. PRoyEN9AL : mous, ^moustouiro ; Lang, moost ; Qiu^ 

13. Franco-Proven9AL : Jur. mdta ; Neuf. mdt* {Nori 

and South-East. Vignoble) ; Lower Dauph. mouoda 
Vaud. m6da, *m6tha, *moftta. 

14. Old French : moust ; Norfn. moutardd. 

15. French : moftt ; Champ, mou (Marne). 

16. Wallachian: must; Kutzo-WallacAian: rnxxBtn; Tstn 

Walhchian) : mostu. 

(203.) The must that comes out of the grapes before the 
are pressed. 
2. Italian : presmone ; Ven. mostadura ; Pad. mostaiin 
Ver. mostiN. 

12. Provencal : Auv. ramei. 

(204.) The must that comes first out from the press. 
15. French : Champ, goutt {Aube). 

(205.) Strong thick must. 
4. Spanish: mostazo. 

11. Catalonian: Valenc. most6t, most&s. 

(206.) "Weaker must procured by the last pressure. 

13. Franco-Proven^al : Vaud. trolhu {Lataux). 

(207.) The quantity of must coming out from a charged pres 
13. Franco-Proven^al : Vaud. trolha. 

(208.) Verjuice : The juice of sour grapes. 

1. Latin: omphScIum ; ••omphacum, **oniplia: 
**agresta, **agrestis, **agrascum, **verjutum. 


2. Italian : agresto ; Neap, agreste ; Ven, gr^sta ; Rov. 

4. Spanish : agrazo. 

5. Portuguese : agrazo ; GaL acio. 

6. Genoese : agrassiu ; Ment, aigret. 

7. Gallo- Italic: J9o/. agrsBst^agherst^un; Piedm. agr&st 

8. Friulano : agrest, *grdst. 

10. Old Provencal : agras, *eygra8. 

11. Catalonian : agrds; Valenc. agv&a. 

12. Provencal : aigras, eigras ; Upper Dauph. aigr&. 

14. Old French : vergus. 

15. French: verjus; Month. v6rdju; Wail. vSrdju; 

Vterv. v^rdjeu ; Saint verju. 

(209.) A grape-stone. 

I. Latin : vlnaceum ; **arillu8, **arillum, **vinacium, 

* * vinatium, * * vinasium, * * vinacinum, * * acinus, 
**acinum, **aQimen, **acmen, **aciimen, **acermen, 
**acium, **acimus, **acinatium, **acinacium, **anna, 
••moissina, **pepinu8. 
. N.B. — acinus and acinum also occur, according to 
Bie/enbach, in the sense of (112, 161, 177). 

2. Italian : vinacciudlo, *dcino, *fi6cine ; Central March. 
graniello [Fahriano) ; Sic. vinazz61u, vinazzu, arir/(faru, 
*arilla ; Tar. gridd ; Neap, arille, agrill^ ; Ten. zigolo ; 
Bov. Yinazz6l. 

4. Spanish : granuja. 

5. Portuguese : bagulho, grainha, gradlho. 

7. Gallo-Italic : Mil. vinasciob ; Berg, vinassoel ; Breac. 
yenasscel ; Crem. vinassol ; Cremn. yinazzool ; Bol. 
yinazzol, *gramustein ; Jfoe/. gram usten; Bomg. Yina,z6l, 
Tinaz6 (Imola) ; Ferr. gramostiN; Barm, vinaessoel; 
Piac. racchitt. 

8. Friulano: dsin. 

II. Catalonian : br\&a ; Valenc. granulla, *granutxa. 


Prince Louis- LuaEN Bonaparte. 



Introdaction ^ ~ — 312 

First Order: Chelonians ..^ 313 

I. Tortue »... ~~. ^^313 

II. Tortue terrestre ..... «... 314 
III. Tortue paludine — — 314 

IT. Tortue marine 314 

Second Order: Saurians 315 

V. Cam^leon 315 

VI. Gecko .^ ^ ^ ...- 315 

VII. Lezaid ^ ^ ^^ ..... 316 

VIII. li^zaid ?ert _ _ -... 319 

IX. Gongyle 321 

X. Sep« '_....«.- ..... 821 
XI. Orret .... _ .... .... 322 

Thiid Older: Ophidians ».. 324 

XII. Serpent _ _ _ 324 

XIII. Elapbe h quatre raies ..... 326 

XIV. Elaphe d'Esculane ..... 326 
XV. Tropidonote i collier ..... 326 

XVI. Tropidonote Viperin 327 

XVII. Coronelle Lisse 327 

XVIII. Coronelle Boidclaise _ 327 
XIX. Zamdnis Vert et Jaune 327 

XX. Do. Tariete noire 328 

XXI. Vipdn* ... .... ^ ... 328 

XXII. Aspic 329 


XXIII. Vipftre Prester .^ ^ 829 
Fourth Order : Batrachians ..... 330 

XXIV. Grenouille .... _ _ 330 
XXV. Discogloase Feint .... 381 

XXVI. Grenouille Rousse .... 331 
XXVII. Sonneur k Tentre 

couleur de fen 332 

XXVIII. Rainette verte ......... 333 

XXIX. Crapaud _ _ «.- 334 

XXX. Crapaud vert 335 

XXXI. Salamandre 337 

XXXII. Salamandrineii lunettes 839 

XXXIII. Triton... ... __ 339 

XXXIV. Triton ponctu6 .- — 339 
Appendices — 

I. Orthographical and 

Phonetic Remarks 342 

II. Explanation of the 
Names of some of the 
Dialects mentioned 349 

III. Bibliography of the 

Works ani Authors 
quoted 3o0 

IV. Arrangement of the 

lists, "and some ex- 
planations 364 

The present eolloction of Noo-Latin names of reptiles is 
taken : 1.^ from a p;roat number of printed works, such as 
dictionaries, vocabulnrios, nomenclatures, etc., some of which 
are very rare and often out of print ; 2.^ from manuscript 
works, sometimes unique, and always very scarce or difficidt 
to procure ; 3.° from my own herpetological notes, containing 
a great number of the vulgar names of reptiles. Such names 
I have scarcely ever ceased to collect from 1843 till 1883 in 
Italy, Spain, France, Belgium, Switzerland, and the Channel 
Islands, either from the mouths of 'peasants or from collectors 



^f reptiles. For in my youth I was something of an herpe- 
tological amateur under the guidance of the late well-known 
Zoologist Charles-Lucian Bonaparte, second Prince of Canino, 
^fid my eldest brother.^ 
As regards the Neo-Latin vulgar names of the European 
Reptiles belonging to this very long, although by no means 
Complete list, they are all headed by those adopted in French 
vy Dum^ril and Bibron in their celebrated work "Erp^tologie 
g'en^rale ou Histoire naturelle complete des reptiles," Paris, 
^^4-54, in ten large octavo volumes. 
-P^or an explanation of the arrangement of these lists see 
^I>I>endix IV. 

First Order. " Chelonians " or Tortoises. 

I. " ToRTUE " (generally), Tortoise. 

- Italian : tartaruga, testuggine, *testddine, *te8tudo, 

zuca, *bizzuga, *bi8cia scodelliera, *b6tta scudellaia, *b6tta 

aia (Morri), *b6tta scodellaia (Cherubini), *b6tta scudaia 

^ ), *te8tuggine scudaia (id.), *cucchiara (id.), *cucciara 

- 'jj^gongola (id.). Sienese; Roman: tartaruca; Neapolitan : 

:unia, cestiineja ; Abnizzese : cestunija ; id. of Teramo : 

tunaj ; Tarantino: cilon; Leccese: cilona; South, Calahrian: 

zzarra ; Sicilian : tartuca, scuzzara, scuzzaira, scuzzaina ; 

-Tietian : gagiandra ; Veronese : bissa scudellara ; Roveretan : 

asa scudelera. 

. Sardinian. Logudorese: tostoine. Cagliantan: tostoini, 


3. Spanish : tortuga, *tartaruga (Schmid), *tartuga 
almyreno, I., E iij.). 

4. Portuguese : tartaruga. Galician : sapo concho. 

5. Genoese : tartaruga. Monagasque ; Mentonese : tartiiga. 

1 At the fifth Unione degli Sctenzati Italutni held at Lucca in 1843, I read a 

^^per j?iving the results of my chemical researches on the poison of the viper 

^-fticerehe chimiche sul Vtkno delta Vipera) printed in the Gazzetta Toseana delle 

^oiefize Med>co-JUiche (first year, Florence 1843). As some English writers have 

attributed these researches to my above mentioned brother, I take this opportunity 

of correcting the error. 


6. Gallo-Italic. Milanese : bissa sciidell^ra, tartariiga. 
Bergammco : bissasciillera ; Brescian : bissa scodelera, b^ssa 
sciidelera; Cremonese: bissa scildelera; Piedmonteae : bisaa- 
copera; Bolognese: tartaruga; Modefiese: galana; Reggianoi 
bissa scudlera; Parmesan', bissa scudlara, tartaruga; Pic- 
centino : bissa sciidl^ra ; Pavese : bissa sciidl^ra, tartaruga ; 
Roniagnuolo : bessagalana. 

7. Frioulan : copasse, gajandre. 

8. Romanese. Oberland R, : schildkrota, *schiIkrot (Sale), 
testudna (Carigiet), schildkrot (id.). Oberhalbstein R. : 
tartaruga; Lower Engadine R.: tortuga (Der, Die, Das). 

9. Catalan : tortuga. Valeiictan : tortua. 

10. Modern Occitanian. Provengal: tartugo, tourtugo. 
Boiiquiren : tartugou ; Languedocien of Montpellier : tartuga, 
tortuga ; Castrais : tourtuo. 

11. Franco-Occitanian : 

12. French : tortue. Walloon : tortuw. 

13. Wallacuian : broascft cestoasd. Kuizo^Wallachiani 

II. ** ToRTUE terrestre/' Land Tortoise. 

3. Spanish : gal&pago. 

4. Portuguese : c&gado. 
7. Frioulan: tartarughe. 

9. Catalan : galapat, ^cal&pat, *calapa, *calapety *gal&pet. 
Valencian : galap, *galdpago (Orti, 843.). 


3. Spanish : gal&pago, *tortuga macho (Seckendorff). 

4. Portuguese : cdgado. 

7. Frioulan : magne copasse, cad6pe, codbpe, c6pe. 
9. Catalan : (as the number II.). 

IV. ** Tortue marine/' Turtle. 

1. Italian: *galana. Pugliese of Molfetla: sartdscin. 

2. Sardinian : tartaruga. 

7. Frioulan : magne copasse, tartarughe. 

SECOND order: SAURIANS. II.- VI. 315 

12. French. Walloon : krapd-d-m^r. 

N.B. — Compare Latin teaiudo with Italian testigginey 
Neapolitan cestunidy Sardinian tostdine, Wallachian cestoasd ; 
Low Latin tartuca, tartuga, toriuca, tortua^ turtus, galandray 
galanduy with Italian tartaruga and *galanay Roman tartaruca^ 
Spanish tortuga, Valencian torttm; Greek j^eXcow; and 
Modem Greek yeXxovay with Tarantino eiUniy Leccese cihna, 
and P Italian *gaiana. Compare also German schiidkroie, 
literally "shield toad," with Italian *bdtfa scudaia, having 
the same literal meaning ; with Milanese bissa sciidel^ra, lit. 
" porringer snake"; and with Gtdician sapo concho, lit. " shell 

Second Order. " Saurians " or Lizards. 

V. *' CAMiLEON," Chameleon. 

1. Italian : camaleonte, *cameleonte. Neapolitan : cara- 
maleonte, camalionte ; Sicilian : camaleonti. 

2. Sardinian. Logudorese : camaleonte. Cagliaritan : 

3. Spanish : camaleon, *camalion (Schmid), *cameleon (id.). 

4. Portuguese ; cameleao, camaleao, *camaleonte (Fon- 

5. Genoese : camaleonte. 

6. Gallo-Italic. Piedmontese : camaleonte ; Bologneae : 
camalednt ; Ferrareae : camaleont ; Pavese : camaleont. 

8. HoMANESB : cameleon. 

9. Catalan : camalleo, camale6, ^caroaleon. 

10. Modern Occitanian : cameleon^ camaleon, gambalion, 

12. French ; cameleon. Walloon : cam^leyon. 

13. Wallachian : cameleon, camelione. 

N.B. Compare Latin chamasleon with all these words and 
Low Latin gamaleon with Modern Occitanic gamhalion, 

VI. "Gecko." 

1. Italian : tardntola, *stellione, •tarentola (Littr^), *ter- 
r^ntola (id.), 'tarantella (Zanotto). Sassarese: tar&ntula; 
Phil. Trans. 1898-8^ 22 


Neapolitan : locerta vermenara, lacerta fracetana ; Tarantino : 
salanitr, salenitr ; Leceese : lucerta fracetana, lucerta verme- 
nara ; Sicilian : achirpiimi, scrippiuni, scurpiuni, tigntuni, 
lucerta libbrusa ; Padttan : 'liu^rtola (Patriarchi). 

2. fiAHDiNiAN. Logudorese : tarantula. Cagliaritan : pu- 

3. Spanish : alic&ntara, 'tardntola (Pareyra). 

4. PoRTUouESE : 6«ga, 'alic&ntara (Canto). 

5. Genoese:. scurpiuQ. Monagasgiie: Bcnipiun; JIfentoiuge: 

6. Gallo-Italic. Bologneae : tanmtla ; Bomagnuoh nf 
Faenza : tarantula ; id. of Iinola : tar&ntola. 

8. ItoMANESE, Lotcer Engadine R. : *tar&ntola (Bible). 

9. Catalan : drag6. Alghereae : ascurpi. 

10. Modern Occitanic. Nigard: tarenta, la^mua. 

12. French: *tarentule. )Fo//oo« : "kwatt-pesa (Remaole). 

N.B. — Compare Low Latin tarantula with the (greater pert 
of these words ; Latin stellio, with Italian sfellione j Latin 
draco " dragon," with Catalan dragi ; Low Latin teorpie, 
meaning sometimes " gecko," with Sicilian sckirpium ; 
Genoese ictirpiun, and Algherese ascurjA. 

YII. "L£zard" (generally the small species), LiZABD. 

1. Italian: luc^rtola, •lucerta, *lac6rtola, •lac^rta. Msr- 

chigiaiio of Faiio : raganella; Sae«arese: tilichelta; Tempiett: 
ziricholta; Abruzzae: lusc^rta, nusc^rta; id. of Teramo\ 
acertarall ; Tarantino ; lucert ; Capo di Lecce : sarica ; Calo' 
brian: scefrate ; Southern Cahhrian of Gerace: zzafrate; 
Venetian: Werta, lu«^rtoIa ; Vicenliiio: risardola; Vo'oneie: 
os^rtola ; Roreretan : userdola. 

2. Sardinian. Logndorene : liligherta, •tiliguerta (Cetti).^ 
Cagliaritan: caluxertula, luxertula, 'caluacerta (Diez). 

3. Spanish : Ingartija, •iagartezna, Aragonese : 
tesa, aangartana, eugardajiua. 

4. Portuguese: lagartixii. 

5. Genoese: grigua. Monagasque: 

la. .Aragonese : aangMP 

: palabrunaj^MJfl^^H 


6. Qallo-Italic. Milanese: liiserta. Verhanese: vissopola; 
Bergamasco: loaerta; Bresciano : liiserta; Piedmontese : la«erta, 
la^erda ; Bolognese : lu^erta ; Reggiano : arsintella ; Parmesan : 
ar«intdla> lu«erta ; Pavese : liiserta ; Bamagnuolo : luaerta. 

7. Frioulan : Hserte, Ksierte, lus^rte. 

8. SrOMANESE. Oherland ' R. : luschart, luschard, luzert, 
quatterpiergia. Heinzenberg B. : da quatter pezzas ; Bergun 
R. : zerp da quatter pezzas ; Upper Bngadine, B. : lucerta ; 
Lower JEngadine, B : liiseharda ; Eastern Tyrolese of Gardena : 
lingiola ; Western Tyrolese of Sulzberg : niagnola. 

9. Catalan : sargantana, ^serguentana. Valencian : sarga- 
tana, sergatana, sergantana, sergancana. 

10. Modern OcciTANiAN. Provencal: lagramuzo^ lagramuo 
laDgramuOyloDgamuo, laDgromu, largamuo, lagar-muroy grate 
mure, chaou-de-San-Peire. uLofNimes: anglorso; id.ofCuges 
loumbrigucto ; id. of the Hautes-Alpes : . larmuza. Nigard 
estrapioun, lagramuza; Civennois: angloro, petiDgloro^rigolo^ 
rigotou; Vicarais: \a,Tmuzo; Languedocien of Montpellier: an 
grola, grata-muralhas, onglora, rigoloun; id.of Colognac: ren 
golo, lengloro, lengrolo, engloro, lagremuzo, grizolo; Castrais 
engrizolo ; Aghiois : sarnilho ; Boner gois : ongrouolo, ongrolo 
rengloro ; id, of Saint-Bauzely : clobeto, esclobeto, ringouleto 
id, of Millau : engrouolo; id. of Peyrelau : ingrono, engrolo 
id, of Campagnac : engrizouolo ; id. of Aubin : grochoule 
Southern Bouergois of Villefranche : claou-de-sen-Peire, claou- 
peide ; id. id. of Nant : engreoulo ; id, id. of Camarks : cd- 
gourtino ; id. id. of Behnont : luzerp, luzdr, lizert ; Northern 
Bouergois of Entraygues : serpouleto ; Pirigourdin : *angrizole 
(Boucherie) ; Lower Limousin : ^ngrouzouloy engrozoulo, *en- 
g^ozooulo (Boucherie) ; Gascon : semalho, sarnalho, claou-de- 
San-Peire ; Bearnese : singraoulheto, chichanglo ; Bayonnais ; 
chichanglo ; Mi-Pirigourdin : *angleite (Garrau) ; Auvergnat : 

11. FRANOO-OccrrANiEN. For^zien : larmuza, lermiza. 
Dauphinois : larmiza ; GSnevois : linzette, l^zette, gremilhette ; 
Lower Falaison of Vionnaz : lizerna ; Vaiidois : lizetta, lain- 
zar, lanzer, linzer ; id. of Lausanne : gremelhetta ; Fribourgeois 
Broyard: lantem^tta; id. Qouetso: lanse; id. GruMn: lans&; 


Neufchdtelois of La Parome : lancerda; id. of Lea Moniagties : 
Tcerda; id, of Val-de-Tr avers ; r9arda ; id. of Val-de-Ituz : 
liincerna; Jurassien ofLesFourgs: lazado; Franc-Comtois of 
PlancJter 'lea-Mines: lozadge; South-eaMern VosgienofVetUron: 

12. French : lezard. Berrichon : ra«iette, rapiette, lizette, 
luzette; Upjyer Manceaii: Hzarda; Champenois qf Langrea ; 1^- 
zarde ; Morcandeau : luierne, *luerne, *luanie, leujotte ; id. of 
t/tfi Nivernais : lujar, beurlujotte ; id. id. of t/ie North' West: 
liii«erne, luisarne (in some parts) ; Burgundlan : luzard ; 
Lor rain of Badonviller : l^zate, lezate ; id. Vexaincourt : re- 
* halle ; id, Lnvigmj : eurhaille ; id. Moyenmoutier : elhate ; wt 
Saint' Blaise- la- Roche : lezS, ; id. Saales : jorjolotte ; id. Pro* 
venchkres-s-Favei aolhaote; id.Lmse: erholate; id. Verdenal: 
nazade ; id. Port-sur'Seille : lezed ; id. Th^zey- Saint- Martin : 
couetre-pae ; id. Landremont : quete-brache ; id. Moitrons : 
l^zere; id. Custines: quouete-^-brouche ; id. Hoiville: lez6* 
dieu; id. Coiirbessaux : lez^; id. Finville: l^zS; id. Sommer* 
iillor : l^zSque ; id. Anthehipt : n^zegue ; id. Lemainvllle : W- 
zedieu; id. Laloiuf: lezete; id. Vandeleville : 16zdte; id. Ma* 
rainville: l^ze^rd ; id. Hergugney: lezetieu ; id. Rugneyi 
lezadhe ; id. Gircourt-les- Viecilh : l^zathioe ; id. Pierre^la* 
Treiche : lazate ; id. Domgermain : IcLzard ; id. Autigny-la" 
Tour : loj adieu ; id. Ahoncourt : lazeque ; id. Maconcourt : 
laiizade ; id. Houicourt : l^zatie ; id. La-Neuve- Ville'soua^ 
Monffort : lezathieu ; id. LignMlle : l^zadieu ; id. Oelvicourt : 
lazatieu ; id. Bouiilonville : lajaienne ; id. Martincourt : quatre- 
piche ; id. Hamonville : lezer ; id. Le Tholy : lohande ; id. JRa- 
monchamp: l^zdde; id. Champdray: leuhaute; f^. Orand* 
villers : lohhatte ; id. Deycimont : lahaute ; id. Docellea : io- 
haute ; id. Moyen : ellehete ; id. Vallois : elh^que ; id. io- 
chapelle: lehate ; id. Haillaincille : Uh&te ; id. Bompierrei 
lebhate ; id. Lea Bouges-Eaux : elhade; id.Mazelay: l^z&de; 
id. Sanchey : lohate ; Ban-de-la- Roche : chdnadrelle^ ohnidre^ 
inentre de fontaine ; Meaain : cou^tr^paye ; id. of Rimilly : 
l&z&r, cudtatre ', oudtdtrepay ; Walloon : kwatt-pees, *kater« 
pi^ge; Rouchii q tr] o ; Afl qfMatAeugei quatre-pierre; 


lezarde ; Poilevin : angro^ze, angroize, rapiette, labreche ; 
Saintongeata : angTote, langrote; id. JEastern Saintongeais : 
angroize, angoize ; Angevin : lizeard. 

13. Wallachian: sopirla, *8opirla (Bobb), *8operla (id.), 
•serpela (id.) ; Istro- Wallachian : guSceritsS. 

N.B. — Compare Latin lacerta with a great number of these 
words, which are very often strange corruptions of it, such as 
Lorrain lizatie, iojadieu, Ikhdte^ lohaute, iohande, Iq/dietme. 
Others, however, are not reducible to lacerta or laceriua, and 
these offer a good field for investigation, sometimes very diffi- 
cult, to etymologists. I shall limit myself to observing : 1°. 
that Low-Latin acorpio, as Ni9ard esfrapioun, seems to have 
been used not only for " gecko," but also for " lizard ;" 2°. 
that Beggiano aminUlla points to **argentum," on account 
perhaps of the sometimes rather silvery appearance of the 
abdominal plates and scales of the tail of this pretty little 
creature; 3°. that Chambure's derivation of luiserne from 
" lucerna," given in his " Glossaire du Morvan," Paris, 1878, 
receives confirmation, as I think, from Fribourgeois lanternktta, 
which points to " lantema," very much in the same way that 
liiiserne points to " lucerna." 

VIII. " LIZARD Vert " (also the " Lezard Ocelle "), 

Green Lizard. 

1. Italian : ramarro, *lucertolone, *lucertola verde, *liguro 
(ifonti), *luc6rtola verminara (Cherubini). Aretino : rdgono ; 
Roman : rdgano ; Marchigiano of Fano : raganacc ; Neapolitan : 
sajettone, tamarro, lancellotto ; Nolano : r&cano ; Ahruzzese : 
rdchon ; Tarantino : lucirton ; Leccese : lucerta erde, lucertone 
erde ; Capo di Lecce : sarm^nula ; Calabrian : scefroriu ; S/- 
cilian : lucirtuni ; Venetian : leguro, languro, lu«erta verde ; 
Vicentino: ligoro, ligaoro; Veronese: ligador; Bella nese : 
martinc6z, saltamartin ; Roveretan : lugord, ligord, lugor. 

2. Sardinian : Cagliaritan : calux^rtula manna. 

3. Spanish : lagarto. Aragoneae : fardacho. 

4. Portuguese : lagarto. 

5. Genoese : lago. Monagasque : axibertu ; Mentoneae : 


6. Gallo- Italic. Milanese: gh^zz. Comasco: lingor; 
VaftelUnese of Tirana : Hgor ; Verhaneae : lingori ; Bergatnaseo 
of Valle Gandino : ligorii, ligur, Hgurt ; id, of Valle Bretn^ 
hann : martinas ; id. of Valle di Scalve : leii ; Bresciano : 
lii'jertu, Hgoi ; Cremonese : lu>jert6on ; Piedmonteae : IajoI» ajol, 
la^erta verde ; Bolognese : liguri ; Modenese : rugr61, urgol, 
rugol ; Ferrarese : algur, argur, alguor, ligor, liguor ; Man^ 
tnan : lugher, lugar, liiaerton ; Parmesan : rang611, rig611 ; 
Parese : alio ; Romagnuolo : mar. 

7. Frioulan : 8b6rf, sbftrs. 

9. Catalan : llangardaix, llagardaix, Uagart, *llengar- 
daix, *llegart, lluert (in some parts). Mq/orcan : lagart. 

10. Modern Occitanian. Provengal: limber, laiinber, 
lainber, ringrolo. C^vennoin : laouzet, laouze, letrou, sernalhoy 
rasrido. Languedocien : laouzer, lazer, lezer, letroun ; id, of 
Monfpellier : sernalha, sarnalha ; Southern Rouergois of Nant : 
luzerp, Hzert, *liz6rp ; Upper Limousin : luzer ; Lower Litnou^ 
sin : llz^r ; Gascon : luzer, laouzer. 

11. Franco-Occitanian. Dauphinois : lhi«or, *larmiis 
(Charapollion) ; Gdnevois : linzard ; Vaudois : verd^ ; JtirfM-- 
sien : verdot. 

12. French : lezard vert. Berrichon ; lizanvert, lizard, 
lizerd, sacavert ; id, of Cluis-Neuvy : milanvert ; Champenoin : 
verdriot ; Morvandeau : varduiot ; id, of the Niieniais : veur- 
delle ; Burgundian : verdelle ; id, of the Tonne : verde^iau ; 
Walloon : vett kwatt-pess ; Poiteiin : lavert, lavart, lazvart ; 
Saintongeais : lazert, azert. 

N.B. — The etymology of several of these names is very 
obscure indeed, but many of them are related 1°. to " la- 
certus," as Spanish lagarto, Catalan lUigdrdaix^ lldngdrdaix^ 
lluert, with a great many other of this list ; 2^. to " viridis,'* 
as Vaudois verde with other four or five ; 3° to Latin lacertus 
riridis, as Mentonese lasibert, Monagasque axibertu, and 
Poitevin lazvart, lavart or lavert ; but Saintongeais iazert or 
azert points simply to •* lacertus "; 4°. it seems difficult not to 
connect Veronese ligador, Vicentino ligadro, Ferrarese aigudr 
(note the stress) with the scientific form alligatore, although 
this refers to an entirely different Saurian not found in Italy. 
It is rather amusing to observe the association of the proiKk** 

SECOND order: 8AURIANS. VIII.-X. 321 

name of Martin with that of this lizard in Bellunese martincoz 

or saliamartin and in Bergamasco martinas. Romagnuolo mar 

(for r'mar) seems to be an abbreviation of Italian ratnarro, the 

derivation of which from rame " copper " and its comparison 

with German kup/ereidechse "copper lizard" are mentioned 

by Diez at page 392 of the fourth edition of his " Etymolo- 

gisches Worterbuch der Romanischen Sprachen," Bonn, 1878 ; 

although no explanation is given of the termination -arro, with 

double r, which is very different from the Roman termination 

-aro with a single r, the latter of which corresponds to the 

Tuscan -aw, as in carbonaio, rom. carbonaro " coal-man." 

This beautiful, dazzling, and really fascinating saurian has 

been very appropriately described under his actual Florentine 

and only good standard Italian word ramarro by the greatest 

of all the Italian Poets in his '* Inferno," xxv. terz. 27 : 

** Como '1 ramarro sotto la gran fersa 
De' di canicular, cangiando sicpe, 
Folgore pare, se la via attraversa." 

As the green li%ardy under the great scourge 
Of days canicular , exchanging hedge, 
Lightning appeareth, if the road it cross. 

(Longfellow, slightly altered,) 


1. Italian. Sicilian : tiru. 

2. Sardinian. Logudorese : tiligugu, tilingoni (Cetti). 
CagUaritan : sazzaluga. 

N.B. — These words have no relation to the Latin scincm. 
It seems probable that their first part '' tili," which may also 
be found in Sassarese tilichelta and Logudorese tiligheria 
*' lizard," may have originally had a generic meaning. This 
remark applies also to the first part of Tempiese ziricheltay 
where ziri appears to be the same as Sicilian tiru and Italian 
*lirOy this last (under the sole responsibility of the Academy 
of la Crusca) meaning or having meant " viper " ! 

X. "Sbps." 

1. Italian : *cicigna. Roman : fienar61a ; Leccese : ser- 
piula ; Sicilian : cicigghiu. 

2. Sardinian. Logudorese: liscierba. Cagliaritan: schili« 
gafenu, lanzinafenu. 


3. Spanish : *sepa (Seckendorff), •sepedon (id.), ^sipedon 
(id.), *sipidon (id.). 

10. Modern Oocitanian. Provencal: lagramuzo, *rasado. 
Ni^ard : agulhouu de pra ; Langtiedocien of Montpellier : 

N.B. — Spanish *8epa, etc., are the only words related to 
Latin seps ; serpittla points to " serpens " ; *cieigna and 
cicigghiUf to '' ccocns " and to Low- Latin cicina, cedeula 
"slow- worm" ; fienardlay achiligqfenu, lanzinafenu^ liscierba, and 
agulhoun de pra " sting of meadow " remind us of " foenum^ 
herba," and "pratum," on account either of the slender 
shape of the aepa^ or because this innocent reptile, with very 
small eyes, delights in meadows amidst grass and hay. With 
regard to nadiuel^ this word is simply the phrase " has no 
eye," or n' a d' iiieL 

XL "Orvet," Slow- worm. 

1. Italian : lucignola, lucign61a, cecilia, angue, ^anfe^bdna 
(Vallisneri), •orbescicolo (id.), *orbettino (Nazari), ^serpSnte 
vermo (Cherubini),*serpente vetro (id.), *serp^nte fragile (id.), 
*8ubb6rgola (id.), solifuga (id.), biscia 6rbala (Monti), drbiga 
(Gambini), orbetto (id.), orbisolo (Pirona), ferula (Patriarchi). 
Ho f nan : cecella, cecigna ; luscengola (in some parts) ; Neapo^ 
Ulan : sparte-matremmuonio; Venetian: lanza, anza; Paduanz 
orbesiol (Nardo); Vicentino: bissorbola, bissa orbola; Belluneaei 
orbisigola, orbi^iola, revcAca ; Rovcretan : orbi^ola, orbarola. 

3. Spanish : *cecilia (Velasquez), •culebra vidriosa (Sek- 
kendorff), *8erpiente quebradiza (id.), *anfisbena (Schmid). 

4. Portuguese : licran9o, Hcan9o, *amphi«bena (Wagener)^ 
amphe«ibona (id.). Galician : liscacer, liscancre, bichorro. 

5. Genoese : soixella, scixiiclla, sagogiiia. Monagaaque : 
engheju ; Mentoncse: angriiej. 

6. Gallo-Italic. Milanese: orbi5o,orbesin. Lower Milanese i 
giazzo, vermiso ; Brianzuolo : tobivora ; Comasco : orbixola, 
tobisola : Vatellinese : vidarbola ; Verhanese : bissorbola, bissa- 
bissorbola; Piedmontesei orbaciol: Bolognese: urb«^in; Mav^ 
titan: orb«in; Parmesan: orbsein; Pavese: *mil6 (Manfredi); 
Ravennate : serpen d' vedur. 


7. Frioulan : uarbite, uarbitul, uarbirin, «gurbi«ul. 

8. RoMANESE : Oherland R, : cischeglia, cerscheglia. Ober- 
halhstein R, : schischeglia ; Upper Engadine R. : serpaint ; 
Lower Engadine R, : orba, serpaischen. 

10. Modern Occitanian. Provengal: ourguelh, ourguel, 
orvari, *ourguei. Ni^ard: agulboun ; Cicennoin: nadiuel, 
nadiel, anadiuel ; AgSnois : liset ; Rouergois of Montbazens : 
naduel, noduel, nondudl ; id. of SSverac : buorlhe, borlhe ; 
Northern Rouergois : odu^l, ozu^l ; id, id. of Car lades : borli; 
Gascon : anilh. 

11. Franco -OcciTANT AN. ForSzien: anlvel, borliou, bordou, 
borgnou. Dauphinois: argu^ou; GSnevois: lanvoui (pronounced 
"lanwi" according to Prof. Rieu) ; Lower Valaisan of Vionnaz : 
anv^; Vaudois: anvou^, orvet, lainzer; Jurassien: borgne, 
borne, bone ; id. of the Fourgs : auva, ova, bouanou ; Franc- 
Comtois: anvoie, anveau, anvd (Chambure); id. of Baume: 
an vet, dan vet, danvouet; id. of Plancherks-Mines : denveu. 

12. French : orvet, *aveugle, ^serpent aveugle, *envoye, 
•serpent de verre, *anguille de haie (Humbert), *roquet 
(HautMaine),*du«il (Nancy). Berrichon: anoeil, aneu, langou, 
borgne; Western Berrichon: angou ; Uppei* Manceau: auvet, 
auvin ; Morvandeau : lanviau ; Burgundian : lanveau (Cham- 
bure) ; Lorrain Vosgien : anveu, dzai ; id. of Montb^liard : 
anvet, dan vet, danvouet ; Ban-de- la-Roche: autre vie; Messin: 
bo{igne ; id. of RSmillt/ : b6gn ; Walloon : dizi, dzi, cizai ; 
Namurois : scorlo ; id. of Luxembourg : cawet ver ; Picard : 
corpion ; Upper Norman : orv^re ; Norman of the Bessin : 
OTYer; Poitevin: 80urd,angueneuil (Chambure); Saintongeais : 
gnieul; Angevin of Segri : an vain; Gallot: anva, auv^, anvai*. 

13. Wallachian: ceciliz, serpe orb curt (Bobb). 

N.B. — Cascilia, from ** ca)cu8," is the Latin name of this 
saurian, which, on account of its very small eyes, ignorant 
peasants suppose to be blind. Italian cecilia, Roman cecella, 
Romanese cischeglia, and Wallachian ceciliz derive from 
caeciliay but " orbus," in the sense of " blind," is the root of a 
much greater number of words belonging to this list, such as, 
for instance, the diminutive forms orbiao, Milanese ; urbsein, 
Bolognese ; uarbiful, Frioulan ; orcet, French. Other names 


are related to French borgne "one-eyed," as Rouergois 
buorlhe ; For^zien borgnou or bordou ; Jurassien bome^ bdne, 
and bouanou ; Messin bdgn. The phrase " has no eye *' n* a 
d' iuel {see p. 322) is recognized in C^vennois nadtml, nadielj 
and anadiuel; Rouergois naduil, noduSl, nonduil, oduil^ 
and ozuil ; Gascon anilh ; Berrichon anoeil or aneu ; Sain- 
tongeais gnieul; Poitevin angueneuil, the first element of 
which points to "anguis" snake. " Angois " is also related to 
ItsilisLn angue ; Ginevois lanvoui ; Yalaisan anr^ ; Franc-com- 
tois danvouet ; French *enroye ; Western Berrichon angoa ; 
Burgundian lanveau. 

Third Order. "Ophii»tans" or Snakes. 
XII. " Serpent," Snake (generally) and (particularly) 



1. Italian: s^rpe, serpente, *angue, *colubro, •colubre, 
biscia. Livomese : selp^nte ; Roman : s^rpa ; Northern CoT" 
sican : serpu ; Sasmrese : salpa, silpenti, colora ; Tempiese : 
salpi, salpenti ; Southern Corsican : sarpi, sarpenti ; Neapolitan z 
scorzone; Tarantinoi scurzon; Calabrian: cursune: Sicilian: 
serpi, sirpenti, culovria ; Venetian : bissa, •serpento. 

2. Sardinian. Logudorese : serpente, colora. Cagliaritan : 
serpenti, coloru. 

3. Spanish : serpiente, sierpe, culebra, *culebro. Asturian : 

4. Portuguese : serpente, serpe, cobra. Oalician : eobrega ; 
id, of the Bierzo : crioba. 

5. Genoese : serpente, bisc-cia. Monagasque : sarpente ; 
Mentonese : serpent, biscia. 

6. Gallo-Italic. Milanese : serpent, bissa, biss. Comasco : 
verm ; Valteilinese : verom ; Val di Blenio : bi886gn ; Berga-- 
ftiosco : serpent, b^ss ; id, of Val di Scalve : erem ; id of Valle 
Cavallina : erem, v^rem ; Piedmontese : serp, serpent : Bohn 
gnene : serp^int, bessa ; Mod^nese : serpeint ; Parmesan : bissa ; 
Romagnuolo : sarpent. 

7. Frioulan : serpint, biss, bisse. 


8. RoMANESE. Oberland It, : siarp. Bergun iJ. : zerp ; 
Lower Engadine R, : serp, aerpaint. 

9. Catalan : serp, serpent, *vibre, culebra. 

10. Modern Occitanian. Provengal: s^r, ass^r, assear, 
sarpen, giscl&, colobro, colobre, coulobri, coulobre, anguilho 
de botiisoun, anguielo de bouisoun. id, of Aries: calobrou ; 
Langudocien : ser, serp, serpent, sarpent ; id, of Montpellier : 
anguiala de bartas, anguiala de garriga ; Touhmain : coulobro ; 
JRouergots : serpen, gJscl&s, giscle ; Upper Limousin ; barboto ; 
Bearnese : quiraule ; Auvergnat : chear ; id, of ClertnonU 
f errand : bissa ; Upper Aucergnat : boba. 

11. Franco-Occitanian. Forizieni gisclou. Dauphinois: 
sarpin, coulu vra ; Savoyard : sarpsfe ; GSnevois : sarpent, ser- 
pent ; Vaiaisan of Val d' Ilfiez : borthiau ; Lower Valaisan of 
Vionnaz : serp^ ; Vandois : serpein ; Fribourgvois Gru4rin : 
serpin ; Neufchdtelois of Les Montagnes : sarp& ; id. of Val-de- 
Travers : sarpin ; South-eastern Vosgien of Ventron : kelieve ; 
id. id. of Vagney : k^li^ve ; id. id. of Ramonchamp : 

12. French : serpent, couleuvre, *couleuvre de haie, 
*anguille de haie, *givre (heraldic). Berrichon : sarpen te, ser- 
pente, couleuve, anguille de boisson; Burgundian: sarpant; 
vivre, guivre, *vouipre, *vevre ; Lorrain of Vexaincourt ? co- 
lieure ; id. Mailly : coHeuve ; id. Laneuvelotte : colufe ; id. 
Anthelupt : couldve ; id, Maconcourt : couiuvre ; id. Domger- 
main: quivre; id. Autigny-la-Tour: queiuvre; id, Trampot: 
couiUuvre ; id, Pergny-sous-Mureau : quieuvre ; id. Circourt' 
8'Mouzon : quei'euvre ; id. Liverdun : couleufe ; id. Le Tholy : 
colftve; id. Champdray: colOre; Lorrain Vosgien: cuelieve 
(Nancy); id. Meusien of Dommartin: serpent; Ban-de-la- 
Roche: coulieuve; Messin: coHeufe, wivre; Walloon: si^rpin, 
colow, coloAv ; Ardennois of the Condroz : calowe ; Namurois : 
coloflt ; Picard : serpin, kyuyeuv ; Norman : couHeuvre ; id, 
of the Vexin : could ve ; id. of Valognes : quiUeuvre ; id. of 
Mortain : couvre ; Poitevin : vremine, lie, allant ; id. of Saint* 
Maixent : vremena^ ; Gallot : caleuve. 

13. Wallachian : Serpe, searpe, sarpe, SopirlS (Cihac). 




1. Italian. Marchigiano of Fabriano : gcorsone ; Roman : 
cerviotto, cervone, Bcorzone, *correntone. 
3. Spanish: alicante. 
6. Gallo-Italic. Ferrarese : scurzon. 
10. Modern OcciTANi AN, Nigardi bisas, besas. 
12. French : couleuvre k quatre raies, quatre raies. 

XIV. "Elaphe d'Esculape." 

1. Italian : saettone, *i&ciilo, *ba8toniere (Pirona), *acdnzia 
(Azzolini), •biscia da prato (Malaspina), *angi6 (Tiraboschi), 
*8mil6rdo (id.), *biscione inglese (Cherubim). Sicilian : saet- 
tuni ; Venetian : carbonazzo, carbonasso ; Vicentino : scar- 
bonazzo ; Roveretan : carbonaz. 

6. Gallo-Italic. Milanese : serpan. Bergamasco : bissill ; 
id, of Valle San Martina : gat6be ; Mantuan : ansa, angia ; 
Parmesan : bissa da pr^. 

10. Modern OcciTANiAN. Nigard: bisan. 

12. French : esculape, serpent d'Esculape, couIeuTre 

XV. " Tropidonote a collier," Water- adder. 

1. Italian : vipera acquaiuola, biscia acquaiu61a, sdrpe ao* 
quaiu61a, *biscia del collare (Gambini), * vipera d'acqua (Me- 
taxa), *marasso d'acqua (id.), *serpente nuotatore (id.), •an- 
guilla di siepe (id.), *natrice, *piccol6cchio (Pirona), *colabro 
dal collare (id.). Roman: carbone, magnar6spi; Leccesei 
casara, l^sena, lessendra, serpe pintu, ipera d'acqua ; Sicilian : 
guisina ; Vicentino : ranar61a. 

2. Sardinian. Logudorese : pibera de abba. Cagliaritan : 
pibera de aqua. 

5. Genoese : bisc-cia d'a^gua. Monaga^que : bisc-cia ratie* 
ra ; Mentonese : biscia ratiera. 

6. Gallo-Italic. Milanese: bissa d'acqud. Upper Milanede: 
bissa ranera; Bresciano: vipera d'aqua ; Bolognese: bessamda; 
Mantuan : biss ; Parmesan : bissa da aqua, bissa da I'aqua, 



*mi6 (Malaspina) ; Pavese : bissa d'aqua : Romagnuolo : bes- 
sansula, bessa ansula. 

7. Frioulan : madracc. 

10. Modern Occitanian. Nigarcl: vipera ; Languedocien : 
vipero ; Castrais : serp a coulie, serp a coli^ (Gary). 

12. French : couleuvre & collier, couleuvre d'eau, serpent 
d'eau, serpent nageur ; Saintongeau : sarpent beyinee. 

13. Wallachian : nUpHrca, nopircS, serpe de apX (Bobb). 

XVI. " Tropidonote Vip£rin." 

1. Italian : vipera acquaiu61a a scacchi. Roman : zinna- 
vacche, magnasorci, scacchi^ra ; Smsarese: pibbara; Tempiese: 
• 2. Sardinian. , Logudorese : pibera. Cagliaritan : pibara. 

12. French : viperiue. 

XVII. "Coronelle LissE." 
12. French : lisse. 

XVIII. " Coronelle Bordelaise." 
12. French : couleuvre bordelaise. 

XIX. " Zamenis Vert et Jaune." 

1. Italian : biacco, *baccbio (Casaccia), *8erptete uccella- 
tore (Pirona). Roman: mil6rdo, bello; Leccese: scursune ; 
Vicentino: anza. 

2. Sardinian : colora puzzonargia. 

5. Genoese : bisc-cia oxelinha. 

6. Gallo-Italic. Milanese : 5mir61d, mirold, bil6, scorson, 
*smilord6n (Biondelli), *mil6rd (id.). Verhanese : rattera ; 
Bergama^co of Valle Cavallina : erem horgat^r ; Parmesan : 
ini6; Paveae: mil6. 

7. Frioulan: magne. 

10. Modern Occitanian. Nigard: bisa; Upper Auvergnat : 


12. French: couleuvre verte et jaune, yerte et jaune. 
Saintongeais : dard, derd, silant. 

XX. " Zam^nis Vert et Jaune. Vari^6 noire." 

1. Italian. Lecceae; serpe niuru ; Bellunese: carbonaz. 
7. Frioulan : carb6n, carbonazz, 9harbonazz. 

XXI. " Vipere," Adder. 

I. Italian : vipera, *vipra, ^marasso, *tiro (Crusca). 
Country Florentine : lipera ; Leccese : ipera ; Sicilian : vipara. 

3. Spanish: vibora. 

4. Portuguese : vibora. Galician : naya, sacaveira. 
6. Genoese: vipera. 

6. Gallo- Italic. Milanese : vipera. Comasco : lipara ; 
Bergamasco : lipera, lipera, ipera, ^pera ; Bolognese : vepera ; 
Modenese: vipra; Ferrarese: vipara; Parmesan; vipra; 2Jo- 
magnnolo : vepara ; id, of Imola : vepra. 

7. Frioulan : vipare, lipare. 

8. Romanese. Oberland It. : vivra, *viura (Sale), vippra 
(Carigiet). Upper Engadine M.: vipra; Eastern Tyrokse of 
Fassa : vipera. 

9. Catalan : escorso, escurso, vibora, *vipera, *vibre, *vi- 
vorii, *vibria. 

10. Modern Occitanian. Provengal : vipero, vibro. JW- 
gard: vipera; Languedocien of Jfontpellier : vibra; Toulousain: 
bipero ; Rouergois : bip^ro. 

II. Franco-Occit.vnian. Lyonnais : vipere ; Savoyard : 
vipera; Lower Valaisan o/Vionnaz: wivra ; Neufchdteloia of 
Les Montagnes : vivra ; Franc-Comtois : vipare ; Jut^assien : 

12. French : vipere. Berrichon : evip^re, verpie, varpie, 
vouivre ; ilorvandvau : vip^e ; Burgnndian : vipere, vivre ; 
Lorrain of Motbeliard: voivre (Burguy); Messin: wivre 
Poitecin : vip^ere. 

13. Wallachlvn : ndptlrccl, nopirca, viperS. Kiitzo-JFaUa' 
chian : napurtica ; Istro- Wallachian : catscii. 


XXII. "Aspic." 

1. Italian: dspide, *&8pido, *a8pe. Sassarese: dlpidi ; 
Neapolitan : ^spede, &speto, ^speta ; Southern Calabrian : 
&spitu ; Sicilian : £spidi. 

2. Sardinian. Logudoreae : dspide. Cagliaritan : dspidi. 

3. Spanish, ^spid, *a8pide. 

4. Portuguese : fapide, dspid (Roquete). 

6. Gallo- Italic. Piedmonteae : dspide, &8pido. 

8. BrOMANESE. Upper Engadine R,i aspid; Lower Engaditie 
It, : aspide. 

9. Catalan: aspit. 

10. Modern Oocitanian. Ni^ard: aspic. 

12. French : aspic. Berrichon : aspi ; Upper Manceau : 

13. Wallachian : dspid^ &spide. 

XXIII. " Vip^re Prester," Black Adder. 

1. Italian : scorsone. Sicilian : scursuni. 

N.B. — To the Latin words serpens and its root scrpo, coluber, 
vipera (from vivipara), and a^pis the origin of a great number 
of the names of the ophidians is due. They are indeed more 
or less altered, but their derivation is always recognizable. 
Such are, for instance, Sassarese salpa^ Languedocien ser, 
Auvergnat chear, Tempiese salpenti, Cagliaritan coloru, Galician 
cdbrega, Galician crioba^ Lorrain quelui>re and quivre, Berga- 
masco lipera and ^pera, Berrichon verpie, Messin tcii>re, Nea- 
politan dspetd, Upper Manceau aspiquin, I talian btscia, Milanese 
bissa and biss, Bergamasco bess, etc., are related to Portuguese 
bic/io " worm," for what is " worm " in one language may 
become " snake " in another. Compare Danish orm, having 
the first sense, with Swedish orm, used in the second ; and 
also Bergamasco irem, meaning sometimes *^ snake " and 
sometimes " worm." Perhaps biscia (see Diez, p. 358) points 
to " bestia." Venetian lanza and anza " slow-worm," Mantuan 
anza and angia " ^laphe d'Esculape," Bolognese bessanzla 
and Romagnuolo bessa dnzula [liter, "snake angel"), both 
meaning " water- adder," are not derived, as it has been 


supposed, from " anguis," any more than Venetian lanza and 
anza (which derive from "lancea"), but they point to 
" angela," as it is clearly shown by Romagnuolo. In some 
legends snakes are considered as disguised fairies, and it is 
not more strange to consider them as disguised female 
angels. Moreover, the unlikely mutation of Latin " gu '* 
into " z " is opposed to the anguis theory, while anza from 
anzia is explained by the suppression of the / of the Bolognese 

Fourth Order. "Batil\chians*' or Frogs. 

XXIV. " Grenouille " (generallv), Frog. 

Italian : rana, ran6cchio, ranftcchia, *ranella (Cherubini). 
Lh'ornese : grandcchio ; Northern Corsican : granocchia ; JVipa- 

politan : granogna, ran6gna, ran6nchia, ranav6ttola ; Abruz- 
zeae : ranabbott ; id. of Teramo : ranocch j ; Tarantino mara- 
vu^tt; Sicilian: giurana. 

2. Sardinian : rana. 

3. Spanish : rana. 

4. Portuguese : ra, *arra. Galician : ran, ra. 

5. Genoese : nena, roonetta. Mentonese : granuja, raina. 

6. Gallo-Italic. Milanese : ranna. Bergamasco : rana ; 
Piedmontese : ranha ; Bolognese ran6cc, *ran6cia ; Parmesan : 
rana, ranocc (Peschieri), rantocc (id.) ; Romagnuoio: ran&lla; 
id, oflmola: ran6ci. 

7. Frioulan : cr6tt, rane. 

8. RoMANESE. Oberland R. : rauna, rouna. OberAalbatein 
jR. : rangla ; Lower Engadine R, : rana, 

9. Catalan : granola, *rana. Majorcan : grandt. 

10. Modern Occitanian. Provencal: granoulho. Quey- 
ramen : grapaout ; Cerennois : granouyo ; Langtiedocien q, 
Monfpellier : granoulha, gragnola ; Ca^trais : engragnotOp 
eugragno, engronoulho, gragnoto : Toulousain : granoalho ; 
JRouergois : gronoulho, rone ; Gascon : graoulho, gramoulho ; 
Bordelais : rana ; Bat/onnais : graoulho 

pouRTH order: batrachians. xxiv.-xxvi. 331 

11. Franco- OccTTANiEN. Forezien: rana. Daupldnois: 
ranqueta ; Loicer Valaisan of Vionnaz : renadhe ; Fribour- 
geois Gru^rin : renaille ; NeufchdteUm : renauille ; Jurassien 
oftheFourg%: reneuille; Bresaan: renoille ; Franc- Comtois : 
renouille, renoueille (Chambure) ; id. of Plancher-les-Mines : 
crayotte ; South-Easiern Vosgien of Ventran : rene ; id. id. of 
jRamonchamp : guemouille, guemouye. 

12. French : grenouille. Berrichon : raine, gueumoilley 
guemoille, grenoille, guernouillat ; Manceau : grenouille ; 
Upper Manceau: reii&«elle, jiloire; Percheron: guemaoude; 
Champenois of Troyea : raigne ; id. of Reinia : guernouille ; 
Morvandeau : renoueille, eurnoille, eumoueille ; Burgundian : 
renouille; Lorrain of Hahlainvillei guemoAe; id. Badonviller: 
guernouye; id.Trampot: guernauille; id.Maconcourt: grenoue; 
id. Gelcecourt: r^ne; id. Longuet: guernouye; Lorrain Vosgien: 
rane, ranotte ; id. of Monthdiard : renoille ; id. of Luniville ; 
guemaye; Messin: gu^rnaille; id. of Remilly: r^nn ; Rouchi: 
roigne, rouene; Lillois: guemoule ; Ptcar J : ragne; Norman 
Avranchin : gufenouille ; id. of the Bessin : avriete, abri^te ; 
id. of Guernsey : ra'ine ; Poitevin : greneuille, gueumeuille ; 
Saintongeais : gumeuille. 

13. Wallachian : broascS. Istro- Wallachian : jab3. 

XXV. "DiscoGLossE Peint. 


1. Italian : *Rana verde acquaiu61a (Cherubini), rana 
acquaioula (Getti). 

6. Gallo-Italic. Milanese : ranna de la Madonna, ranna 
de San Giovann. Parmesan : camparett (Peschieri). 

12. French : grenouille d'aigail (Jonain). Saintongeais : 

XXVI. "Grenouille Eousse. 


1. Italian: rana prataiudla (Pirona), rana muta (id.). 
Ahruzzese of Teramo : grassell P 

3. Spanish : rubeta. 

4. Portuguese : rila, rubeta. 

PhU. Tranf. 1888-3^4. 23 


6. Gallo-Italic Milanese : ranna de praa, fraa, saltafraa. 
Comasco : pissacan ; Cremonese : camphor ; Parmesan : rana 
da pr&, rana mutta, campardtt. 

7. Frioulan : cr6tt di ro^ade, crdtt di San Pi^ri, pissar- 

N.B. — On comparing Latin rana and Low Latin ranunculus 
with the majority of the names in the preceding list, it will 
appear that several of them are more or less recognizable 
alterations of the Latin. Such are, for instance, Italian 
ranocchio and *ran^lla, Livomese grandcchiOj Neapolitan 
grandgm and randnchid, Portuguese *arr5, Parmesan rdntoeo, 
Oberhalbstein Romanese rangkt, Gastrais engragiio^ Bouergoia 
rone, Dauphinois ranqueta, Valaisan renadhe, Percheron 
guernaoiuk, Morvandeau eurnoueille, Lorrain guernoue, eto. 

XXVIL "SoNNEUR A ventre couleur de feu.** 

I. Italian : botto (Cherubini). Liicchese : boddacchino 
(id.) ; Bellunese : budol. 

6. GALLo-IrALic. Milanese: pissacan. Upper Milanese i 
bagaggell ; Ronmgnnolo of Imola : zambeld, bot. 

7. Frioulan : mucc, cr6te. 

II. Franco-Occitanian. G^nevois: boc; Vaudoi^: hd, hot 
12. French : •crapaud pluvial (Gherubini), ^grenouille 

sonnante (Grandgagnage),* crapaud sonnant (id.). Berrichon: 
sourd, tk, ta, mou, mou-mou, muet, r&le, r&lett, ramaige, 
loutaud, marais (coUectiv.) ; Lorrain Meusien : bo; Walloon: 
lurtai; id. of Namiir: coulouk; id, of the Luxembourg: clouk- 
clouk; id.qftheArdenms: clouktai, cloktai, clouktrai, crook- 
trai, clicherou. 

N.B. — Some of the names of this curious small batrachian 
are onomatopoetic, but the sound of its voice is not always 
represented with equal success ; as, for instance, in Frioulan 
mncCy Berrichon ta or mou-mou, which, according at least to 
my ears, are farther from the genuine voice of this little 
creature than Walloon of Namur coulouk, of Ardennes clauk* 
trai, and, above all, of Luxembourg clouk-clouk. 



XXVIII. "Rainette Verte," Green Frog. 

I. Italian: raganella,ranoccbiella,*granocchiella, ♦ran 611a, 
*ran6cchia di San Martino (Schneller), *rana San Martino 
(Gambini),*ranetta verde (Tiraboschi), *ranetta, di San Mar-, 
tino (id.), *ranetta di San Pi^tro (id.). Marchigiano of Fano : 
cantardlla ; Abruzzese ; racanella, rachen (Costa) ; id, of 
Teramo: rabbu6tt; Leccese: ranuocbiedda ; Venetian: racola, 
ran^la (Pirona) ; Paduan : racoleta ; Roreretan : r&cola de San 
^uam, rana de San Ziiam, rana de Santa Maria. 

5. Genoese : raena da limuin. Mentonese : granuja. 

6. Gallo- Italic. Milanese : *ranna de la Madonna, 
♦ranna de San Giovann, ranna samp^der, ranna martinna, 
nanastr^U, marra6tta, ranetta, *bagagg611. Upper Milanese : 
bagaggella ; Valtellinese : caiss ; Verhanese : verd&cola ; Ber- 
gamasco : rana marina, rana sanmartina ; Bresciano : rana 
cantarela ; Piedmontese : ranba martinba ; Ferrarese : ran in 
dal Sgnor ; Mirandolano : rana dal Sgnor ; Parmesan : rana 
d' San Peder, ran^la, ran^inna, camparett da pr^ ranooc 
(Malaspina) ; Pavese : ranata, rana dal Signour ; Pomagnuolo : 

7. Frioulan : CTa9ule, bar&cule, barascule, racule. 

10. Modern Occttanian. Provencal: reineto, brousso, 
Languedocien of MontpelHer : raineta, reineta ; Rouergois : 
rone ; Southern Rouergois of Belmont : roineto ; id, id, of 
Saint Sernin : tzor ; Northern Rouergois of La Montague : 
berdon^l ; Lower Limousin : rale ; Gascon : raineto. 

II. Franoo-Occitanian. Vaudois of Aigle : graisset, 

12. French: raine, rainette, *verdier (Vayssier), *gre- 
nouillecriarde(Haut Maine). Tourangeau: grenacelle; Upper- 
Manceau : grenoisalle, graissetin ; Lorrain Vosgien : crochotte, 
gu^moye vouabhe ; id. Meusien : sibourelle, raine corasse ; 
Ban-de-la-Roche : cracbatte; Messin of Rimilly: vabbe renn; 
Walloon: rSnn coress, renn corett; id. of Bois-de- Viller: renn 
cornett; id. of Namur: r^nn c6ra88, renn-corett; Norman: 
gresset ; Poitevin : grenevele ; Saintongeais : gumevele, gr'ne- 


vele, gumes^le, gr'uee^ele, rane ; id. Eastern Sainiongeais : 

N.B. — Some of the preceding words point to rana in a 
diminutive form ; others to " viridis " ; others are onomato- 
poetic ; and a very few are cognate to the Roman rdgano 
** green lizard," or are etymologically perplexing. For 
instance : 1°. Italian *ranell<i, Leccese ranucchiedda^ Pro- 
ven9al reineto, Tipper Manceau grenoiaalie ; 2°. Yerbanese 
rerddcola, Rouergois berdonil, Vosgien gnemoye vouahhe\ 
3^ Frioulan crapik, haracule, bardscule, rdculey and Venetian 
rdcola ; 4°. Italian raganilla, Abruzzese rdchen and racanklla ; 
6°. ValtelHnese caisa, Rouergois tzor. 

XXIX. " Crapaud/' Toad. 

1. Italian: b6tta, r6spo, ♦bufone, *b6tto (Ferrari), *zam« 
baldo (Tozzoli), *b6tta campaiuola (Cherubini). Lucchese: 
b5dda ; Chianautolo of Castiglion Fiorentino : bottelone ; Mar* 
chigiano of Fahriano : ciammuotto ; id, of Sinigaglia : ciamb6tt ; 
Sassarese : rana ; Tempiese : ruspu ; Neapolitan : ranavudttolo, 
granavu6ttolo, granavufttto, cranavuottolo, granavdtta, grana* 
vuottola, ruftspo, vu6tto ; Abruzzese : ranabb6tt, rabb6tt ; 
Leccese : r^spu ; Sicilian : buffa, rftspu ; Padu^n : r6spa ; Ft- 
centino : crote ; Veronese : rosco, rosea ; Roceretan : rosch. 

2. Sardinian : rana. 

3. Spanish : sapo, escuerzo, jaen (Figuera). Aragonese : 

4. Portuguese : sapo. Galician : escorzo, *coguerzo. 

6. Genoese : baggiu, rospu. Monagasqiie : bagiu ; Ment<h 
nese: babi. 

6. Gallo-Italic. Milanese : sciatt, pabbi, babbL Comasco : 
pabi ; Ticinese of Bellinzona \ verdacca; Yerbanese of Val An* 
zanca : ciatt ; Bergamasco : sat ; Bresciano : rapatii ; Cremih^ 
iiese : zatt ; Piedwontese : babi ; Bolognese : rdsp, ruspdt, b5t, 
b6ta ; Jfodenese : pacciana ; Mantnan : fada (ugly toad) ; Mi* 
randolano: fada; Parmesan: fada; Pavese: zat; Romagnuoh: 
zambeld, zambdlgh, zambeldgh, bot; id, of Inwla: butaraza. 

7. Frioulan : save, «av, rdsp, cr6tt mal6s, mal68. 



8. RoBiANESE. Oherland R, : ruscg, ruse. Oberhalbstein 
jB. : rostg; Upper Engadine H. : ruoschel ; Lotoer Engadine JR. : 
raosc, ruosp ; Eastern Tyrolese of Oardena : cr6t ; id. id. of 
Fossa : rosch ; id. id. of Buchenstein : ourost ; id. id. of 
Ampezzo: aorosch. 

9. Catalan : calapat, gal&pat, calapa, *ga1&pet, gripau, 
*gripaut, *grapaut, *grapalt, *grapQl. Valencian : sap, sapo ; . 
Majorcan : cal&pot ; Minorcan : calapet. 

10. Modern Occitanian. Proven^l: grapaou, crapaouy 
babi. Cecennois: grasan; Ca^frais: grapal; Toulousain: sapoii^ 
(old toad) ; Itou^rgois : gropal ; Upper Limousin : gropaou ^ 
Gascon: cholou, harri, grapaout; Bearnese: sapou; Bayonnais: 

11. Franco- Occitanian. Forizien: possi-vachi. Lower, 
Valaisan of Vionnaz ; bo ; Vaudois : cro ; Frihounjeois Orudrin : . 

crap6; Jurassien of Champagnole y. crapad, boa; id. of the 
Fourgs: cropaud; Franc- Comtois of Plancher-les-Mines: bot ; 
South-Eastern Vosgien of Ventron : bad. 

12. French : crapaud. Chwnpenois of Troyes : boterel ; 
id. of Beru ; botret ; id. of Riceys : bote ; id. of the Yonne :. 
nonau-liilu; Morvandeau: bo, bdteret, toutou, sibot (in 
some parts); Lorrain of Vexaincourt: crop& ; id. Verdenal: 
crap& ; id. Landremont : bad ; id. Moivrons : crepaud ; id^ 
Racilk: crepft; id. Aboncourt : cropod; id. Menil-en-Xaintoisi 
erSp^ ; Lorrain Vosgien : paur6me ; Ban-de-la-Roche : orepa ; 
Messin : bat, pouromme ; id. of Rdmilly : ba, crepo, rega ; 
Walloon : crap6 ; Picard: crapeux ;. Norman Br ay on : crapou ; 
id. of Lisieux : crapa ; id. of the Bessin : Vlin ; Poitevin ; 
grapaud, grapia ; id. of Parthenay : bot : Eastern Sain^, 
tongeais : grapi& ; Gallot : crapiau, crap^. 

13. Wallachian : broascH riioasa. 

XXX. ^'Crapaud Vert,*' Natter-jack. 

7. Frioulan : campandlL 

N.B. — Derivatives of bufo, tbe Latin name of this very 
ugly, although harmless, and rather useful, but much calum- 
niated reptile^ are to be found with certainty only in Italian 


*bnfone and Sicilian buffa. It is not equally clear that Pied- 
montese bahi or Genoese baggiu are related to it. Italian 
hdtta is also a Low Latin word, and Lucchese bddda, Nea- 
politan viidtto, Bolognese bdt^ Morvandeau bd^ Messin ba^ 
Charapenois botret and boterel, Chianaiu61o botielone, Roma- 
gnuola btUaraza, etc., are simply their derivatives, diminatives, 
or augmentative forms. Lucchese bddda, moreover, seems 
particularly related to Swedish padda^ Dutch pad^ both mean- 
ing "toad," and to English paddock, "large toad." The 
union of rana " frog *' with botia has produced, as I think, 
Abruzzese ranabbdU and rabbdtt, Neapolitan granavdttd and 
cmnavudttold, all words pointing to French crapaud and its 
numerous cognate names, such as Low Latin crapaidua and 
drajwlhis; Catalan *grapaU, *grapaly *grapatif, *grapau, and 
gn'pau; Rouergois gtvpal ; Lorrain crop&y crip^\ Picard 
crapeux ; Poitevin gmpia, etc. With regard to Catalan cald' 
pat or galdpat and Majorcan caldpot, the two first mean also 
" tortoise," and I am far from rejecting the analogy, as 
Diez suggests at p. 758 of his celebrated work, between 
crapaud and caldpaf, although Italian *gaiana {see p. 314, 
at IV.) may possibly point to a difterent origin of 
galdpat. In Komagnuolo zambildy Marchigiano ciamhdti 
or ciammudtto, and Italian *zambaldo, the words W//, 
budtto (changed into mudtto under the influence of the 
first " m "), b^Idy and baldo are united with the prepositive 
2am or ciamm, which may be nothing more than Roma- 
gnuolo zampa "paw,*' as if it meant "paw-toad." With 
regard to Italian rdspo, this word, in spite of its alterations, 
offers great analogy with Tempiese ruspu, Leccese reapu, 
Veronese rosco or rosea, Romanese ruscg, Tyrolese aoraaeh 
or ouront, etc. Spanish and Portuguese sapo are analogous 
to Frioulan mve and Bearnese sapou, Milanese sciaii, Verba- 
nese ciatf, Bergamasco saf, and Cremonese zati point to Italian 
sciaffo, meaning " slovenly, shabby, awkward," as toads 
certainly are in an eminent degree. Spanish escuerzo and 
Galician cscorzo bear a strong resemblance to Catalan escor^d 
*•' adder," Italian scorzone " black adder," Roman scorzane 
" cluphe a quatrc raies," Neapolitan scorzone " snake (gener- 


ally)," Leccese scurmne " Zam^ais Vert et Jaune." These 
examples show that the same word may be applied to difiPerent 
reptiles, in different dialects. Modenese pacciana, according 
to Oalvani, with whom I agree, derives from Italian ** pancia " 
or " peccia," both meaning " paunch," — and who, in sooth, 
is more tun-bellied than our toadp Italian ''fata" means 
" fairy," but popular superstition shows itself in Mirandolano 
and Mantuan fada, as well as in Parmesan /add, in which 
dialects the toad is considered as a fairy. German krote finds 
its way into Vicentino crote, Frioulan crdU " frog," Tyrolese 
of Gardena crdt. Norman of the Bessin, by v'lin, means not 
only " poison," but also " toad." Compare Italian " veleno " 
and Latin "venenum," both meaning only ** poison." This 
application of the idea of poison to the name of this poor 
batrachian also appears in other languages, in which the 
name of the toad is related to Latin ''toxicum," which in 
itself means only " poison " ; while the animal is called tomek, 
in Breton ; tosek, in Breton of Vannes ; iudne, in Danish ; 
tossa, in popular Swedish ; tuzey in Low German of Holstein ; 
tuutz, in Low German of Bremen ; tachsen, in German of 
Silesia; tddje, tddige, in Anglo-Saxon. Other names have 
been referred, but sometimes very unreasonably, to onomato- 
poeia, and others will perhaps exert the acumen of future 
etymologists. Some instances are : Morvandeau toutou, 
Vaudois cro, Jurassien boa, Bresciano rapatii, Ghampenois 
nonaU'lulN, and ! ! I paurdme in Vosgien, literally meaning 
" poor man," the onomatopoeia of which rests, I am afraid, 
upon the too fervid imagination of some ingenious persons 
{see Oberlin, p. 192). 

XXXI. " Balamandre," Newt (generally) and (particu- 
larly) " Salamandre Terrestre," Land Newt. 

1. Italian : salamandra, *salamandria (Florio), *raagrasio 
(id.). Abruzzese of Teramo : tarantul d' acqu, salamandr, 
scinch ; Roveretan : sarm&ndola, sermdndola, rochenstoe ; id, 
of Vallarm : rochenstoz. 

2. Sardinian : salamandra. 


3. Spanish : Balamanquesa, salamandra, Balamandria, 
•estelion (Academia). 

4. Portuguese : salamandra, salamanteigay *salamantiga. 
Galician : pinta, pintega, pintiga, secdbera, sacaveira (Ro- 

5. Genoese : silv^stru. Mentoneae : salamandriay sala* 

6. Gallo-Italic. Milanese: scercaria ; id. in some parU of 
the country : lu^ascia, rosascia. Upper Milanese : cercaria ; 
Milanese of Varese : bissarcwa ; id. of the Lario : coriizzola ; id, 
towards Como : ro«6tta ; id. towards Piedmont : piovana ; Co- 
masco : cercagma, rosa marina ; Ticinese of Val Maggia : rorai ; 
iil. of Val Yerzasca : ro«ana ; Verbanese : lii^drta ; Piedmontese : 
piovanha; Bolognese: salamandra; Parese: salamandra. 

7. Frioulan : salamandre. 

8. RoMANESE. Oberland R. : salamander, salamandra, la- 
schart (Garigiet). Heinzenberg R. : da quatter pezzas. 

9. Catalan : salamandra, salamandria. 

10. Modern Occitanian. Prorengal: alabreno, arabreno, 
labreno, talabruno (Honnorat quoting Desanat). Nigard : 
salamandra; Cdvennois: talabreno; Vivarais: lebrdno; VeiaU' 
nien : vero, soufle ; Languedocien of Montpellier : talabrena, 
alabrena, blanda, blenda, blenta; Rotiergois of Millau : blonde, 
blondo ; Southern Rouei^gois : blando ; Northern Rouergoia of 
Carlades: blounde; Bayonnais: escourpioun. 

11. Franco-Occitanian. Forizien: alabranda, talaurina, 
taurina, labruna. Lyonnais: laberne; Dauphinois: taloour^a, 
lourissa, pluvine ; Gdnevois: molion; Vandoisi tatchet; id. of 
Montreux : metro ; South-Eastern Vosgien of Ventron : taase- 
v^tche ; id. of Vagney : crauchatte. 

12. French : salamandre, *sui8se. Berrichon : soufflet, 
sauret ( Jonain) ; Western Berrichon : t&, ta ; Morvandeau : t^, 
escorpion ; Lor rain of Parux : meltre ; id. Vexaincourt : men* 
tr^ ; id. Moyenmoutier : mennetrS ; id. Saales : m^nnetr^ ; id. 
Provencheres-s-Fare: craeh&ote; id, Sommerciller: salamanque; 
id. Mandray : avion de rochte ; id. Mailly ; cou^tr^paie ; id, 
Manoncourt-sur-Seille : couette-brache ; id. Domgermain: Ian* 
geawe ; id. Gclvicourt : crochotte ; id. Bouillonville : quatre* 


ficbe ; id. Le Tholy : tosse-veche ; id, Yienville : crachotte ; 

*«. Oerh^pal : crftche ; id, Champdray : crocheute ; id, Lacha- 

P^Ue : crochatte ; id, of Month^liard : te ; Measin de R^milly : 

cu^t'trepay, cuetetrepay ; Walloon : salamantt ; id, ofNamur : 

^gn ; id. of Ltixemhourg : tette de vache ; Montois : quatre- 

i^ierre; Norman: mouron ; id. Bray on: tac; id. of the Bemn : 

^ou^ron, mouoroQ ; Poitevin : ablette, ablai«e, mirtil, am- 

*^^^e, quate-pattes ; Saintongeais : sereine ; Q allot : sourd. 

13. Waliachian : solomsLzdra, s^lUmslndrii, *8ol5m^dr^ 
f^e:^con), *sc>l5mezdra (Bobb). 


XXXIII. " Triton," Water Newt. 

XXXIV. " Triton Ponctu^/' Smooth-Newt. 

1 J 






I - 




1 . Italian : *toraletolina (Bibron, ix. 70), *tartalina (id. { 

^^- 71). 1 



8. Spanish : salamanquesa de agua, *lagartija de agua 

l^almyreno, I., E iii.). \ 

4. Portuguese : salamanteiga aqu&tica, *8alamantiga ] 
^quatica. [ 

5. Genoese. Eastern Genoese : vaccavea. ; 

6. Gallo-Italic. Lower Milanese : tardntola, tardncola ; ; 
Mantuan : lu.9erta d'acqua ; Piacentino : tardntula ; Pavese : J 
tardntula. j 

10. Modern Occitanian. Provencal: lagramuzo d'aiguo, 

salamandro. I 

11. Franco-Occitanl\n. Vaudois: tassot. j 

12. French. Berrlchon: tH, ta; Norman of Cherbourg: j 
teranne, terane. J 


3. Spanish : salamandra acudtica. ) 

12. French. Norman of the Bessin : persiyfete. J 

N.B. — Latin salamandra, Low Latin aalamandria, and even 
Low Latin stellio, in its misapplication to this reptile, are \ 

recognizable, more or less, in such words as Italian salamandra, 


Spanish salamandna, Roveretan s^rwdm/o^, "Walloon salamantt^ 
Portuguese *8alamantiga, Lorrain sa/^imanqtie, Spanish 9ala- 
manqtwsay Wallachian sdldmazdrd, and Spanish ^esielion, (but 
this last under the sole responsibility of the Spanish Academy). 
In consequence of the grossest ignorance, newts have 
been supposed to be deaf, with as much truth as slow- 
worms are believed to be blind, and, accordingly, we have 
Gallot sourdy literally ** deaf;" and, as both poor creatures are 
gratuitously considered very venomous, the Berrichons, who 
call the newt ta^ have the two following sayings which I 
quote from Jaubert, p. 636 : 1°. Si le ta entendait, 8i Vorvet 
rof/aif'^ Le monde bientot finirait, "If the pewt could hear, if 
the slow-worm could see, the world would soon finish." 2°. 
Aprks le ta, Faut le drop, "After the newt, one needs the 
pull." Languedocien hlanda^ blenta, and Rouergois bhndo point 
to blandus "flattering," and this is confirmed by Saintongeais 
sereine^ " mermaid " in Old French. The vulgar French name 
*Hui88e, given to the newt, alludes, I think, to tlie variegated 
colours of the French sume livery, colours which are oon- 
spicuous on the skin of most of these batrachians. Allusion 
to a coloured skin is also observable in Galician pinta^ pintiga^ 
pointing to piniar " to paint." The idea of " rose " is re- 
markable in Milanese ro^ktta, lit. " small rose ;" rosascia, and 
very likely lumscia^ its corrupted form, " unsightly rose ;** 
bissarosa " rose snake ;" in Comasco rosa manna " marine 
rose," romi and romna. Allusions to the sucking of a cow, 
to her dug, or only to a cow, or to draw the breast generally, 
are to be noted in Lorrain ioshe-viche, lit. "sucks cow;"- in 
Walloon teffe de vaehe " cow's dug ;" in Vaudois iatchet and 
faasof, and in Genoese raceareay lit. "true cow." Compare 
with these, For^zien jwrn-vachi "toad," and Roman zinna^ 
vacche " tropidonote vip^rin," both meaning literally " sucks 
cow." Piedmontese 7;/'omw//r/ and Dauphiuoisji>/wrme point to 
phiria "rain," after which these reptiles are often seen in 
great quantity walking in procession. Berrichon soirfflet and 
Velaunien soitfle are related to French Bouffler "to blow," 
which newts are in the habit of doing. Berrichon sauret 
points very clearly to aavpo^ "lizard," of which it is a mere 


diminutive form. Names referring to the fact that newts are 
^our-footed may be recognized, in spite of some very strange 
alterations, in Poitevin quafe-pattes, lit. "four paws;" in 
XiOrrain conetU-hrache " four arms," cou^irepdie, quatrefiche ; 
^^ Montois qiiatrepierre "four stones," and in Heinzenberg 
^omanese da quatfcr pezzas. Compare with these, Walloon 
^f^att-pess " lizard ;" Rouchi qtiaierpiSche, lit. " four pieces ;" 
-^^iTain qiiatrepiche. The two last mean also " lizard." 
^; slloon rogn points to French rogne "inveterate itch," a 
"^^ease which, according to some ignoramuses, newts can 
'*^nsmit to man. Lorrain iangueaice belongs to the same 
^^ot, "anguis," to which Burgundian lanveau "slow -worm" 
. ^^gs. Roveretan rochemfoe and rochensfoz are akin to 
*^9ostuarz0y which in the Tyrolese German dialect of the 
' ^lley of Lech is the name of the black newt. Rogastuairzo^ 
Moreover {see Schoeller, p. 171), is very similar to Teutonic 
^^kJcesturz, lit. "hurled down upon the back" and also "devil." 
To Norman tac and its variations, Berrichon td or ta, Lorrain 
of Montb^liard ^^, and Morvandeau te, an onomatopoetic 
origin founded on the voice of the newt cannot directly be 
attributed, because newts are voiceless ; but frogs and toads 
are not so, and as td or ta is also the Berrichon name of the 
"Sonneur a ventre couleur de feu XXVII," a batrachian 
whose name has, with more or less appropriateness, been ex- 
plained by onomatopoeia, the same explanation might be 
extended to its voiceless homonym, the newt. "With regard 
to the " Sonneur," it will be observed that its Walloon names, 
clouktai and birtaiy seem to present te as one of their compo- 
nents, particularly clouktai^ which may be considered as the 
coulouk of Namur followed by the te of the Morvandeau 
dialect. I leave, for the present, the investigation of the 
origin of several other names, not only of the newt, but also 
of the other European reptiles, of which I have in this paper 
merely mentioned the names, to the ingenuity of future 



Orthographical and Phonetic Remarks. 

Although the orthography I have followed is much nearer 
to that in common use in the different dialects than to a 
regular and conventional phonetic transcriptioUy still I think 
that the following rules will be useful, in some cases at least, 
to give an approximative idea of the manner in which the 
names of the reptiles are pronounced. 

1. The acute accent (') generally indicates the stress accent 
on a short vowel, but in some languages it shows also the 
quality of the sound. {See 9, 18.) 

2. The grave accent (') in Italian and the dialects spoken 
in Italy generally indicates the stress accent on a short final 
vowel, but in some languages it shows at the same time the 
quality of the sound. (See 10, 19.) 

3. The circumflex accent (") generally indicates the stress 
accent on a long vowel or also, as in French, a long vowel 
without reference to stress accent, but in some languages it 
may indicate either only the quality of the sound, or quality 
and tonic quantity at the same time. {See 5, 11, 15, 20.) 

4. (H) indicates the obscure Wallachian sound resembling 
English u in much. 

5. (&) shows French d in dme, between a in father and a in 
all ; and Wallachian d or J, which represents a peculiar vowel 
resembling a nasal (ft). {See 4.) 

6. 7. (a, ao) sound as a in fnan, but in Catalan, and par- 
ticularly in Portuguese, this vowel slightly partakes of the 
sound of English u in but, 

8. (e) represents English e in bed, between (6) and (i) in 
those dialects which have no more than one e sound. In other 
dialects, (c) may also sound as (6), or as French e in cheval 
" horse." The French and Franco-Occitanian dialects, as a 
rule, follow the French orthography in this particular point, 
even witli regard to the final e and consonants, although 
neither of the latter, when expressed in writing, are quite so 
often null in these dialects as in the standard language. 


9. 10. (e, h) sound as French S and i, except in Portuguese, 
where (6) sounds (^). 

11. ($), as French S generally, but in Roraagnuolo it 
receives the sound of (6) slightly partaking of that of French 
{eti) in feu " fire." In Portuguese, however, (S) sounds (6). 

12. (a), as French e in cheval or nearly so. 

13. (a), as the same, but nasal and atonic 

14. (a), as a peculiar sound lying between French u and 
French eu in feu. 

15. (1), as the Wallachian nasal &. (See 5.) 

16. (in), as a nasal English e in be, or as the Portuguese 
im in sim " yes." 

17. (o), as English o in more, between (6) and (6), in those 
dialects which have only one o sound. In other dialects, (o) 
may also sound as (6), but, in Neapolitan, Portuguese, and 
Piedmontese, atonic (o) represents generally the sound of 
English 00 in fool, but short, or French ou in loup 
" wolf." 

18. 19. (6, 5), as French o in dM'ot and derofe '* devout," 
except in Portuguese, where (6) sounds (6). 

20. (6), as French 6 generally, but in Romagnuolo, as 
(6) slightly partaking of French oeu in co^ur " heart." In 
Bolognese, (6) represents a kind of diphthong, the first 
element of which resembles English a in all, followed by 
the aftersound of French ou, and with the emphasis on the 
first vowel. In Portuguese (6) sounds (6). 

21. (o), as the Wallachian d. (See 4.) 

22. (ou), as French ou, but only in French, Franco-Occi- 
tanian, and Modern Occitanian, while anywhere else the 
pronunciation is (o) plus (u), or, as in good Portuguese, (6). 

23. (u), as English oo in fool, but short, or as French 
ou. In French, Franco-Occitanian, Modern-Occitanian, and 
Piedmontese, (u) sounds as (ii), or French ei. 

24. (ii), as French u. 

26. (c) sounds 1°. as k, before a, o, u, and the consonants, 
in all dialects, and also at the end of a word, in Frioulan, 
Romanese, Modern Occitanian, Franco-Occitanian, French, 
and Wallachian ; 2°. as ch in child, before e and i, in Italian, 


Sardinian, Genoese, Gallo-Italie, Frioulan, and Wallachian, 
and also at the end of a word, in Gallo- Italic and the Italiaa 
dialects ; 3°. as 8 in so^ before e and t, in Portnguese, Catalan, 
Modem Occitanian, Franco-Occitanian, and French ; 4°. as 
th in think^ before e and i, in Spanish and Northern 

26. (ch) : 1°. as k, in Italian, Sardinian, Genoese, Gallo- 
Italic, Frioulan, Catalan, and ^yallaohian ; 2°. as a palatalized 
k, nearly as ki/, before i, in some Italian and Wallachian 
words, as occhi, ochi "eyes," almost pronounced "okkyee, 
okyee"; 8°. as a simple sound lying between t and eh ia 
child, in Koraanese ; 4^ as ch in child^ in Spanish, Galician, 
Proven9al, and some other Modern Occitanian dialects ; 5°. 
as «^, in Portuguese, French, Franco-Proven9al, and some 
Modem- Occitanian dialects ; 6^ as German guttural fricative 
ch in nacht " night," in Saintongeais. 

27. (chi), nearly as ky, before la, ie, to, and iu, in Italiaa 
and Wallachian. 

28. (ci), as ch in child, before a, o, and u, in Italian, 
Sardinian, Genoese, Gallo-Italic, and Wallachian. 

29. (9) : 1°. as s in so, in Portuguese and French ; 2°. as 
ch in child, in Frioulan. 

30. (9h), as Romanese ch, in Frioulan. 

31. (c), as lUyrian c, a simple sound, nearly ksh, in Istro- 

32. (dd): 1°. as a strong alveolar and ordinary (Non- 
English) d; 2°. as a velar d (in some dialects, nearly ddr), 
when (dd) corresponds to Latin //, as this happens in Sicilian, 
Southern and Central Calabrian, Leccese, Tarantino, Sassarese, 
Tempiese, and (partly) Southern Corsican. 

33. (g) : P. as (7 in go, before a, 0, u, and the consonants, 
in all dialects, and also at the end of a word, in Frioulan, 
Romanese (only after a, 0, and u). Modern Occitanian, Franco- 
Occitanian, French, and Wallachian ; 2° as/, before c and i, in 
Italian, Sardinian, Genoese, Gallo-Italic, Frioulan, Romanese, 
Proven9al, and other Modern Occitanian dialects, and also, at 
the end of a word, in Gallo-Italic, Romanese (except after a^ 
0, and ti), and the Italian dialects ; 3"^. as 5 in pleasure, before 


e and t, in Portuguese, Catalan, some Modern Occitanian 
dialects, Franco-Proven9al, French, and Wallachian ; 4°. as 
German ch in nacht, before e and i in Spanish ; 5°. as 
German guttural fricative g in tag "day," before e and i 
in Saintongeais. 

34. (gh) : 1^ as g in go, in Italian, Sardinian, Genoese, 
GtJlo-Italic, Frioulan, Romanese, and Wallachian ; 2^ as a 
palatalized hard g, nearly as gy, before i in Italian, but 
very rarely, as in ragghi "brayings," almost pronounced 
" braggyee." 

35. (ghi), nearly as gy, before ia^ ie, to, and iu, in Italian 
and Wallachian. 

36. (gi), as J, before a, o, and u, in Italian, Sardinian, 
Genoese, Gallo-Italic, Frioulan, and Romanese. 

37. (gl) ; 1°. as gl in ghry, almost in all dialects ; 2°. as a 
palatalized / (the so-called French "/ mouille," which, 
however i» hardly recognized any longer in modern French,) 
before i in Italian and Sardinian, but with a very few excep- 
tions ; and also before e and at the end of a word, in 

38. (gli) : 1°. as git in glitter, almost in all dialects ; 
2^ as a palatalized /, before a, e, o, and n, in Italian, Sardinian, 
and Romanese. 

39. (gn) : 1°. as gn in dignity, in Spanish, Portuguese, Cata- 
lonian, and Wallachian ; 2°. as a palatalized n or French gn, in 
Italian, Sardinian, Genoese, Gallo-Italic, Frioulan, Romanese, 
Modern Occitanian, Franco-Occitanian, and French. 

40. (gu) : 1°. as goo in goose, or as French gu in ambigu 
** ambiguous," according to the dialectal pronunciation of u 
{see 23) : a.) in all dialects, before consonanta and at the end 
of a word ; b.) before all vowels, in Italian, Sardinian, 
Genoese, Gallo-Italic, Frioulan, and Romanese ; c.) only 
before a and o, in Spanish, Portuguese, and Catalan. 2^. as 
^ in ^0 : a.) before all vowels, in French, Franco-Occitanian, 
and Modern Occitanian ; b.) only before e and «, in Spanish, 
Portuguese, and Catalan. 

41. (h), as A in horse, but only in the Gascon and Bearnese 
dialects and some Lorrain varieties ; it is mute elsewhere. 


42. (hh), nearly as German ch in nachL 

^3- Og)> ^ A digraph, at the end of a word, occurs in 
Homanese and sounds as j\ as well as in Catalan, where it 
sounds as ch in child. Instances are : teig " roof," pronounced 
•* tej *' ; roig " red," pronounced " roch." 

44, 45, 46. (il, ill, 1), as a palatalized /, or as y in you^ 
according to the nature of the various French, Franco-Occi- 
tanian, or Modern Occitanian dialects where these symbols 
may occur, either as a digraph or a trigraph, as in French ail, 
caiUe '* garlic, quail," pron. " ah-y, kah-y." In mil " miUet," 
pron. " mee-y," y is represented by a single /. 

47. (ix), as M, in Catalan. 

48. (j) : 1°. as y in you, in all the Italian dialects, except 
pure Tuscan, and in Sardinian, Genoese, Gallo-Italic, Frioulan, 
and Homanese ; 2^. as two ^*s in he, in Italian, at the end of a 
word ; 3°. as j\ in Proven9al and some other Modem Occi- 
tanian dialects ; 4°. as « in pleasure, in Portuguese, Catalan, 
some Modem Occitanian dialects, Franco-Proven9al, French, 
and Wallachian ; 6°. as German ch in nacht, in Spanish ; 6°. 
as German guttural fricative g in tag, in Saintongeais. 

49. (Ih), as a digraph represents a palatalized / in Portu- 
guese and wherever else it occurs. 

50. (11), as a digraph, represents either a palatalized /, or y 
in you, according to the nature of the various French, Franco- 
Occitanian, and Modern Occitanian dialects ; and only a 
palatalized /, in Spanish, Galician, and Catalan. Instances 
are fiUe " daughter," pron. in France '* fee-y " or " fee-ly "; 
Hit " bed," pron. always " lyeet," in Catalan, and bello 
" beautiful," pron. always " bellyow," in Spanish ; and never 
'* yeet, beyyow." 

51. 52. (ra, n). These letters, in Portuguese, Gallo-Italic, 
and the dialects of France, but very seldom in Modem Occi- 
tanian, are nothing more than signs of the nasality of the 
preceding vowels. This happens generally either when, being 
single, they are preceded by a vowel and followed by a con- 
sonant, or when they occur at the end of a word, being pre- 
ceded by a vowel. Tonic vowels are frequently liable to 
become nasal in Portuguese (?), and sometimes in the French 


dialects and oTen in French, before consonantal m or n, 
80 that these letters are, at the same time, both real sounds 
and signs of nasality. Great variety exists in the above- 
mentioned dialects, not only in the frequency, but also in the 
number of the nasal sounds, as well as in the nature of the 
nasality. It is to be noted that (n), except in Portuguese 
and French, is almost always pronounced as (m) before a 
bi-labial consonant, and as n<j in shtger before a guttural one, 
even when (n) ends a word and the labial or guttural con- 
sonant begins another ; provided, however, the two words 
are intimately and syntactically united ; and this condition 
determines also the addition of a consonantal n after the 
nasality of the French vowels indicated by a final n. "We 
have, in fact, bon ami " good friend," and bon d /aire " good 
to do," pronounced " bonahmee " and " bo ah fare," in the 
same way that we have in Spanish san Benito " Saint Bene- 
dict," and dan pronto " they give quickly," pronounced 
" sahmbaneetow " and "dahn proantow." 

53. (n), as French gn, in Spanish and Galician. 

54. (nh), when used as digraph, sounds as French gn in 
digne " worthy," in Portuguese, and as n^ in singer, in 
Galician, Genoese, and Piedmontese. 

55. (ny), as French gn, in Catalan. 

56. (qu) : 1°. as coo in cool, or as French cu in vaincu 
"conquered," according to the dialectal pronunciation of u 
{see 23) : a.) in all dialects where it may possibly occur, at 
the end of a word, or even, as in Gallo-Italic, before a con- 
sonant ; b.) before all vowels, in Italian, Sardinian, Genoese, 
Gallo-Italic, and Romanese ; c.) only before a and o, in Por- 
tuguese and Catalan. 2°. as A: : a.) before all vowels, in the 
dialects of France ; b.) only before e and i, in Spanish, 
Portuguese, and Catalan. 

57. (s), as s in so, except in Portuguese wlien it occurs at 
the end of a word, or before the sounds /, k, p, t; ia which 
case it sounds as sh, or nearly so. 

58. (s), as z, except in Portuguese, when it occurs before 
a consonantal sound not being /, k, p, t; in which case it is 
pronounced as a in pleasure, or nearly so. 

PhU. Irani. 1882-3-4. 24 


69, 60, 61, 62. (sc, sci, sch, s), as sA, except (sc) before 
a, 0, It, and the consonants ; in wln'ch case it sounds as sk. 
In the dialects of France, Catalan, and sometimes in Portu- 
guese, SCO, sci sound as 8 in so, and in Spanish and Portuguese, 
as (s) plus (c). 

63. (schg), as j, in Romanese. 

64, 65. (sg, sgi), as 5 in pleasure, except when (sg) occurs 
before a, o, u, and the consonants ; in which case it is pro- 
nounced as ssg in gross gai^niture. 

66, 67, 68. (s-c, sc-c, s-g), as (s, sc) plus (c, g). 
69, 70. (tsch, tj), as ch in child, 

71. (ts), as Italian z in lo zio " the uncle," or nearly as is. 

72. (x) : 1°. as ks, in Spanish, Portuguese, Komanese, 
Catalan, Modern Occitanian, and French ; 2°. as gz, in 
Catalan, Modem Occitanian, and French ; 3^ as k, in French ; 
4°. as 8 in so, in Portuguese, Modern Occitanian, and French ; 
tf, as 25, in Portuguese and French ; 6°. as sk, in Asturian, 
Portuguese, Galician, and Catalan ; 7^. as s in pleasure, in 
Cagliaritan and Genoese. 

73. (y), as c in ke, in Spanish, Portuguese, Catalan, Modem 
Occitanian, and French ; and as f/ in f/ou^ in Spanish, Catalan, 
Modern Occitanian, Franco-Occitanian, and French. 

74. (z) : 1^. as s, in Portuguese, Catalan, Modem Occi- 
tanian, Franco-Occitanian, French, and Wallachian ; 2°. as s 
in so, in Southern Galician ; and, at the end of a word, also 
in French, when it is neither silent nor " lie " ; 3°. as sh, or 
nearly so, in Portuguese, when it occurs at the end of a word 
not followed by another word ; 4°. as s in pleasttre, or nearly 
so, in Portuguese, when it occurs at the end of a word followed 
by another word beginning with a sound other than/, k,p,t\ 
6\ as th in think, in Spanish and Northern Galician ; 6°. as 
Italian ;: in lo zio, or nearly as fs, in Italian, Sardinian, Genoese, 
Gallo-Italio, Frioulan, and Romanese. 

75. (;:), as Italian :: in lo zvlo "the zeal," or nearly A, 
in Italian, Sardinian, Genoese, Gallo-Italic, Frioulan, and 

N.B. AMiercTcr accents are merely tonic without reference 
to quality or quantity, they are, in print, expressed only : 1**. 


Ui the last syllable of words ending with a single Towel soand, 

except " 6" or "eu" ; 2°. in the last syllable but one of words 

^ding with a consonant, or with more than one vowel sound, 

or with " o " or " eu " ; 3°. in the tonic syllable of words of 

^^^ than two syllables. Every word having no printed 

^^nt is to be read as if the accent were placed : 1^ on the 

^i syllable of words ending in a consonant, or with more than 

®^e vowel sound, or with •* o " or " eu " ; 2°. on the last 

V^ble but one of words ending with a single vowel sound, 

f^cept "o** or "eu/' These rules do not apply to French and 

^t8 doalects, where all the words are oxy tone, at least for the ears. 


■^^^^:planation op the Names of some of the Pialecis 


^'^ngmn : The French sub-dialect of the ancient province 

Ox ,jk • 


-^errichan : The French sub-dialect of the ancient province 
j^ -^rot/ard: A Franco-Pro ven9al dialect of the canton of 
^ibourg, in Switzerland. 

i)a8trai8 : A Proven9al sub-dialect of the ancient province 
Languedoc, spoken at Castres. 

Cevennois : A Proven9al sub-dialect of the ancient province 
Languedoc, spoken in the Cevennes. 
Forezien : The Franco-Proven9al dialect of the ancient 
>ovince of Le Forez, dependent on the Lyonnais. 
.,^ Gallot : The French sub-dialect of the ancient province of 

Oruerin : A Franco-Provengal sub-dialect of the Canton 
^f Fribourg, in Switzerland. 

Juraamn : A Franco-Proven9al sub-dialect of the ancient 
province of Franche-Comt^. 

KuizO' Wallachian : The Wallachian dialect of the ancient 
territory of Macedonia. 

Manceau : The French sub-dialect of the ancient province 
of Le Maine, 


Messin : A Frencli sub-dialect of the ancient province of 
La Lorraine. 

Monagasque : The Genoese sub-dialect of the principality 
of Monaco. 

Montois : The French sub-dialect of Mens, in Belgium. 

Morvandeau : The French sub-dialect of the Morvan, an 
ancient district dependent on the Nivernais. 

Nigard : The Proven9al sub-dialect of Nice, in France. 

Nivemak : The French sub-dialect of the ancient province 
of the Nivemais. 

Percheron : The French sub-dialect of Le Perche, an 
ancient dependency of the province of Le Maine. 

Poitevin : The dialect of the ancient province of Poitou. 

Qouetso : A Franco-Proven9al sub-dialect of the canton of 
Fribourg, in Switzerland. 

Rouchi: The French sub-dialect of Valenciennes, in the 
ancient province of Flanders. 

Rouergoia : The Proven9al dialect of the ancient district of 
the Rouergue, in the province of Guienne. 

Saintongeais : The French sub-dialect of Saintonge. 

Tourangeau : The French variety of the ancient province 
of Touraine. 

Vehunien : The Proven9al sub-dialect of Le Velay, an 
ancient district dependent on the province of Le Vivarais. 

Vosgien : The French dialect of the Yosges, in the anoientsiJ 
province of La Lorraine. 

Bibliography of the Works and Authors quoted, 

Academia : Diccionario de la lengua castellana por I^- 
Academia Espauola. Madrid, 1852, fol. 

Azzolini: Vocabolario vernacolo-italiano pei distretti 
veretano e trentino. Venezia, 1856, 8vo. 

Bible (generally). 

Bibron : Erpetologio g^n^rale, par Dum^ril, et 
Paris, 1834-54, 10 vol. 8vo. 

BiondcUi : Saggio sui dialetti gallo-italici. MiL 10^ 


JSobb : Dictionariu rumanesc, lateineso si unguresc. Clus, 
1822-23, 2 vol. 8vo. 

Boucherie : Patois de la Saintonge. Angouleme, 1865, 8vo. 

Burguy : Glossaire de la langue d'oil. Paris, 1870, 8vo. 

Canto : Diccionario espailol-portugu^s, por Do Canto e 
Castro Mascarenhas Valdez. Lisboa, 1864-66, 3 vol. 4to. 

Carigiet : Ratororaanisches Worterbuch, surselvisch-deutscli. 
Bonn, Chur, 1882, 16mo. 

Casaccia : Dizionario genovese-italiano. Genova, 1876, 8vo. 

(Ceiti) : Anfibi e Pesci di Sardegna. Sassari, 1777, 8vo. 

Chambure : Glossaire du Morvan. Paris, Autun, 1878, 4to. 

Champollmi : Vocabnlaire du patois de Tlsere, par Cham- 
pollion Figeac. Paris, 1809, 12mo. 

Cherubinii Vocabolario milaneso-italiano. Milano, 1839-56, 
5 vol. 8vo. 

Cihac {de) : Dictionnaire d'etymologie daco-romane. Franc- 
fort s/M., 1870-79, 2 vol. 8vo. 

Costa : Vocabolario zoologico comprendente le voci volgari 
con cui in Napoli ed in altre contrade del Regno appellansi 
animali o parti di essi. Con la sinonimia scientifica ed 
italiana. Napoli, 1846, 12ino. 

Criisca : Vocabolario degli Accademici della Crusca. 
Firenze, 1729-38, 6 vol. fol. 

Der^ Die, Das oder Nomenclatura. Scuol, 1744, 8vo; 

Diez : Etymologisches Worterbuch der Romaniscben 
Sprachen. Bonn, 1878, 8vo. 

Ferrari: Vocabolario bolognese-italiano. Bologna, 1853, 8 vo. 

Figuera : Diccionari mallorqui-castelld. Palma, 1840, fol. 

Florio : Queen Anna's New "World of "Words, or Dictionarie 
of the Italian and English tongues. London, 1611, fol. 

Fonseca {da) : Diccionario francez-portuguez. Pariz, 1841, 

Galvani : Saggio di un glossario modenese. Modena, 
1867, 8vo. 

Gambini: Vocabolario pavese-italiano ed italiano-pavese. 
Pavia, 1850, 4to. 

Garrau : Ley Tastounemens d'un avugl^. Bordeaux, 1838, 


Gary : Dictionnaire patois-fran9ais si Tusage du Tarn. 
Castres, 1845, 12mo. 

Chrandgagnage : Dictionnaire ^tymologique de la langue 
wallonne. Li^ge, 1845-80, 2 vol. 8vo. 

JIatU Maine: (Vocabulaire du). Le Mans, Paris^ 1859, 

Honnorat : Dictionnaire proven9al-fran9ais et fran^ais- 
proven9al. Digne, 1846-48, 4 vol. 4to. 

Hubert : Dictionnaire wallon frangais. Li^ge, 1857, 12mo. 

Jauhert : Glossaire du centre de la France. Paris, 1864-69, 

2 vol. 4to. 

Jdnain : Dictionnaire du patois saintongeais. Royan, 
1869, 8vo. 

Lexicon : Yalachico-Latino-Hungarico-Germanicum. Budse, 
1825, 8vo. 

Littre : Dictionnaire de la langue fran9aise. Paris, 1863-77, 
5 vol. 4to. 

Malaajn'na : Yocabolario parmigiano-italiano. Parma, 
1856-59, 4 vol. 8vo. 

Manfredi : Dizionario pavese-italiano. Pavia, 1874, Svo. 

Metaxd : Monografia de' serpenti di Roma e suoi contomi. 
Roma, 1823, fol. 

Monti : Yocabolario dei dialetti della citt& e diocesi di 
Como. Milano, 1845-56, 2 vol. 8vo. 

Morri : Yocabolario romagnolo-italiano. Faenza, 1840, 4to. 

Nancy: Dictionnaire patoi8-fran9ais si I'usage des Pooled 
des Yosges. Nancy, 1842, 12mo. 

Nardo : Studj filologici e lessicografici sopra alcune recent! 
giunte ai vocabolarj italiani. Yenezia, 1855, 8vo. 

Nazari : Parallelo fra il dialetto bellunese rustico e la 
lingua italiana. Belluno, 1873, 8vo. 

Oberlin : Essai sur lo patois lorrain du Ban de la Roohi 
Strasbourg, 1775, 8vo. 

Orti e Mayor : Fiestas centenarias con que Yalencia c 
en el dia 9 de Octubre de 1738. la quinta centuria de siz: 
Christiana conquista. Yalencia, 1740, 4to. 

Palmyreno : Yocabulario del humanista. Yalentia), 16 

3 vol. 8vo. 


Patriarchi: Vocabolario veneziano e padovano. Padova, 
1821, 4to. 

Pereyra: Prosodia in Vocabularium Trilingue, Latinum, 
Lusitanicum, et Castellanicum. Ulyssipone, 1670-74. fol. 

Pesckieri : Dizionario parmigiano-italiano. Borgo San Don- 
nino, Parma, 1836-53, 3 vol. 8vo. 

Pirona : Vocabolario friulano. Vocabolario- italiano-friulano.' 
Venezia, 1871, 8vo. 

Remack : Dictionnaire wallon et frangais. Liege, 1839-43, 
2 vol. 8vo. 

Eodriguez : Diccionario gallego-castellano. Coruua, 1863. 

Roquete : Dictionnaire portugais-fran^ais. Paris, 1841, 

Sale (da) : Ftindamenti della lingua retica o griggiona, 
air uso di Sopraselva e di Sorset. Vocabolario italiano e reto 
di due lingue romancie. Disentis, 1729, 4to. 

Schmid : Diccionario espailol y aleman. Aleman y espaiiol. 
Leipzig, 1795-1805, 2 vol. 8vo. 

Schneller: Die romanischen Volksmundarten in Siidtirol. 
Die italienischen Mundarten. Die ladinischen Mundarten. 
Gera, 1870, 8vo. 

Sechmdorjf \ "Worterbuch der deutschen und spanischen 
Sprache. Diccionario de las Icnguas espanola y alemana. 
Hamburg, Niimberg, 1823-24, 3 vol. 8vo. 

Tiraboschi : Vocabolario dei dialetti bergamaschi antichi e 
modemi. Bergamo, 1873, 8vo. 

TozzoH : Dizionario domestico imolese-italiano. Imola, 
1857, 8vo. 

Vallisneri: Opere fisico-mediche. Venezia, 1733, 3 vol. 

Vai/88t€r : Dictionnaire patois- fran9ais de TAveyron. Rodez, 
1879, 4to. 

Velazquez de la Cadena : Spanish-English and English- 
Spanish pronouncing Dictionary. Paris, 2 vol. 8vo. 

JFagener : Portugiesisch-deutsch und deutsch-portugiesi- 
sches Lexikon. Leipzig, 1811-12, 3 vol. 8vo. 

Zanotto : Vocabolario metodico italiano. Venezia, 1852-55, 
2 vol. 8vo. 


Arrangement of the Lists, and some Explanations. 

In the preceding lists, the names of the thirteen living 
Neo-Latin languages which I recognize as distinct are pre- 
fixed in order to each paragraph in small capitals, and the 
names of the dialects are given in Italics, When an * is 
prefixed to a name and no authority is annexed, it indicates 
that the name is antiquated, or obsolete, or uncommon, or 
not very common, or less used, or not principally used. When 
an * is prefixed and the authority is added in ( ), the name 
is given on that authority only, as I have not heard it myself 
or found it in other works. 

When the name of one of the thirteen languages is im* 
mediately followed by that of its dialect, the word quoted 
belongs only to the dialect and not to the literary or prin* 
cipal dialect itself by which the whole language is repie* 

The dialectal Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, and Frenoh 
names are not given when they do not difier more or less in . 
form, meaning or orthography from those still in use in 
standard language to which they belong ; and, when 
dialectal word is given in one of the principal dialects of 
language, it is not repeated in the other dialects of the 




Thb following paper is an attempt to give a general account 
of the use and treatment of English words in the colloquial 
Welsh of the present day. Most of the statements here made 
are applicable to the whole of Welsh-speaking Wales ; but 
the paper treats more particularly of the dialect spoken, with 
slight variations, in the Counties of Brecon, Caermarthen, 
and the greater part of Cardigan. 

The subject is thought to be one of considerable interest, 
both linguistically and historically. As a study of language, 
it is instructive to mark the laws which operate under our 
actual observation, in studying which wo are less liable to 
error, than when dealing with the fossilised remains of 
earlier times, while it may reasonably be expected to help us 
in arguing from the " living present " to the " dead past." 
Historically, it is part of a larger subject, the question of the 
relation of the Celt and the Teuton in Britain. It has 
generally been thought that down to a comparatively recent 
period the two peoples maintained an attitude of almost com- 
plete isolation ; and proof of this is supposed to be found 
amongst others, in the slight influence which the two lan- 
guages had upon each other. But I am inclined to think 
that fuller inquiry will show this influence on both sides to 
have been greater than is generally allowed. If the inquiry 
of the present paper were extended to the literary language, 
and carried out fully in historical order, it would probably 
be found that Welsh has borrowed from English a larger 
number of words, and from an earlier period, than some of 
our authorities have been willing to admit. In the same 
way, again, the influence of Welsh on English has been very 

PhU. Truif . 1888-8*4. 25 


much under-estimated, being generally limited to some forty 
or fifty words. This is because scholars have not looked to 
the right place, viz., the provincial dialects. When a com- 
petent scholar undertakes to sift thoroughly the Glossaries 
and Word Lists of the English Dialect Society, the Celtic 
element in English will appear much more considerable than 
has hitherto been recognised. 

The application of the phonetic laws described hereafter 
(which are of course the same laws that have shaped the 
language throughout its history), yaries in completeness and 
regularity, in accordance with (I) the length of time during 
which the borrowed words have been in use in Wales, and 
(2) the degree of culture or knowledge of English possessed 
by the particular speaker. Those words which have been 
longest current in the Principality, have been forced into the 
most complete conformity with Welsh phonetic laws. Many 
words borrowed at an early period have been so completely 
naturalised, that their foreign origin has been forgotten, and 
they have not seldom been brought forward by lexicographers 
to explain the very words of which they are themselves 
merely corruptions. 

Again, old people and the uneducated carry out the 
changes described much more regularly than yoimger people 
who have attained a fuller knowledge of English. 

Terminations of Nouns and Verbs. 

When English nouns and verbs are borrowed in colloqnialJI 
Welsh, certain terminations are frequently added. In th 
case of verbs this is always the case. Adjectives take 
such addition. 

Noun Endings (Diminutives and Sinoulatives). 
Nouns often take the diminutive or singulative terminationf 
-an, 'pi, forming masculine, and -en forming feminine noons 
The form -an was formerly used, but now -yn and -tff* 
regularly employed for the two genders respectively. 

1. 'an was occasionally used to form both masculine ani 
feminine nouns, e,g,, siacc-an, mas. (a stock, fr. " stack **j 
fiOa-an, fem. (a stocking, fr. "hose"). 


2. -y« is now very regularly employed to form diminu- 
tives or singulatives of the masculine gender, e.g,^ fflowr-yn 
(a flower), ffowUyn (a fowl), etc. 

3. -en forms feminines of the same kind, e.g.^ hwUUen (a 
bullet), fffhil-en (a wheel), etc. 

These endings are generally used to form singulatives from 
such English nouns as first obtained currency in their plural 
form. Consequently, the singulatives are most usually formed 
from the English plural, e.g. : — 

{a) -yn, masc. cOla^yn (a burnt coal, a cinder), ffowh-yn (a 
fowl, sometimes heard as well as ffowl-yn), tibls-yn (a tool ; 
applied also to persons, " a queer fellow "), miilS'yn (a donkey, 
fr. '' mule," with a fem. mwls-en, heard as often as the literary 
dsyn and dsen). 

*{b) -^, fem., bwts-en (a boot), brics-en (a brick), cwih-en 
(a quill), Idis-en (a lath), pih-en (a pill), shdts-en (a shot, a 
pellet), whlh^en (a wheel, as well as whilen), tdra-en (a wire), 
teik-en (a tile, a coarse slate) ; the plural teih is used to 
designate the coarser kind of slate, td^ teih (a tile roof) being 
distinguished from t6 sldts (a slate roof), as well as from td 
gwellt (a straw-thatched roof). 

Sd/ren (a sovereign, a pound) is, from its form, naturally 
regarded as feminine, though not a singulative. 

Plural Endings. 

(a) Generally English plural forms are kept, as in the 
case of the words from which the singulatives just given are 

(b) Sometimes a vowel change takes place in addition. So 
the recently borrowed word ffarc (a fork) has a plural ^ff^yrcs, 
with the same vowel change as the native word fforch^ plural 
ffyrch. So core (a cork), has cyrcs. 

(c) Sometimes, again, a word has a "Welsh plural as well 
as the English one, e.g.^ bdsn (a basin), has plural bdsnau- and 

(d) In Welsh, as in English, some words are used only in 
the plural, e.g. irowsys or trawsya (trowsers ; though in this 


case trowaer or trawser is also used), tings (a pair of "tongs," 
in which the vowel change is apparently made under the 
feeling that the word is plural, o of the singular very often 
being modified into y in the plural), tdcyna (copper coins, 
" coppers "), fr. E. tokens. 

(e) In a few words we find the plural termination curiously 
doubled, e.g,^ Idcs-is (whiskers, fr. "locks"), galSs-ts or gdlosis 
(braces, fr. "gallows"). 

Verbal Endings. 

When an English verb is borrowed, a distinctive verbal 
ending is always affixed. The following are the most common 
terminations : — 

(1) -an, or tan, as in mdctan (to mock), plpian (to peep). 

(2) -^rf, as in hlong-ed (to belong), toatshed (to watch). 

(3) -0, which is by far the most common ending used for 
this purpose, as in trdo (to try), tendo (to tend), tjoirso (to make 
a wire fencing), and numberless others. 

(4) -a is used in forming verbs from nouns, as in native 
words, e.g,, bargeina (to bargain), ffowla (to fowl, i.e., go out 
shooting), samwna (to fish for salmon). 

The Influence of Accent. 

As is well known, the accent in Welsh regularly falls on 
the penult, with very few exceptions. When an English 
word is borrowed, therefore, differently accented, an attempt 
is soon made to modify its form in such a way as to adapt 
it to the general principle of Welsh accentuation. This iB 
done by dropping unaccented vowels in accordance with the 
figures called syncope, apocope, and aphseresis. 


Syncope takes place under the following circumstances : — 

1. In trisyllabic words, accented on the first syllable, this 

vowel of the second syllable (that immediately following the 

accent) is dropped. This preserves the accent in its original 

position, and at the same time the word is brought und^ 


the general Welsh law of accentuation. Thus we have 
cdmmil (camomile), cdpras (copperas), emprwr (emperor), 
intrest (interest), Idbrer (a labourer, a common unskilled 
worker, as opposed to an artisan or craftsman), mdgnel 
(mangonel), pirwig (a periwig), etc. 

2. Similarly, when a verb or noun ending is added to 
words accented on the penult, and thus throws the accent to 
the ante-penult of the new Welsh word thus formed, the 
Towel of the syllable following the accent is dropped, and 
the regular accentuation thus restored* Thus we have : — 

{a) Verbs, as dltro (for altera,, fr. "alter"), biisiro (to 
blister), cantro (to canter), entro (enter), hapno (happen), 
laddro (to lather), cyfro (to cover), recyfro (recover), etc. 

(6) Nouns, as altrad (a change, fr. " alter "), ffldwryn (for 
ffloweryny fr. "flower"), sgitpren (a skewer). 

3. When the suffix is added to a word accented on the last 
syllable, the vowel preceding the accented syllable is some- 
times dropped, as in hlongo or blonged (to "belong"). 


Apocope often takes place in English proparoxytone words, 
e.g., lihert or libart (fr. liberty), pendyl (pendulum), piiun-k 
(pleurisy), folant (a valentine), ichllher (wheelbarrow, where 
the a has been changed to e^ apparently under the attenuating 
influence of the preceding i). 


Aphacresis is efiected imder the following circumstances: — 

1. When no termination is added, the first syllable of 
oxytone trisyllables is often cut ofi*, e,g.y aeisk (assizes), 
pinium (opinion), whence is formed an adjective plniynm, 
obstinate, opinionated, lastic (fr. the noun " elastic," a very 
late importation), lecshwn (a Parliamentary election), tiorne 
(attorney, perhaps fr. M.E. "attoumeie"). 

2. When to an English word of two syllables accented on 
the last, an affix is added, the first syllable is in the same 
way often dropped, e.g., 'lowo (to allow), aisto (to assist), aol/o 


(to resolve), specto (to suspect). So hosan-au (stockings) , 
plural of hosan (fr. " hose "), is generally cut down in collo- 
quial speech to *8anau or *8ane; pytaten (a potato), is shortened 
into tAten, and the plural pytatto is heard in the yarioos 
forms, tatOy taiw, tatws. 

3. Sometimes two sjllables are cut off, as in aashiten (fr. 
" association,'' a synodical meeting of the Welsh Noncon* 
formists), stando (to understand). 

Aph^resis and Apocope take place in the word Beiet (a 
" society," a church meeting), which has the plural Beiiti iu 
South Wales; but in North Wales is often seiat, plural seidde. 

The two forms assumed by the plural of this word lead us 
naturally to notice two points : — 

1. The influence of accent on quantity. It will be ob- 
served that there is a pretty general tendency to shorten the 
vowel in the accented syllables, of which the following 
forms are examples : — brltshiB (knee-breeches as opposed 
to trowsers), bri^tahan (to muddle, to thrust in a foolish or 
bungled statement or remark, fr. "broach"), ^rao (to force), 
hivper (a " hooper," or cooper, the native name being cylehwr 
{t. cylch, a hoop), htbtio (to hoot), diper (a keeper), pllo (to 
" peel," though this may be fr. M.E. " pillen "), plpo^ pipian 
(to peep), trwp (a troop). 

2. The relation of quantity to the character of the sue* 
ceeding consonant. Short accented vowels are followed by 
surds, long accented vowels by sonants. This has already 
been illustrated by the two plurals of seiet or aeiat^ viz. Beiiti 
and seidde. So bonnet (a bonnet) has plural bonn^ti, and the 
word " bullet " gives us a singulative bwl^ten — in each oaae 
the short vowel being followed by a surd dental. But the 
regularly modified form of " bullet " is btokd (the literary 
form), which has the plurals bwiidi or bwlidau — a long 
vowel succeeded by a sonant. It is imnecessary to multiply 
instances, as the rule obtains generally in native as well as 
in borrowed words. 

Occasionally a word is differently accented in colloquial 
and literary Welsh ; thus " farewell " has in conversation the 
English accent, fforicil; but in the written language, in 



hymns and popular poetry, it takes generally the Welsh 
accent and the form ffdrtcel^ though even here it may, metn 
cama, keep the original accentuation. 

Hybrid Forms and Phrases. 

Sometimes we hear an amusing combination of English 
and Welsh forms in the same word or phrase. The common 
translation of the English verb *^ mistake/' is camsynied^ and 
of the first part of the W. verb cam (lit. bent, crooked), and 
the last element of the English one, together with a Welsh 
verbal ending, a word camstaco (to mistake), has been formed, 
and is at times heard from the mouths of uneducated people 
in some such forms as camstaco 'nes i (mistake did I), or Mi 
gamstaces (I mistook). 

Again, the adjective gwir (true, L. verus), and its derived 
noim, gwirionedd (truth), are often used adverbially in such 
phrases as odi tcir (literary, ydyw yn wir, it is truly), or odi 
icirionedd (it is in truth). For the Welsh wir in such cases, 
the English *' sure " in the form Hwr is often used, odi siwr 
(it is surely) ; and from this, on the analogy of gwirionedd 
from gicir, has been made a hybrid substantive aiivrionedd, 
which is used at times for its native prototype, odi aiwrionedd, 
do iiwrionedd (it is, yes, of a surety), etc. 

Sometimes an English borrowed word is translated by a 
Welsh one combined with it, as in Dir anwl ! (Dear me !) 
in which dir is the modification of the English '' dear," and 
anwl is merely the Welsh word, anwyl (dear), translating 
and strengthening it. So the English ** blue " becomes in 
Welsh bliw, and the '' blue " used in the laimdry is often 
called bliw glds, glda being the regular Welsh translation of 
'' blue." These and similar forms are closely parallel to the 
Scriptural '' Abba, Father," as doubtless the linguistic condi- 
tion of Palestine in the time of Christ closely resembled 
that of Wales at the present day. These forms also clearly 
show how hybrid proper names might have arisen, and give 
plausibility to the derivation, for instance, of Cotswold from 
Welsh coed (wood), and its A,S. equivalent weald, wald, 
added for explanation. 

362 english borrowed words in welsh. — ^t. powell. 

The Vowels. 

The vowel changes affected in borrowed English are much 
more obscure and difficult to treat in a satisfactory manner, 
than those which the consonants undergo. Many words 
were borrowed originally in provincial forms, the exact 
sounds of which it would probably be difficult for one much 
better versed in English phonology than the present writer 
to determine with exactness. Then it is often difficult to 
ascertain at what period a given word was first introduced. 
I shall therefore for the present aim at no more than pre- 
senting the principal facts without comment. 


1. Those forms which have in modern English long a, 
accented and followed by a single consonant and e mute, take 
very generally in Welsh the long sound of a in " father,*' 
e.g,, cdr (care), cds (condition, case, fr. M. E. " cas " ; also a 
covering, a case, fr. M. E. ^'casse, kace"), cn^ (a knave), 
crdp (crape), ffddo, verb (to fade), ffrdm (frame), gdm (game, 
pluck, courage), gdt (a gate, especially a toll-gate), grds 
(grace), grdt (grate). Ids (lace, M.E. "las, laas"), Iddi (lady), 
pds (pace, M.E. " pas, paas "), pldt (plate), rds (race, running), 

Cwdcer (Quaker), ctcd/er (quaver), atdt (state, estate), etc., etc. 

2. At accented and followed by more than one consonant 
and e mute, is represented by short d, e.g,^ hdst (haste), pdst 
(paste), idst (taste), idsto (to taste), tcdst (waste, M.E. "wast"), 
ndshwn (fr. " nation," used contemptuously, " a scurvy lot '*). 

3. A becomes o very often, not only (a) in accented syllables, 
as atom (disappointment, fr. "sham*'), j^(>rtr^/ (farewell), Aoiij- 
ian (hang), sqffgart (a riding-skirt, fr. "safe-guard*'), tdsel 
(tassel), folant (valentine), pongcag (pancake), plM (plaid), 
etc. ; but also 

()3) in final imaccented syllables, as ecseismon (exciseman), 
special (spectacles), stymog (stomach), rhiwbob (rhubarb),, 
sabot h (sabbath), etc. 

Here also, probably, should be placed the words bongc (a^ 
bank, hillock), and rhongc (coarse in growth, or rancicl)^ 


which, if borrowed in the M.E. forms "boneke" and "ronk," 
would doubtless have become *bwngc and *rhwngCy like aumd^ 
fr.E.E. "send" (sand). 

4. ^ is also represented by e — 

(a) in monosyllables, Aspres (brass), het (hat), etc. 

()9) in final unaccented syllables, as ffwlbert (M.E. "ful- 
niart"), tangced (tankard), deed (awkward). 

(7) in accented syllables, if followed by e or i, as thengci 
(thank ye), letshed (latchet), ciceryl (quarrel), etc. This 
^modification of fl, under the influence of a succeeding t, \a 
exceedingly common in native words from a very early 

5. The long diphthongal sound expressed by a, ai, ay^ and 

^' becomes in "Welsh ae, corresponding very nearly to the 

^^nd of English " aye " (yes) ; this de becomes ei when an 

^^^^nt is made to fall on it through the addition of another 

syllable, e.g.^ craen (a crane, for hanging pots and kettles on 

^^^r a fire), claem (a claim), whence verb cleimo (to claim), 

^^^pldent (complaint), entdel (entail), ^(k/ (fail), whence verb 

^^^lujffrde (fray), mael ^mail), poem, also pdm (pains, care), 

^^€nt (paint), vb. peinto, plden (plain j, itd^m (stain), verb 

^^^ino. By this change of ai to ei, we have also heiii (bailiff;, 

^^irins (fairings/, ordeino (to ordain), reilin (railing), teiltcr, 

v^ilor), etc., etc. 

So again rdeu " rein/' of a bridle;, fw^l (v€?il;. 

6. The open sound of a in fall, au, air, becomes d ; e^., 
^dlifi (calling, trade,., tr<k ^a walky, J^d^r ^mMfxrj. This 
-English sound, unknoirn in WeUh, is found difficult bjr 

AVekhmen lemming English, and in ihevr mr/aths gtaoenUy 
Xyecomes 6, so that ^' a tall man " is mfetamarphosiesd into ^ m 
toll man." Axid in V>rrov€d words it heeifjayiM o ais crfUxi ais 
fl ; *' auction " is tunied into o»/ir*rji as well as fl<^r» ; 4Mier 
coexists with hwt^ ; but tLe foroks in a are hesad dbit^^j fruii 
old people. 

7. DiphtLcffi^TJ e«r \^^xafA in W*rl*L ar, -p^., <^»nMr ^a 
dance^, fr. iLE- " dii.uii*-*ti/' di/iM^M >:i*.au;*«r;, fr. JLE. 


8. As in SO many native words diphthong ei has developed 
into diphthong ai in ffiiir^ from M.E. "feire, feyre," and 
perhaps in clai (clay), fr. M.E. "clei'*; so consdit (egotisnit 
fancy), and resdit, both with accent on the last syllable^ from 
** conceit/* ** receipt." 


1. The old English i, now represented by ea, is kept in Welsh 
in loan-words, e.g., tsMp^ (M.E. "ch6p/' cheap), clH (M.E. 
" cl6ne," clean), mH (M.E. " mfine," mean, sordid), arrirs 
(arrears, fr. M.E. "arere"), sit (M.E. "sete," seat), repit (a 
repeat in music, fr. M.E. "repete"), sSro, serio (to sear, to 
brand, to burn, fr. M.E. "s6re, seerin*'), sil (M.E. "seel/* 
a seal), ail (zeal, fr. M.E. " zele **), appil (with accent on last 
syllable, fr. M.E. " appelen **), whence a Welsh verb appih 
or appelio, tshit (M.E. "chete," cheat), Ua (a lease, M.E. 
"lese"), Ugo (to leak, M.K "leken"), pU (a plea, M.E. 
" plee "), plMo (to plead, M.E. " pleden *'), pleaio (to please, 
M.E. "plesen"). 

Sometimes the i is shortened, as in h^ (a heap), fr. M.E. 
" heep." 

2. When occurring before r, e becomes I in Welsh, e.g.^ eltr 
(clear, fr. M.E. "cler, cleer"), dir (dear, M.E. "dere**), often 
heard in the expression dir anwl ! (dear me !), where, as 
already mentioned, anwl is the literary antcgl, the Welsh 
equivalent of " dear " ; bir (beer, M.E. " here "), appiro (to 
appear, M.E. "apperen"). 

3. The indefinite vowel sound heard in final syllables, and 
expressed by a, e, or o, becomes in Welsh a distinct and clear 
i, e.g., Ji<fer (a vicar), gramer (grammar), licer (liquor), reiet 
(riot), wagen (wagon). 

4. Final unaccented e sometimes becomes i; as in watid 
(worsted), aydgn, also at/den (sudden) ; so ''friend" has become 
Welsh jfrmt/. 

5. Accented e has become t/ (with sound of u in English 
"but"), in cli(fer, N.W. cl^ar (clever), trysor (M.E. "tresor/* 
treasure), try spas (trespass), with verb tryspdsu (to trespass). 


6. Sometimes again e becomes a; e.g., carsimer (kersey- 
mere), diffrant (different), diffram (difference), dransh (a 
drench), disant (decent), libart (liberty), nyraari (nursery, of 
trees), preaant (present), seramoni (ceremony), tdrier (terrier), 
transh (a trench). 


1. In a large number of monosyllables i is kept unchanged, 
^'9*iffit,pin, tin, fr. "fit," etc. 

2. In accented syllables i becomes in Welsh y (=ti in Eng- 
lish "but"); consydro (to consider), hysio (to h\^)ydylyfro 
(to deliver), mynud (minute), syfil (civil). 

3. Final * in dissyllabic or polysyllabic words becomes e ; 
-^^frei (favourite), garlleg (garlic), marnes (varnish), ysgarmea 
('^.E. "scarmishe"). 

4. The diphthongal sound of i in monosyllables and ac- 
^^ted syllables is retained ; ffeil (file), ffeindio (find), ffeino 
' ^^ fine), kin (a line), seidir (cider), etc. 


1. When under the accent, o is generally shortened, whether 
^\lowed by one or more consonants, e.g., cdlsyn (a live coal), 

^^^t (" cost" and "coast"), c6c80 (to coax), ndhl (noble), ndted 
^-^oted, excellent), ndtis (notice), pdst (post), pdtsher (poacher, 
^Xso a bungler), rhdst (roast), spdrt (sport), etc., etc. 

"Close," the adjective, becomes elds, but the noun "close" 
V» yard), becomes elds. 

2. Very often o becomes tc — 

(a) in accented syllables, e.g.^ bwtcyn (bodkin), cwmpas 
^compass), ctcnshiro (to conjure), acnatab (constable), cibter (a 
gutter, M.E. "gotere"), mwngc (a monk), mwngci (monkey), 
rhicsin (rosin), swnd (M.E. " sond," sand). 

O) in final unaccented syllables, e.g., ceisbwl (M.E. "cache- 
pole"), Jfashton (fashion), hdrswn (whoreson), cwesiiwn (ques- 
tion), randtcm (random), samwn (salmon). 

Such forms as bdctvn, barivn, cwsticm, galwn, handsumi, etc., 
Were probably borrowed from M.E. forms, "bacun," "barun," 


** custume," " galun," " handsum," rather than from the 
modified forms in o. In was-bwnt (waist-band), the a first 
became o {wasbont, which is also heard), and this o then 
became w, 

3. Analogously the diphthong oi became in Welsh iry in 
numerous forms, such as lioyn (loin), picynt (point), pwyntel 
(a pencil, fr. ** pointel "), pwynto (to point), appwynto (to 
appoint), 2)wyntredyn (" point-thread," of a saddler or shoe- 
maker), spicylo (to spoil), etc. 

4. Diphthong ou, oic, becomes w, e.g., crwner (*' crowner/* 
coroner), dormwa (dormouse), fflwr (flour), mahcs (mallows), 
hwsing (housing), jow?fl? (pout). 

5. Conversely o sometimes becomes ow (=ou in English 
'^aut"), e,g,, howt (bolt), hotclder (holder), powsi ("posy,** a 
bouquet of flowers), rowU-powU (a rolly-polly), etc, 


1. In words borrowed at an early period, u has become to 
in Welsh, e.g.y btcndel (M.E. " bundel "), britsh (M.E. 
" brusche "), clicb (club), chvmsi (clumsy), dwl (dull), dw8t 
(dust), drwm (drum), grtcmbian (to grumble), hwcster (hucks- 
ter), hibmian (M.E. " hummen "), Iwc (luck), Iwmp (lump), 
micsslin (muslin), and many others. 

2. In words more recently introduced, having the sound of 
u in "but," that vowel is represented by its equivalent y in 
Welsh, e.g.y bynnen (a bun), byrsto (to burst), lysti (lusty), 
nymbro (to number), nyrsari (nursery of trees and shrubs). 
So "London" is colloquially Llynden; "business" is hardened 
into bysnes. 

3. Unaccented u sometimes becomes i, e.g., coris (chorus), 
regilafo (to regulate), rigilar (regular), etc. 

4. Diphthongal u is practically retained, and may be re- 
presented by IM7, e.g., ciwr (cure), ciwraty ciicrad (curate), diw 
(due), diwti (duty), ffliw (flue), ffliwt (flute), siwr (sure), pitrr 

5. The u in justice (a magistrate), becomes e ; " JcbUb o 
pis " is sometimes heard as representing " Justice of the 

english borrowed words in welsh. — t. powell. 367 


The assimilation of vowels is carried out to a large extent 
in Welsh, as well in borrpwed as in native words. It may 
be distinguished into two kinds : — 

1. A vowel in a succeeding syllable is assimilated to the 
one going before it : 

a : ahambsLr (chamber), calap (gallop), lantar (lantern), 
plastBLT (plaister), atapeil (a staple, fr. M.E. "stapel"), acddami 
(academy), gdhri (gallery). 

e : mHel (metal), penneff or penneth (a penknife). We also 
often hear from elderly people pengcneth, carrying us back to 
the time when the k was sounded in the English word. 

t; crlpil (cripple, fr. M.E. "cripel"), mistir (master, fr. 
"mister"), ^i/ (M.E. "fidel"), shtnshir (ginger), aici/il 
(swivel), aicir (M.E. "siker"). 

: bordor (border), cqffbr (coffer), coppor (copper), do/or 
(clover), ardor (order), prdpor (proper)^ sobor (sober), etc. 

u=:w: bwtshwr (butcher), cltcatwr (cluster), ctcpyfrt, ctcpwrdd 
or cwbvrrt (cupboard), mtcstwr (a great noise, fr. " muster "), 
sicclwn (a foal, fr. " suckling"). 

Even where no written change would take place, a percep- 
tible modification in pronunciation is effected, as in the word 
doctor, which in the mouth of a Welsh-speaking native has 
the last nearly or quite as distinct as the first, not vague 
as in English. 

N.B. — ^A vowel is sometimes assimilated in the same way 
to the last element of a preceding diphthong, e.g., mdir (cider), 
powdyfr (powder), sowldiwr (soldier). 

Sometimes again we find a backward- working assimilation, 
as in caticism (catechism). 

2. An assimilated vowel is inseretd in the succeeding 
syllable : — 

a : Abal (able, literary form is abl), stabal (stable, literary 
form ystabl; yatafelly a room, is from the same root, but 
borrowed from the Latin). 

e: Berem (barm, fr. M.E. "berm"), helem (a comstack, fr. 
" helm," probably on account of its shape). So the literary 


forms sengl (single), and cengl (a girth, fr. Latin cingula)^ are 
colloquially ahengel and cengel or cingel. 

i: Cilyn (a kiln), simpil or shimpil (poorly, ailing; also 
mean, shabby, fr. " simple "). 

: Storom (storm). 

u, w : Cicpwl (couple, a pair), bwcwl (a buckle), ffurwm (a 
bench, a form), ntcngcwl (uncle), fr. "nuncle," arising from 
"mine uncle," Lear L, 4, 117), plwmws (plums), trwbw/ 

The Consonants. 

I. The Surd Mutes, P, C, K, T. — In native words, and 
words borrowed from Latin at an early period, the surd 
mutes, when vowel-flanked, or final preceded by a vowel, 
have very generally been modified into their corresponding 
sonants, and when preceded by / or r have been aspirated. 
In borrowed English words the former change has been only 
partially carried out, the latter not at all. 

1. P, has become b: (a) medial: ilahed (lappet), tehot 
(teapot), rhymhlo (rumple), Aobbo and hoppo (hop). 

O) Final : pib : O.E. pipe. 

2. C, ky have become g : (a) medial: Bigicm (the Beacons), 
clogyn (cloke), igo (echo), ligo (leak). 

O) Final: cdg and cdgen (cake), hdfog^ (havock), cdmrig 
(cambric), hdncag (pancake). 

(7) Before / ; iriagl, O.E. triacle (but we now hear often 
iricl, fr. '' treacle "). 

3. r, has become rf; {a)final: ffUed{mQi),ff6rffed{{oT{eii), 
cicshed^ (gusset), gwdsgod (waistcoat), and many others. 

(fi) Medial : rediciw (reticule), sadin (satin, by old people), 
(7) Before n and /; cod'n (cotton, but often cofn), cedl 
(kettle, also cetl). 

The plural of ffiled is ffil^tiy and the verb. fr. fforffed is 
fforffdu, the surd remaining after the short accented voweL 
If the vowel is lengthened, the sonant is used. So we have 

* I think it is borrowed by Welsh. We had the word, however, in the form 
h(hogy = \T. Btbae (hawk). 
'^ There is no doubt whatever that it is borrowed in Welsh. 


the plurals pocMi (pockets), hlangcidi (blankets), btocMi 
(buckets), etc., etc. 

4. After r and /, c, k are not aspirated : Care (cark), clerc 
(clerk), marc (mark), core (cork). 

Thus we have shale (chalk), besides the older form of the 
same word cakh (lime) fr. the Latin. 

So fforc (fork), besides fforch. 

6. T is not aspirated after r, e.g., Cwrt (court), ewart 
(quart), tarten (tart, by the side of a native form tarth^ a 

6. Qu becomes chw in many words in North Wales, but 
never in South. Thus we find N.W. chwcrrc/, chwar^r, etc., 
against S.W. cwarel, cwarter, etc. 

The u has been dropped after q in the words quaj/y quote, 
quotation, which are represented by colloquial cei, edto, cota- 
Bhirn, Cf. Gk. KoBpavrry;, fr. "quadrans." 

7. C before t is sometimes lost or assimilated, e.g., ffattri 
(factory), edritor (character), gysdt N.Wales (exact). 

8. C before / disappears in speetal, speetol (spectacles). 

9. T after « is lost or assimilated : Ffamo (fasten), gwasgod 
(waistcoat), tcsment, will (testament), pashort (pasteboard), 

posseU N.W. (O.E. "postel"). 

Ta becomes tah under the influence of the thin vowels, e^ i, 
in carrots {garetsh, garetahyn), courtesy {ewrtshi and etctshi, 
cf. Scot, curehie). 

10. T after », and before s, is lost : cyrens (currants). 

11. T after « appears to become g in tryaglen (throstle) as 
gwing (Latin vestis), gicasg (waist). 

12. T is inserted after a in ffaht (wily), fr. English false 
(or was the t inserted as an English provincialism' before the 
word was borrowed ?) 

13. The dental spirant th is represented by rf in drefa 

II. The Sonant Mutes, 5, D, G, — 1. In a number of 

instances the sonants have undergone provection, thus : — 

(a) B has become p in Welsh paatwn (baston),^ padl (battle, 

1 Tliis may be a Celtic root, as we have baa in Breton, witli tlie same meaning. 


occasionally in the mouth of old people), pldcyn (block), 
pledren (bladder), potel (O.E. hotel), poicns (bounce), pumahyn 
(bunch), J9r^« (brass). 

O) D has become t in fesni^ (fortune, fr. "destiny"), /ra<?A^ 
(a drink, fr. " draught," borrowed while the guttural was yet 
sounded in England) ; trdpt/n (drop) ; ticco (to duck, dive) ; 
idcio (to dock). 

(7) O has become c in calapo (gallop), c6l (goal), crand 
(grand), ctcs/ied (gusset), cwter (gutter). 

2. i?, df g are changed into their corresponding surds, 
before another surd. 

B : " Crab," plural " crabs," gives cr^payn (a small crab- 
apple, also a stingy fellow). 

D : " Bodkin " becomes btdcin. 

G : " Rag," " rags," gives rhdcs, pi., rh^csf/n, s.; " rogues," 
gives rhdcsyn (a rogue) ; " clogs," gives cldcs^ pi., cidcsen, s. 

Also " odds " becomes dtsy as in Beth yw'r oU ? (What 
does it matter P) Dim ots (No matter). 

3. B has been dropped in camrig^ fr. " cambric," which I 
have heard from old people. On the contrary, 

4. B has been inserted in tcmhredd (great quantity), which 
I think is a corruption of O.E. unride (enormous). But we 
often hear tcmredd without the B. 

6. D has not generally been aspirated by a following r in 
borrowed English words. Of. cardio (to card), cordyn (a 
cord). But we have nucrddwr, fr. " murder," and cyffyrddus 
(comfortable), fr. " comfort," through an intermediate cyffyv" 
dtis. So possibly hord (a table), is a borrowed form of board, 
M.E. "bord," while hxcrdd may represent the older Celtio 
form of the root. 

6. D final after n and r often becomes t ; e.g., ctcbicrt^ also 
ctcpicrth (cupboard), hasart (hazard), meilart (mallard), mwatart 
(mustard), saffgart (safeguard, for riding). 

Less frequently after n : icashont, washwnt (waistband), punt 
(O.E. "pund"). 

7. D final after a vowel sometimes becomes L Solit (solid, 
constantly), stiwpit (stupid). 

* Bweyd tesni (to tell one's fortune). 


D is assimilated in the word cappiSy fr. " codpiece." 
8. The soft dental spirant dh disappears from OM./eor^ling, 
which gave fyrling (literary), and ffyrlling, ffrylling (collo- 
quial), a farthing. 

III. The Nasals, M, N, Ng. 


1. M, vowel-flanked, is not aspirated, as in many native 
and Latin borrowed words. 

2. M has become b in the word ffwlhert (polecat, fr. M.E. 

3. M is assimilated to / in cijffyrddm (comfortable, fr. 


1. N final (a) preceded by a vowel, becomes m in bdtwm, 
^^"dim, cdtwtn (M.E. "cotoun, -une"), lldtwm (latoun), pdm 
(pane, of glass), plaem, also plaen (plain, clear), pldm (plane, 
^or carpenters), rMsicm (M.E. ''resiln"). 

[ff) N final becomes ng in the corruption of English coffin 
^^ffingy pi. coffingau, 

(7) N final is lost in crimsi (M.E. " crimosin "), sh^spi or 
^'i€8pin (shoespin), lantar, also lantarn (lantern), but restored 
^^ plural lanterni, 

2. N after m is lost in " chimney," which gives shlmie^ 
V^^TdX shimeie. 

^. N is introduced after r in pinsJucrn, Mns/iwrn, sishwrn 
(*r. *«pincer-s," "trencher," "scissor-s"), and the r is gener- 
^^y dropped in pronunciation, leaving pinshicn^ etc., etc. 

r. ^ ' Ng becomes g in the syncopated form magnel (cannon), 
* *' mangonel." 

^- Ng final often becomes n (as in too colloquial English) ; 
'^-> hredin (braiding), cocin (cocking, a cockfight), ffeirins 
^hil Trans. 1SS2-8-4. 26 


(fairings), gaddrim (gatherings, in a dress), leinin (lining), 
iocin (sacking, in old-fashioned beds), mcclin (suckling, a 
foal), trtmim (trimmings), etc., etc. 

IV. The Liquids, Z, R. 

1. Initial / is aspirated in lldbed (lappet), llampren (lam- 
prey), Udticm (lat&n, M.E.), U6c^ a pen (lock), llofftt upper 
floor (loft). Very many others are not aspirated. 

2. L after r becomes // in garlleg, fr. "garlic," ani ^r//iw^, 
iv.ffyrlingt fr. "feorrfling." 

3. L final is dropped in pomb (colloquial, the literary form 
is possibf) and cwmtab, f r. " possible " and " constable " ; the 
plural of the latter is cwnatebli. 

L final is dropped after a vowel in rSdicitc, fr. " reticule." 

4. L before t occasionally^ is replaced by w; e.g., bawt, but 
the literary form is bolU (bolt), powtis and powltk (poultice), 
sowdro (solder), 


1. M initial regularly becomes rh in all words that have 
been used familiarly for any length of time, e.g., rasp, rent, 
rest (remainder), rock, roll, become rhasp, rhent^ rhest, rhoc, 

2. R tends to disappear before 6, d, t, ch (sharp palatal), 
and 8 ; e.g., ritcbob (rhubarb), stifficat (certificate), tanced 
(tancard), pHrU (pertriche), test id (worsted), ahittct (surtout), 
cwrtshi, cwtshi (courtesy), potsh, also pdrtsh, vowel very short 

3. R before n final disappears in pinshwn, skhtcn, trinshwn^ 
the more usually heard forms of pimhicm, etc. (in which 
the final n is an accretion), fr. " pincer-s," " scissor-s," 
" trencher." 

4. R is inserted after ^f in the word ffrtestian, fr. "fustian." 

5. In some words the initial r has been taken for the 
Welsh article V, contracted from yn Thus rdser (razor), has 

^ Regularly, of course Uj Idj give ///. 


been often analysed into yr dser, resulting in such phrases 
as yngaaer i (my razor). So "wristband" has been corrupted 
into rhi/sbant, and this resolved into 'r hyabant with plural 

V. The Spirant, H. 

1. J7 is prefixed to initial i in the colloquial forms, himp' 
yUy fr. imp^ himpo (to sprout, to imp). Also to w in hvoen, fr. 

2. H^ after a sonant mute changes it into a surd. Bedehua 
gives bettws, a common place-name in Wales. 

VI. The Labial Spirants, F, F, TT. 


1. F becomes w in brecwast (breakfast), pictoarch (M.E. 
" pik-forke," but possibly it is a native compound ; note the 
aspiration of guttural after r). 

2. F becomes ih in pengcnethy an old pronimciation of pen- 
knife, heard in the mouths of old people sometimes. So the 
binfic of the Oxford Glosses, from Lat. beneficiuni, has passed 
into benthyg. 


1. Initial V has become m in inantea (vantage), mentro 
(venture), mames (varnish), mikn (villain), melved (velvet). 

2. Initial v becomes b in bccso (to grieve, fr. "vex"). 
Welsh words in m and b have the initial, in certain relations, 
regularly modified into / (mhy bh) . As few native Welsh 
words begin in/, and as English v has the sound of Welsh/, 

* This force of h gives rise to a peculiar rule in Webh alliterative poetry. 
According^ to the laws of assonance, certain consonant sounds at the be^ning of 
a line must be answered by similar sounds at the end. But it is ruled that **a 
Foft" {i,€.y sonant) consonant, strengthened by A, is equivalent to a " hard con- 
sonant/' as in the line : 

" Tditi ei/ia/f Aw« a weflr." 
U «- l^dh' n -/. 


the Welshman unconsciously regards English words in r as 
modified forms, and so, naturally, changes the v into tn or b, 
in those relations which demand the radicaL 

So I have heard rdte transformed into b6L The process is 
a natural one. Bara after ei, for example, becomes /ara, ei 
fara (his bread). So a Welshman, speaking of ei f:ote (his 
vote), unconsciously assumes a radical bdt, and will perhaps 
say, Y mae b6t ganto (he has a Tote). K he is innocent of 
any knowledge of English, he is Tery likely to say so. 


1. Initial m? is very frequently preceded by ^, which of 
course is dropped whenever the " medial '' form is required. 

Gica^t (waist), gtcarani (warrant), ^iro^^oJ (waistcoat), gtcidw^ 
(widow), gtckitcar (widower), etc., etc. 

2. W has the effect of changing the more vague vowel 
sounds into a distinct a, cf. gtcultcar (widower), puncarck 
(M.£. picforke). So the sound of the first a in Welsh j^ara- 
rani is very difterent from that in " warrant.** 

VII. The Pauvtals Ch, J, G (soft). 

This combination is variously represented. In older loan- 
words it becomes s or ihy in later ones, tsh. 

1. (V* vowel-iiauked becomes «, e.g., piaer (O.E. "picher**), 
peh^ (O.E. " pertriche *'). 

So M.E. " cachepol '' is Welsh ceisbiol ; but match^ mazdi, 
latchet, give matsheiiy nutrtahOy leUheiL 

2. Ch initial becomes i/i, S/ia/c (chalk), i/iitnie (chinmer). 
a/iit/ef^ (challenge), a/ianel (channel), s/iaicna (chance) »^ ' 
.^Iiihivftujn (chibolle-^). But now chaif, cheap, touchy 
sounded tiiha(t\ tahcp^ twhli^ etc., etc. 

^ Thi^ Nsonl (.ovists in ;iii Mvr tonit, itvfddw ;fr. Latin vfufMa peiiuiw)^ wow 
ts tlh- liti-tHi V lonii, x^liiiu jwtdw it> [irobabiy ittum coimuon in uolI(M{iiiiu apQwh» 


Jy G (soft). 

1. J initial becomes sh : Sh&n, S^an (Jane), shibc (jug), 
shwme (M.E. joum^e), Shac, Shad (Jack-ie), shibSdo, verb 
(gibbet), ahimhir (ginger), shipawn-s (gipsen, gipsy). 

2. (a.) G' final after a voweP becomes « ; Jfaw^^« (vantage), 
pdtea (pottage), eatrys (estridge). 

O.) O final after n becomes «A ; mamh (mange), pltcnsh 
(plunge), jfr^/wA, (fringe, fr. M.E. *frange'), spwnsh (O.E. 
spunge) ; challenge becomes shalens, by dissimilation. 

(7.) O final after r becomes « ; Share (charge). 

3. e7 medial after n becomes 8; Con«iirMT (conjurer). Now, 
however, the j sound is more familiar than formerly, and 
cwnj'dro becomes "conjure," jwg (jug), and job. Jack, jockey, 
etc., are heard constantly. 

VIII. The Sibilants, S, Z, Sh. 


1. S initial or medial, when followed or preceded by e or t, 
tends, as in Irish, to become sh. Hence we find bishi (busy), 
hdsher (hosier), shiapan (saucepan), shife, M.E. "sive** (verb, 
shifeio)^ shimpil (simple), shingco (sink). 

S never becomes soft =2 in Welsh. Hence M.E. "leyser 
becomes User or ksser (the « is quite hard and vowel short), 
pl^aer (pleasure), etc. 

S initio followed by other vowels, even 0, often becomes 
sh : shwto (suit), shitwt (surtout), shwr (sure),^ short (sort), 
shdcedy or sdced (socket) ; sock-s gives shdcs, shdcsen, shdcas, 
plural -au. 


Curiously, sh final, even when preceded by e or t, often 
becomes s : Marnes (varnish), twndis (tundish), ffris (fresh) ; 
sh is also heard in such words. 

' But cabbage is eabetah, sing. eabHishm, 

2 E. «ettr, 8&r. We hear also in Welsh sometimes siwr, in which the s is 
pure and the diphthong has its own sound, as in Uiw, 



This letter is not known to Welsh, and in borrowed words 
it becomes %^ as in %^l (zeal)^ ddudo (to dazzle), py%lo (to puzzle), 
r6,Her (razor), etc. 

But % is occasionally found in books, in words like %kU fr. 
E. '' zeal '^ ; and ostentatious readers pronounce it as in Eng- 
lish, but it is felt to be an importation. 


This compound is at times cut down to simple «, as in 
eigu% (excuse), te%tun (text), and final, vcLpiccm (pickaxe). 

Many Consonants Avoided. 

In borrowed !^nglish words, if more than two consonants 
come together, an effort is made to get rid of one of them. 

1. D after n, and followed by another consonant, goes out 
or is assimilated. Bamboc% (bandbox), gwlfinah (goldfinch), 
hangcyff (handcuff), hamwm (handsome). 

2. B and P after m also. Cambric becomes camrig, and 
company cicnipni, and then ctcmm. 

3. Similarly we find " turnpike '* metamorphosed into 
tf/rpeg; "'point'thvesLd" into pwynfred, Sindpwi/ntred-i/n; and 
by the help of metathesis, "mantel-piece" is worn down into 


In Welsh is carried out in a very systematic way ; it com- 
prises not only (1) simple transposition of a letter, but also 
(2) an exchange of position, and (3) an interchange at once 
of position and character. 

1. Simple change of position, as clasgu for casglu (to 

2. Interchange of position between two consonants, as in 
gofedd for goddef (suffer), tcsnoth for tcthnos (a week), tang" 
nedde/foT tangnefedd (peace), lldswf/r for sallwyr (a psalter). 


3. Interchange of character as well as of position, as in 
aped for ateb (to answer), gucymed for gicyneb (face). 

Here, it will be observed, b takes the place of t, and in so 
doing assumes the character (surd) of the dental, while the 
i becomes sonant, to answer the character of the letter it 
displaces. In the second example, likewise, the labial b is 
nasalised to m, having displaced the nasal dental n, which 
changes in turn to the sonant dental, as it takes the place 
of a sonant b. 

These principles are applied also to borrowed words : 

1. Transposition we have in ffrylling for ffyrlling, shindria 
for O.E. "sindirs" (scoria). 

2. Exchange of position. Comsinshwn, fr. "consumption." 

3. Interchange of position and character. Matcyn for 
''napkin," in which the labial p is nasalised to m, to take the 
place of the nasal n, and the latter changes to its corre- 
sponding surd ty to replace the surd p. 

But of all words, that which undergoes the greatest changes 
is the Latin benefidum. In the Oxford Glosses it is binfic 
by assimilation ; benffic by change of jf to th, noticed above 
(p. 374), and modification of surd c, gives benthigf the present 
literary form. In colloquial speech this is often hardened 
into bentig. Then as initial b and m modify into / (see p. 
373, under letter F, 2), the two radicals are occasionally mis- 
taken one for the other. This gives us menftg. Lastly, by the 
third mode of metathesis just described, mentig becomes 
mencid. Thus we have beneficium slowly passing through 
the forms benffic, benffig, benthig, bentig, mentig, and mencid, 
where for the present ends its " strange eventful historj'." 

Popular Etymologies. 

In using many English words, the etymology of which is 
unknown to the speakers, fancy often exerts itself to find an 
origin for them. I can here only notice two or three by way 
of example. The popular etymology is sought sometimes in 
English, sometimes in Welsh. Thus, an "hostler" having to 
do with horses, the word is very commonly supposed to have 


been derived from the name of the animal, and. pronounced 
accordingly, horsier. Again, among gatherers of ** simples " 
I have often heard the plant-name "horehound" transformed 
into yr rotcnd (the round 0) ; and I have known the same 
ingenious fancy more poetically resolve the herb " valerian ** 
into yr efail arian (the silver tongs). 

Here, for the present, the writer is compelled to drop a 
subject which he had hoped to treat much more fully. What 
he may have to add must await a more favourable opportunity. 

CAPUA IN 1876. By G. A. Schrumpf. 

I INTENDED at first to report on the progress achieved within 
the last few years in the study of the Oscan dialect generally^ 
but want of time and other circumstances have unfortunately 
prevented me from carrying out my intention. I will there- 
fore confine myself to the most important material which, has 
been brought to light of late, namely, to the Capuan lead- 
tablet of 1876. Seven years have now elapsed since Dr. F* 
Buecheler deciphered the inscription on it, and the most 
competent voices have been heard on its interpretation. The 
literature on the subject is, however, rather lengthy and 
sometimes difficult to read without a thorough knowledge of the 
German philological style. It may therefore not be deemed 
out of place to condense the principal opinions and to present 
them in as readable a form as the dryness of such matters 
will allow. In attempting to do this, I have imitated 
Zvetaiefi*^ and not given any interpretation of my own. 
Zvetaiefi*, however, merely gives the Latin translation of the 
Oscan inscriptions without a word of comment. This pre- 
cludes the reader from obtaining a connected idea of the 
meaning, nor does it enable one to appreciate the rendering 
of many an individual word. I have tried to be rather more 
explicit with regard to the inscription of 1876, and I wonld 
especially draw attention to what has been " restored " by 

^ Sylloge inscriptionnm oscamm ad archetjporum et librornm fidem. Petropoli 
et Lipeiae. Text, Svo. and a magnificently got up folio volume of plates oontainiq^ 
the exact reproduction of all the Oscan inscriptions (1878). 


two out of the three interpreters, and to what has been 
translated with the foregone conclusion that the inscrip- 
tion is a "devotio." It is to be deplored that "restored" 
words are beginning to find their way into vocabularies as 
undoubted Oscan words, and it is high time that we had a 
thoroughly reliable Oscan grammar and vocabulary. Z vetaieflTs 
Sbomik osskikh nadpisei s ocerkom fonetiki, morfologii i 
glossariem, published at Kiev in 1877 (only 300 copies 
printed), and evidently founded on Bruppacher's Lautlehre 
and Enderis' Formlehre, accepts too much of the conjectural 
element. The Oscan words quoted by Greek and Latin 
writers should be more carefully collected than has been 
done heretofore. The able articles by Aufrecht, Bugge, 
Corssen, Ebel, Kirchhofi^, Kern, etc., in Kuhn's Zeitschrift, 
Dr. Buecheler's in the Rheinisches Museum fiir Philologie, 
as well as his and Fiorelli's essays in the Commentationes 
philologicae in honorem Theodori Mommseni (1877), and 
above all Corssen's Beitrage zur italischen Sprachkunde, 
have not yet been turned to the best account. I am, there- 
fore, afraid it is still somewhat premature to aim at a 
satisfactory interpretation of such a fragmentary inscription 
as the one I am now going to describe. 

1. — The Inscription. (See pp. 380-381.) 

In 1876 Buecheler received from a friend at Naples a 
rolled-up lead tablet found in an Oscan grave at Capua. 
Buecheler unrolled and cleaned it with great care, got the 
inscription lithographed, and presented the tablet to the 
Naples Museum, where it is now preserved. The inscription 
is in the Oscan language, the writing being from right to 
left. There is one line on the outside and the inside contains 
twelve, but the end of each has perished, so that it is not 
possible to say exactly how much is wanting ; the twelfth 
line, however, is the concluding one, as there is a blank space 
below. When the tablet was unrolled, it broke in several 
places, where now there are slight gaps or mere fragments 
of letters. Buecheler was the first who read and interpreted 
the inscription. His conjectures were published in the Rhein. 

















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Museum, xxxiii. part 1, and again in a separate reprint 
'Oskische Bleitafel, "Frankfurt a.M. 1877, pp. 78. In 1878, 
Sophus Bugge of Chistiania, in ** Altitalische Studien," pp. 
60, and in 1880, E. Huschke, in ''Die neue oskische Blei- 
tafel," Leipzig, pp. 98, published some important suggestions 
more or less differing from Buecheler's. There is also a 
notice of Buecheler's essay by Michel Br^al in the Revue 
Critique of the 9th February, 1878. 

In the accompanying table numbers 1 to 12 denote the 
lines, {a) is Buecheler's reading, (b) Buschke's, and {c) 
Bugge's. A dash means the absence of an uncertain number 
of letters, dots or stars denote the absence of so many letters. 
Square brackets enclose conjectural readings, ordinary 
brackets in {b) the correction of grammatical mistakes. A 
dot under a letter in (a), as under the d of Kluvatiud, line 
2, means that Buecheler does not vouch for the accuracy of 
the reading. 

Bugge distinguishes u and o, although it is no longer pos- 
sible to make out the dot over the u in the original; Huschke 
also distinguishes u and u, but Bugge's o's and Buschke's u's 
do not everywhere coincide. Huschke, moreover, distin- 
guishes i and i, which are represented by one and the same 
letter in the original, and also restores the punctuation of the 

Considering that many words of this inscription are en- 
tirely new to us, that it is very diflBcult to read, and that* 
there are numerous gaps, it is no easy matter to attempt its 
interpretation. Buecheler gives what he considers to be the 
general meaning and confines himself chiefly to the discussion 
of individual words without pretending to give their syntac- 
tical relations. Bugge's and Buschke's translations are con- 
fessedly based on Buecheler's, but they go a step further and 
present connected sentences. This could of course not be 
done without filling up the gaps with conjectural words (see 
the table), and however plausible the results of such a process 
may appear, the very fact that the two translations are widely 
different from each other does not inspire one with much 
confidence. Bugge adheres more to Buecheler, but Huschke, 


still nnsliaken in his conviction that the Italic dialects must 
be interpreted through Greek, is far more original. Br^al 
describes Buecheler's interpretation as ''des tours de force 
fetymologiques/' and I am afraid the description also applies 
to those of the two other scholars. Still it may prove interest* 
ing to notice what they make of the inscription, without, 
however, entering into the lengthy details by which the 
translation of every word is accompanied (over 200 pages). 
They all agree to see in the tablet a defixio or devotio (cf. 
Wordsworth, Specimens of Early Latin, pp. 231 sqq.), i.e. 
a sort of incantation whereby a private enemy is ** devoted " 
to the vengeance of the infernal powers. The name of the 
enemy in this instance is a man named Paquius Cluatius, and 
the aggrieved person a woman called Yibia Aquia. The tablet 
with the curse inscribed on it is laid in a grave, the abode of 
death, and the avenging demons are called upon to destroy 
the offender either at once or by lingering illness. The 
offence is believed to have consisted in robbing Yibia of her 
daughter (Buecheler), of a "minister" (Bugge), of a goblet 
^' poculum " consecrated to the goddess of death, K-qp^ and 
thus acting as a charm "praebia" (Huschke). The last^ 
named offence might be considered too trifling for such an 
awful incantation, but we know of similar cases, as, for in- 
stance, the loss of a ring, giving rise to a devotio. 

2. — Buecheler's and Bugge's interpretations. 

A glance at the accompanying table will show that 
Buecheler does not attempt to fill up the gaps in the in- 
scription, except when justified by the analogy of similar 
passages in the preserved portions of the tablet. Bugge, 
however, like Huschke, fills in a number of conjectural 
words, but agrees with Buecheler in so many respects that we 
may consider his interpretation pari passu with Buecheler's. 
I found it convenient to place Bugge's translation first, and 
only to mention Buecheler's where it differs, but I am anxious 
once more to call attention to the fact that Buecheler was 
the first to decipher and interpret the inscription. 


In the following account B. stands for " Bueclieler," the 
rest 18 both Bugge's and Buecheler's : — 

^m=Cereri (Ceres, as the goddess of the infernal regions, 
Keri for Kerri), | arenttkai^mltrici (according to a gloss to 
Hesychius apdmunv, ipivvai, Ma/ceBove^) \ twflwa/i^»2=manda- 
vimus (B. mandavi), i.e. Vibia and others, | pat poi= quae qui 
(cf. sei deus sei deiva), i.e, and to any other deity besides 
Ceres who | ff/foA;/(/=adigit | e8akaratosz=exeeTatos \ henam suvam 
=ad regnum suum, cf, herus (B. arbitrium suum) | leguwm 
mvam=:vA cohortem suam, cf. Horace's "febrium cohors/' 
here the train of avenging demons (B. connects legin with 
Teliffio and renders potestat-) | aflokad=Q,digQ,t (B. deferat) suvam 
leghiom^zsid suam cohortem (B. potestatem) | osursz^osoTes (B. 
-orus) intm=et, nta/aA^=maleyolos, cf. malus, n{^^/*(78=nostros 
(B. fiaXaKOf; = mollis ; nistrus = ni-s-trus, with comparative 
affixes, cf. nexus, St. ' near,* thus, = propiores) | Pakiu 
Kluvatiud abl. absolute with damiantud=Paquio Cluatio ant 
=ante, 'above all others, haters, and evil-wishers' | dami- 
anfud=2dexneQ.nte, i.e. going down to the infernal regions | 
kadum-=zcvLdere, instead of supine, i.e. to fall as a victim | 
l>tfA;/!/=:purgamento, as an atonement, m/a?ma^=optimae soil, 
deae (not Ceres). Bugge thus renders valamais, as valaimas, 
gen. sing., and translates it by Optimae deae, cf. bona mater 
as applied to Terra ; puklu, same root as in purus= atonement. 
Buecheler sees in valamais a dat. plur.=optimis, and in puklu 
a gen. plur. same root as puer, puella=puellarum, and in- 
terprets ' the best of maidens,' as an euphemistic appellation 
of the avenging spirits, thu8=dis Manibus idik tifei manafam 
=:id tibi mandavimus, referred by Bugge to what follows (B. 
id tibi mandavi, referring to what precedes) | r/^e/e7r/=reddat. 
Fi&tui»= Tibiae, prebai cf. privatae = spoliatae, ampolohm, 
ae root as ancus, ancilla=ministrum | (B. reads prebaiam 
im, but does not translate these two words, although he 
^ that pu. ulum may refer to Tibia's first-born daughter). 
' 4 tikai Cereri ultrici | inim olm leffin€i=et illius cohorti, 
iA Cere: , /am(7^ir=mancipator, svai ncip dadid^=-si nee, i.e, 
reddit | puklom mlaimas = (ut) purgamentum Optimae 
(IS. Cereri ultrici et dis Manibus et sepulcri potestati, cf. olla, 


the funeral nm, here, the tomh, si nee reddit, veneat, lamatir, 
third sing, root of latro, X17/9) I aA:nV/=raptim, eiseis donfeis^: 
=eia8 devotiy scil. cinis inim kaispatar et caespitihus tegitor 
tfiim kruatatar et glebis tegitor, i,e. in other words, may the 
enemy be brought into the grave ! (B; aeri eius defuncti, 
mortui, ue. the body in the grave, fato oppriroatur, et caedatur 
et cruentetur, cf. caespes, caedere, and cruor) | 9vai neip si nee, 
t^. sinon, art aut svai dififikuSy cf. figo=decreveris, tiiom=te 
[facere] idik id eisoizneiy jt?(7«^=post (B. taking tiiom as nom. 
aut si tu id decreveris, pust ei8=postea) meaning, if thou 
ordainest that the punishment should be deferred ; line 6, pon 
kahad quum incohat (prepares anything for enjoyment) pod 
quod nenernom, root ner, cf. dmjp with sufBx as in patemus : 
nemo and negative prefix =virilitate carens neip potiiad=ne 
possit (B. kahad =eapit ; no translation for n . . . mvm, avt 
instead of pod ; B. explains * opus quum incohat aut negotium 
ne possit ') ponom kahad^^unqnam. incohat (B. pun um kahad 
=cum — capit), art svai pid perfahlum tV/=aut si quid per- 
fectam it (B. aut si quid perficere velit, Oscan avt svai pid 

perfa ), neip potiiad ne possit | nip nee, aisusis sacrificia, 

nom. hontrois nip suprois inferis nee superis (dis), dat., poiiians 
possint, pidum poiiians quidquam possint, ofteis optati, grati, 
od/akiunif cf. olfacere, odoris facere, ix, may no sacrifices what- 
soever be able to effect anything agreeable ; pukloi, dat. purga- 
mento, valaimas Optimae (deae) [B. takes hontrois and suprois 
as ablatives agreeing with the abl. aisu8i8=nec inferis nee 
superis sacrificiis possint quidquam possint, i.e, nuUo mode 
possint ; then the subject of putiians would be the nom. 
valaimas puklui=di Manes ; B. leaves ufteis untranslated, 
but supposes it to be a gen. :=devoti, of the cursed one]. 
pon kahad far cum far parat (B. capit), nip potiiad edum ne 
possit edere, nip tnenvum limo nee minuere famem (quoquam 
eorum per), pai quae, homnns biros homines vivi, karanter 
pascuntur. Soluh omnino (B. denique), Pakis Kluvatiis 
Paquius Cluatius, toromiiad torqueatur, cf tormentum (B. 
tabescat, cf, terere), valaimas puklo Optimae purgamentum in 
apposition with Paquius Cluatius (B. dis manibus, the instru- 
mental abl.), lovfrom Vibiiai Akviiai liberum Vibiae Aquiae 


(6. sine detrimento Y. A.), i.e. but let there arise no mischief 
to Vibia herself from the destruction of her enemy, svai poh 
aflakus sive adegeris (B. detuleris), Pakini Kluvatiiom Paquium 
Cluatium, valaimas puklo Optimae purgamentum (B. dis mani** 
bus), 8upro8 ad superos (B. supra), inim tuvai leginei et tuae 
cohorti (B. potestati), inim sakrim et sacrum, svai puh aflakm 
sive adegeris (B. detuleris), hontroa ad inferos (B. infra), tera» 
terrae, hontroa ad inferos, valaimas puklo Optimae purgamen- 
tum (B. dis Manibus), avt Keri aretikai aut Cereri ultrioi^ 
avt olas leginei aut illius cohorti (B. sepulcri potestati). In 
the fragment — as trutas tus — B. renders trutas ' certas ' and 
thinks it refers to the statement of a period of time, during 
which the curse shall be available ; Bugge takes trutas for a 
gen. =quartae. 

Bugge interprets the outside inscription : — Cereri ultrici 
quae qui ad suum regnum ad suam cohortem adigit, manci<- 
pator, glebis tegitor ; and supposes that then the name of 
the enemy was mentioned. 

With regard to the date of the inscription, Buecheler 
is inclined to place it in the first half of the second 
century B.C. 

3. — Huschke's Interpretation (cf. the lines marked (b) in 
the accompanying table, pp. 380-381.) 

I. HERiAM, Ist sing. pres. subj. of the Oscan and Umbrian 
her(e)um, Lat. velle=velim, I desire (thai) ; paIplikum mana* 
FUM, paiplikum, an adverb, same origin as 7rat7raXi7=callide, 
craftily, manafum, past part. pass, of manaum, c/. Lat mana* 
arius, * fur'=furto ablatum, subreptum, stolen, thus paiplikiim 
manafum, the object craftily stolen ; Keri arentIkaI, KeH, 
dat. of Krjpy the goddess of death, arentikai, same origin as 
a/!?a= ultrici, avenging, from avenging Kir [may experience) ; 
suvAM LEGiNiJM=8uam stragem, cf. Xir/eip as in ravrfKeyrj^y her 
laying low; Inim, and (that) ; ATER=noxius, the offender; puh 
LAMATiiAD=quum obstiuatus est, cf, X^y/ia-r^?, with suffix 
TTjpf if he is obstinate {i.e, does not restore what he has stolen)^ 
scil. may also experience it as a; usurs, 6'i^vp6^, wretched; 


fariif, amd ; malakb, /MiXMm, deVk ; msntirSy i(«u«T«i{9», nod, 
lei the head drop in dying,=km(f-<ifmi (jfNm). 

IL Pakiui E^LUVATiiJi, dat. To PoquimM Cinatim; akikad, 

fln|«a», 3rd. ring. sabj. pree. majr happen ; fckl^m, irvf, f/. 

jRigiMK pagil, = /A« sirikimg (dawm) ; valaimaIs, cf. Taler^, 

vdetodo=^ (Am) keaiih [Den Paquins Cioatius betre£fe das 

Sddagen daa GeanndbeitJ ; uic, oSp, Mm; tutit LEOiNrM, 

Bom.y ^^ la^ng-htc; aflu&ad, Lat. ad-fligere, 3rd ring. 

asbj. prea. itMry afflict ; bisunk, Ai/h, ace ; damiatum, &i^, 

mtbdued (ace. agreeing with eisunk), {90 that) ; dadad, Lat. 

dedaty he may give up ; YiBriAi, to Vibia ; iniK, thai (object) ; 

MANAFUM, 9/o/e*n ; TiFEi, /rom thee (Lat. tibi) {namely) ; prk«> 

baiaJH, cf. Lat. praebia, ' an amulet '; pi^kulum, Lat. pooulum 

z:^the protecting goblet (prebaiam pukulum are in apposition 

to idik manafum) ; Keri arentikai, to avenging Kir (I 

eammend, mando) ; puklum valaimas eisbis, percussum vale- 

tudinis eiu8=M^ striking (down) 0/ his health; inim, and; 

1.BGINBI, stragi, to the laying-low ; ulas, gen. sing. a^Xi;, the 

abode of the dead in the infernal regions, 0/ Orctis ; svaI, Lat. 

ri, if; LAMATiR [being) obstinate; neip, Lat. nee; dadit, he 

does fwt give up the (goblet) ; iNiM kaispatar inIm krustatar, 

3rd sing, imper. pass. Lat. -tor, kaispatar, Kai-to, airda), cf, 

febris and fervere ; inIm . . Inim, * both . . and/ may he both 

he constimed (by burning fever) and; krustatar, Kpvo^^ consumed 

by cold; akrid, Lat. acri=extremo, the noun is lost, P oxor- 

citio, through the utmost (exercise) ; dunteis, cf Svvafiaif of (he 

power ; eireis, Lat. eius, of her (i.e. of K6r) ; svai neip, if not, 

i.e, if this destruction of the enemy does not take place ; avt, 

or, Lat. aut; svai, if; tiium, Mow, nom. ; fifikus, 2nd sing. 

fut. perf. sum fik. Lat. figo=defixeri8, arrestest; Idik, Lat, 

id, it, i.e. the enemy's destruction ; pust, Lat. post, after ; 

(•anflakium (?), the affliction) ; eIse'is, of him, i.e. of the 

enemy ; pi/n kahad, quum desiderat, xaivat, xariat, klx'^vw, 

if he icishes ; potniarxum, irorvvdofiai, to pray (to the gods) ; 

NEIP putiiad, ne posrit, may he not be able ; pln, when ; UM, 

o5v, thus; kahad, he wishes^ i,e. to pray; avt svai, or if; 

KAHAD, he wishes; perfakum pid, perficere (ali)quid, to do 

anything; neIp puttiad, may he not be able; kip, Lat. nee, 

PliU. Trans. ia8a-a-4. 27 


nor {may) ; Aisrsis, nom. plur. icreocrt?, laoco, make good, atone^ 
hence Oscan aisus, aisusis, the offerings (of victims) ; huntruis, 
abl. plur. of Lat. contra, as, contraria exta, through the hwer. 
(gods) ; nip supruis, nor through the upper; putiians, be able; 
PUTITANS, be able (to do) ; pIdum, anything ; udud, f^^^ in the 
manner; ufteis, gen. Lat. votum, o/rt tote?; nip, fior; pukl6i, 
towards the striking [down) ; valaimas, of the health ; Yibiias, 
of Vibiay i,e, may the prayers of the cursed one be utterly 
useless in every respect, including the prayers which he may 
make for Vibia's destruction ; pun kahad, if he wishes for ; 
FAR <f>ripo^yfood; nip pdtiiad edum, may he not be able to eat; 
Nip MENVUM LiMUM, fiLvveiv Xifiovy nor to diminish hunger; 
P*PAFLuis, by (such) food; perum, Lat. per, through; pai, 
tchich, Lat. quae; bivus, cf fiUh;, living; humuns, Lat. homines, 
men ; karanter, cf. K{a)paTo^, are strengthened^ 3rd plur. ind. 
pres. pass, cf Oscan caria, ' bread,' so called from its giving 
* strength.' 

III. suLUH, o\cr)9, lastly {may) ; Pakis Kluvatiis, Paquiue 
Cluatius; turumiiad, Opwrroj, rpvto, conteratur, be destroyed; 
PUKLUD, abl. by the striking {down) ; valaImaIs, of {his) health 
{without any mischief arising therefrom) ; Vibiiai Akviiai, fo 
Vibia Aquia ; svai pch, Lat. si, ttov (repeated Lat. sive . • . 
sive), be it that ; aflakvs, 2nd sing.=affliseris, thou afflicteet; 
Pakim Kluvatiium, Pfl^'t^m^ Cluatius; PUKLui,dat. although 
we expect the abl. by the striking {dotcn) ; vaIaImas, of (hie) 
health ; suprusteras, adv. on the earth above ; InIm, and ; tuvaI 
LEGiNEi, also dat. for abl. by the laying low; InIm, and; sak- 
rIm, Lat. sacrum (scil. dis superis), ace. agreeing with Pakim 
Kluvatiium=(a«) a victim ; svAi puh, or be it that; aflakus^ 
thou afflictest {him) ; huntrusteras, below; HUNTRirsAKRix« 
{as) a victim for the lower gods; InIm, and; pukluI VALAiHAfSy 
by the striking {doum) of {his) health ; avt Keri ARENriKAi, 
or by avenging Kir; avt leginei ulas, or by the laying^low qf 
Orcus ; hernas trutas tusuas, three genitives governed by 
leginei ulas hernas, cf, 'x^epa-o^^ dried up, trutas, rpifeiv^ past 
part. pass, tusiias, 0v€lp= (as) of a weak, wretched victim, (ut) 
inopis, protritae hostiae. 

Huschke suggests for the outside inscription : — Ceri ultriei 


ON TriKiop, TreXtopo^, ireXcjpio^, — R. F. weymouth. 389 

(per)callidae. Suam velim noxius stragem (sentiat) ; obsti - 
natus aut frigore conficitor aut fame coDteratur. 

The division into three paragraphs is Huschke's. 

M. Br^al thinks line 5 ought to be read : — inimk (=pariter, 
item) ais (gen. of a demonstrative =ei us)' joa^r (= pater). In 
" rustatar " he sees ais matar, thus, item eius {i,e, Vibiae) pater, 
item eius mater. In line 9 he reads valaims pukil ; in 
line 6 he considers punum for pundum as a relative ; and in 
line 7 edum appears to him a pronoun for ed-dum^ similar to 

If I have thus succeeded in calling forth some little interest 
in the progress of Oscan studies, I will endeavour in a sub- 
sequent paper to present an account of the Oscan inscriptions 
generally , and of the various interpretations hitherto suggested* 
This would not be the first time that the Philological Society 
has interested itself in Italic dialectology, for I notice in the 
list of its Transactions for 1864 " Newman's Text of the 
Iguvine Inscriptions, with an Interlinear Latin Translation." 
It is only through the study of the old Italic dialects that we 
may hope to discover some day the origin of Latin, and to 
fill up the gulf which at present seems to divide it from 

XII. — ON TreXcop, 7r€\a)/}09, TreXw/jio?. By R. F. Weymouth, 

Esq., D.Lit. 

Various attempts have been made to assign an etymology to 
these words and explain their primary meaning. 

One derivation affirms Trekeop s. iriXcopo^ to be " dictum 
quasi 7reXa<; opov^ wv ev tco tieykOei, quod magnitudine proxime 
ad montera accedat": so Stephens writes in his Thesaurus, 
but without quoting his authority. A second is airo rov 
7r€Xa9 elvau tov ^I2pi(ovo<;, which is hardly satisfactory when 

S90 ON iriXwp, iriXo»po^, ireXdpio^. — R. F. weymotjth. 

we find TreXcipta; used as an epithet of Orion himself. Thirdly, 
Damm takes it from iri\a^ and &pa, ^'ut notetur talis qai 
curas mannas congredientibus aut versantibus secum ciet 
statim, ob ma^i^nitudinem suam." A fourth derivation is that 
of the Etymologicon Magnum : irapii ro iriKtOf vira/9%w, Koi 
TO &pa^ ij <f>povTky ^ iriXet <f>povTU Sih r6 fiiyeOo^, The 
etymology which will here be maintained refers these words 
to the same rnXo) and &pa— or rather &pa^ if the majority 
of modem editors are right in following the authority of 
Hesychius, who says -^tXai? Sk ^povrl^^ — but with a rery 
different set of id^as attached to them. 

But first we have to ascertain in what sense the early 
writers used the words now under consideration. Th iriKwpoPj 
h offfiaivei, TO fieya, and again rb TreXcopiov, to fiiyurroit^ : 
so says Etym. Magn. And the first, third, and fourth of 
the above etymologies, and probably the second also, indicate 
that vast size was the only notion that TriXeo/o, etc., conveyed. 
And so Eustathius, when commenting (p. 1135) on Hector^a 
reply to Glaucus, II. xvii. 174, 

09 T€ fx€ ^9 AXama ireXcopiov oi^ vTrofieiva^ 

remarks, ^' Here observe also how Hector seems to insinuate 
by the epithet he chooses that there is nothing worthy of 
respect in Ajax beyond mere bulk" {€v0a xal Spa tcai to 
Atavra TreXcopiov, Bo/covvro^ otop irapakaXelv tov "Eicropoi^ 
firjSev irpoaelvaL t^ Alain l acfivov irkiov rj to iriXcopov), And 
he proceeds to illustrate the meaning of the word by reference 
to the TreXxopLf; as being ** not only a Sicilian promontory,^ bat 
also a large kind of cockle (scallop P),"' as also Etym. Magn. 
explains this name by saying erreiSrf fiel^ov i<m ttj^ X*?/^? teal 
T&v aXKcov 6fjbol(i)v oarpetov. In like manner the Scholiasts 
frequently. For instance, on II. xviii. 410, ireKmp* fiiyiarov. 
On II. iii. 166, TreXxapiov fieyiaTov. On II. iii. 229, T. 395, 
vii. 208, 7r6\^/5*o9' fieya^;. That modem commentators and 
translators have commonly followed in the same track is only 
what might be expected. 

1 Ob magnitudmem sic vocatam.— Damm. 

OK Trikmp, iiiKiopa^, mKiipio^. — ^R. F. WBTMOUTS. 39 L 

Y(9( Hesjrchios does not bo limit the senKe : he adds the 
demetti of swe and amazement : iriXjiopa' Otfpia, Sei^TUfi 
ripttrm, oi^fuda fUyaXa' and again, ireKcopia' iJuirptKok ripara". 
and, w€Xmp$a9' fUye^, Seaw' while some seem to have found 
here the notion of destiny, for he gives 7^X00^179* Tii^, elfuip* 
fthftf^. Photios gives wik^pa* f*h^f repoumov^ and inhApmr. 
T^roq^ ftef£Ko%K And Eustathias himself mentions thai 
among the aneieots ir^Xofpo? was an epithet of Zens, atf 
applied to whom the word seems necessarily to connote some-' 
thing more than mere hogeness of bulk. But we must look 
into this question more in detail. 

In Homer irekiop occurs five times. In U. xviii. 410 it is 
used of Hephaestus, wfKMp ahfrov cu^arif : *' reverendus ille 
magnos " is Damm's paraphrase. In Odyss. ix. 428 it is the 
Cyclops, iriKmp aJ0€/Ai<rr$a FeiBo^ ; in xii. 87 it is Scylla that 
is the triXMp /cokov; and in the plural portents sent fix>m 
heaven are Sea^ ireka>pa, II. ii. 321, as the weird terrors of 
Circe's house are ahA iriXcopa in Odyss. x. 219, in each of 
these cases the prominent thought bring that of terror rather 
than that of vastness. 

niKcopo^ is an epithet of the Cyclops in Odyss. ix. 257 ; 
in Odyss. xv. 161, of a white goose borne off in the talons 
of an eagle— an alarming sign of the destruction that was 
coming on the haughty suitors ; in II. v. 741 and Odyss. xi. 
741, of Gorgo, whose head was in the segis of Pallas — a head 
large enough, as we learn from Hes. Scut. 223, to cover all the 
back of Perseus when he carried it slung over his shoulders ; 
in Odyss. x. 168 to a huge and formidable stag just slain in 
hunting — Sewolo ireXcopov ; in II. xii. 202 and 220 of a 
serpent carried off by an eagle. 

HeKiipio^ is an epithet of Ajax in II. iii. 229, vii. 211, xvii. 
1 74 and 360. Looking at these more in detail, in iii. 229 we 
find Helen using the epithet when naming to Priam, as they 
together gaze on the Achaean host from the Trojan ramparts, 
the warrior tfvu re fieyav re about whom the aged king 
enquires. That he was a tall man and of noble presence* the 
king saw, and stated so much in those words : what more 
natural than that Helen should add to the force of the epithets 

392 ON TriXjtop, iriXtopo^, TreXdpiof;. — R. K. weymouth. 

he had used, <ind describe Ajax as a ''great and formidable'' 
foep In vii. 211 we find him just appearing in this character, 
and about to make Hector taste his prowess in single combat. 
An epithet indicating mere bigness would be jejune indeed 
when the antagonist was the fiiya^ '^E/crojp, Most appro- 
priately too is ireXcopiof: used, if it signifies terrible as well 
as great, in xvii, 360, where we find him leading on the 
Greeks in furious slaughter. How Eustathius interprets the 
word in xvii. 174 to signify mere bulk we have already seen ; 
but on further consideration it seems obvious that Hector, 
while saying to Glaucus ** thou sayest," may have meant only 
to hint sarcastically at Glaucus^s fear by exaggerating the 
fji€ya\i]Topof; which the latter had used into the larger and 
weightier TreXo^piov — " thou sayest I have not dared to meet 
the great and formidable Ajax (as he seems to thee)." 

It is used of Periphas in II. v. 842 and 847, of whom we 
know that he was AircaX&v Sx* apiaro^^ and that he dared to 
encounter and was slain by Ares ; of Hector in II. xi. 819, 
where "great and terrible" may well be the meaning at a time 
when Hector was apparently triumphant and irresistible as well 
as fieyat; ; of Achilles in II. xxi. 527, where the aged Priam, 
standing on the Trojan rampart, beholds the* AxtXrja ireKc^ptov 
routing and scattering the unresisting Trojans ; and again of 
Achilles in II. xxii. 92, where we see Hector, unmoved by the 
piteous appeals of his father and mother, proceeding to en* 
counter the warrior "tall and dread ^^ (as he seemed to them) 
bv whom he is about to be slain. 

iT6Xa)/xo9 is an epithet of Ares, in II. vii. 208 0I09 t€ 
ireTuopu)^ epxerat^Apr}^ ; of 'AtSrjf; in II. v, 395 (where Newman 
renders "stupendous Aides," and Cordery "Hades, the ancient 
giant ") ; of the Cyclops Polyphemus in Odyss. ix. 187, who 
also in line 190 is called Oavfia TriT^xopov; and of Orion in 
Odyss. xi. 572, as chasing in the lower world the shades of 
the wild boasts that he himself had slain upon the mountains 
during his life. It is obvious that as applied to all these it 
may be intended to convey the sense of awful and terrible aa 
well as great, even if no further meaning lies under the surface. 

It is an epithet in II. v. 594 of the spear of Ares, and of that 

ON iriXap, iriXxopo^, ireXcopi^, — R. f. wbymouth. 393 

of Pallas Athene in II. viri. 424 ; in Odyss. xi. 594 of the 
" hoge and threatening " boulder which Sisyphus was com- 
pelled to heave up the hill ; of the awe-inspiring arms of 
Bhesus in II. x. 439 (where the Scholiast says, ou Kara rh 
fjUyeOo^ vw, fiiyaXa, aXXh Karh to koXXo^ repdarui — an 
explanation of which we may accept the negative clause, 
and yet resist the blandishments of the afiBrmative) ; and 
of the arms of Achilles in II. xviii. 83. Lastly in Odyss. 
iii. 290 it is applied to waves huge as mountains, " ingentes 
et horribiles" (Damm). 

These are all the passages in which these words occur in 
Homer, and glancing again over the list we find there is, or at 
least may be, in every instance an element of awe or dread, ; 

something divine or supernatural, or threatening, or which 
has threatened, danger. In no instance apparently where 
size alone is to be indicated, either literal or figurative, is one 
of this class of words employed. The size of Odysseus and 
Menelaus is compared : these are the lines : — 

aravTiov fuv Meve\ao<; irrreLpe^ev evpka^ &fjLov^, 
afKfxo 8' €^ofjL€V(o fy€papd)T€po^ fjev ^OSvaaev^, 

A great crowd is ttoXXo? ofiiXof;. Great grief is fivplov irivOo^ 
or iTVKLVov a^o^. Great fury is /cpareprj Xva-aa, Great lamen- 
tation is oBcvb^ 7009. Great Olympus is fiaKpo^ "OXvpnro^;, 
And almost every kind of object may be described as great by , 

/ieya9, as again great Olympus, fiir/a^ "OXvfiiro^ ; and so a . ■ 

great stag, horse, ox, lion ; a great hand, sword, tripod, anvil, i \ 

stone; a great threshing-floor, marsh,- cloud, eddy, river, | 

sea-beach, cliff, heaven ; a great voice, battle-cry, grief, 
mind, passion, violence, oath, boast, honour, cause of conflict, 
disaster, necessity, honour; a great man — Priam, Ajax, 
Hector, Tlepolemus, Iphidamas; a great God — Cronos, Zeus: 
to all of these and other objects besides p^irfa^ is applied. But 
irk\a)p and its derivatives are much more restricted in use. 

Turning now from Homer to Hesiod we find rata TreXtoprf 
in Theog. 159, 173, 47^, 505, and 821, in all which places 
it is the vast and venerable Mother of all the gods who 
is thus distinguished : in 731, 858, 861, the same epithet 

394 ON iriX4»pf Trikapo^f ireKipiof;. — R. F. weymouth. 

is felt to be appropriate for the earth in the literal sense. 
In the old poet's mind the two ideas may have been nearly 
or quite identical. Fala ireKcoprj occurs also in Theog, 9, 
and in the later epics in Qu. Smyrn. Posth. ii. 225 and 
Tzetz. Horn, 468, in each case a simple and tolerably correct 
borrowing from the earlier bard. Besides this fern. ireKiopvif 
the adjective occurs only in Theog. 299, iriXwpov 8<f>iVp where 
the words which follow, Seipov re fjtiyav re, seem to be added 
by way of explanation. 

IleTuopio^ occurs but once in Hesiod, namely in Theog, 
179, where the sickle of Cronos is thus described — the fAtya 
tpeiravov which Earth had made for him to do the deed of 
blood with. 

niXxopov as a noun, equivalent to the Homeric iriXiopop or 
ireXxop^ is used of the Echidna in Theog. 295, of Typhoeus iu 
845 and 856, and of Gorgo in Scut. 223, each of these being 
a monster both terrible and s:reat. 

In Pindar ireXoopKy: alone is found, and only in three 
passages, in the sense simply of great. They are ireXcipiop 
avSpa (O. vii. 15), ireXcopiov kTUo^ (O. xi. 21), and epyov TreXoS- 
piov (P. vi. 41). 

Proceeding to the Tragedians, we nowhere find these words 
employed by Sophocles, but ireKdpu)^ occurs both in .^chylosi 
and Euripides, and in the more ancient fuller meaning. In Pr. 
V. 157, we have tA irplp Bi ireKdopia vvv atarol^ — ^Uhinge 
formerly weKcopia he now causes to disappear. Here Blomfield 
explains in his Glossary, ^^ venerabilis, grandis." Linwood, 
*^ vast, powerful." Blackie paraphrases, ^* the great trace of 
Titan times hath vanished.**^ This, however, is hardly satisfac- 
tory. It overlooks the irplv by which tlie ireXxopui is qualified. 
The position of this Trpiv shows that the beings referred to were 
formerly ireXtopui and are so no longer. As to mere magni- 
tude, there is no hint that Cronos and his allies the Titana 
had shrunk in bulk ; or Atlas, who now stood bearing on his 
shoulders that mighty superincumbent pressure of the pole 
of heaven ; or the furious Typhon, now blasted with the boU 
of Zeus and buried beneath uiEtna, whence he spouts forth 
fiery ruin o'er the fair fields of Sicily. The sense evidently; 


027 iriXMp, TreXiopo^y ireXcDpio^. — R. F. weymouth. 395 

18,^^ all that of yore wa8 majestic and venerable is vanishing 
before the tyrannous usurpation of Zeus/^ So ^schylus has, 
Fr. 168, 9, w€\xopio<: fivOo^: daXdaarj^ "the awful abyss of 
ocean/' In Euripides we find only, in Iph. in Taur. 1248, 
709 ireXtipiov ripcu^y of the monstrous Pythian dragon which 
the infant Phcebus slow. 

Passing on to the later epics we find this same dragon noted 
by the same epithet in A p. Rh. Arg. 706, AeX^lvrfv irektopuov ; 
and instances that are more or less successful imitations of 
Homer are not very infrequent. Such are irekuapMV "Apt^v 
(Qu. Sra. Posth. i. 189), 'HpaxXrja iteKwpiov (Ap. Rh. Arg. i. 
1242), ^Irufioprja weXiopiov (ib. ii. 105), Xeipoava TreXcopiov 
(ib. ii. 1240), BaaiKija ireXwpiov, viz. Memnon (Qu. Sm. 
Posth. ii. 109), Alavra ireXwpiov (Tz. Antehom. 299), '^^t\^ 
veXdpiop (Tz. Posth. 410), and the same Achilles is elsewhere 
styled ireTiMpio^ Sffpifiot; ^p<D^ (ib. 400). As in Homer a stag 
may be weXiopio^, so a lion in A p. Rh. (Arg. iv. J 438), and 
the dragon {S(f>i^) that guards the golden fleece is iriKcDp roBe 
and fcewo iriKiopov (ib. 143 and 1440), as also he hisses loudly 
and horribly, poifyi TreXcopwv (ib. 129), though this use of 
ireKxapu>v as an adverb is not Homeric. Nor is the use of 
Trikap as an adjective, as in Fairyi ireKtap riKo^i (A p. Rh. Arg. 
ii. 39), nor the quasi-adverbial use of ireXcopio^ where it is said 
of Boreas w/crl S' efirj irovrovte weXdpuyi. We have seen tiiat 
Homer applies this epithet to tiio spears of Pallas A thene and 
of Ares, but that of iEetes is so described by Ap. Rh. (Arg. 
iv. 224), and that of Neoptolemus by Tzetzes (Po»th. 564). 
We have seen in the Iliad the arms of Rhesus bearing this 
epithet, and those of Achilles : but this hardly prepares us to 
read of the xprffjuBei we^Mpuu of Aciiilles (Qu. Sm. Posth. v. 
112) — as though some bard now-a-days siiould sing of Welling- 
ton's or Napoleon's awe-inspiring boots, — or to find Penthe- 
silea's double-headed axe extolled as iroKk^ioLo ireXdpiop aTucap 
(ib. i. 16). Homer might possibly with Tzetzes have called the 
wooden horse ireKcopux: (Posth. 636 and 697), but Homer 
nowhere uses this adjective of a dead inert mass like the walls 
of Troy, 'ireXdpia T€ij(€a Tpoltf^ (Tz. Anteh. 18), or of a 
sepulchral mound, afjfia ireKioptov (Qu. Sm. Posth. iii. 740), 

or a log of limber floating on the water and to which drowning 
men cling for safety, SaipiMrof; TreXmptov (Ap. Rh. Artr. ii. 1 1 1 1); 
or again of mere sound aa in the /m^a ircX«pfor already qaoted^ 
and ff^ TreXmpifs CTz. Poeth. -328). In short these tate 
writers seem to have oaed 'Ke\mp€af: aa aimplj an emphatic 
equivalent for fUyw;^ aa also the Scholiasts commonly ex- 
plained it : in Homer the word implied madi more. It under- 
went in course of time a change, not to say a degradation, of 
meaning, such as I pointed out some years ago in one or two 
papers read before this Society to hare taken place in ofipifAO^ 
and several other Homeric epithets. 

The view which I have been led to take of the original 
meaning of these words is of course based partly on their use 
in Homer and the other early poets, partly on the etymology 
which I shall venture to propose. To this let us now 
pass. It will be admitted that ireXiw signifies primarily to 
revolve. Hence in the middle voice it is equivalent to rersari 
(whence also it comes to signify simply to be) ; and voXo^ is 
the pivot round which the whole heaven revolves, and hence 
by a common synecdoche the whole revolving vault of heaven 
itself. The first syllable then may not improbably contain the 
notion of revolcing. So hritrXofievov ero9, the revolving year. 

From &f>a (or &pa, as Gaisford edits) carey come in/Kwpi^ a 
gate-keeper, 6vp(op6^ a doorkeeper, Oefopo^ (from OeOj not Beo^) 
an official inspector of the games, v€a>p6<: a dockyard superin- 
tendent, (FKevKopo^ a watcher of the baggage, uXcu/to? an 
inspector of forests, atopo^;, 6\iyo>po^, etc. Combining this 
notion of care, watching, inspection, superintendence, with 
that already assigned to the first syllable, we arrive at 
revolving ivatcher as possibly or probably the primary meaning 
of TriXcap or ireXcopio^. 

But besides the etymology can we find any other considera- 
tions that may assist our inquiry ? In the old poets, as we 
have seen, there is always in these words not only the idea of 
magnitude, but also that of something divine or preternatural 
or alarming; and hence one might reasonably expect to find in 
them some trace of primeval religion. Such trace I believe they 
actually contain, and that as based on, or connected with, early 

OH viKo^p, wikvpo^, 'rreXcopio^. — R. F. Weymouth. 397 

astronomical observation. Tliis idea of a watcher, it mav be 
remarked, is foand also in the Ghaldee portion of the Book of 
Daniel, where Nebuchadnezzar narrating his dream says that 
he beheld " a watcher and a holy one come down from heaven,^ 
and again, *' this matter is by the decree of the watchers " 
(IV. 13, 17). 

Who first mapped out the mighty heavens, and traced 
among the stars figures of beings of scarcely imaginable vast- 
ness incessantly observing human affairs ; whether this was 
done in early antediluvian ages by the immediate descendants 
of Seth the son of Adam, as Jewish tradition recorded by 
Josephns seems to assert;* whether the Mazzaroth by them 
traced out were intended (as was maintained by the late 
emdite Miss Rolleston of Keswick) to preserve the knowledge 
of great religious truths therein mystically shrouded (just as 
Mr. Gladstone contends — and I accept the view — that certain 
primeval prophecies, which we find in the earliest Hebrew 
Scriptures, lie embalmed in the mythology of Flomer) ; whether, 
descending to later times and approaching the regions of 
history, the constellations were first known to the Chinese or 
(as Mr. Robert Brown believes) the Accadian observers, to the 
Indians, the Phoenicians, or the Greeks; — these and other 
deeply interesting problems we must to a great extent leave 
unsolved. But as to the Greeks a few observations are 

Sir George Cornewall Lewis says : " The constellations of 
the heavenly sphere seem to have been gradually formed by 
the Greeks. Those which are mentioned by Homer and 
Hesiod are doubtless the most ancient " (Astron. of the Anc, 
p. 68). And again, with reference to the Bear as never 
bathing in the Ocean [otrj afifiopo^ Xoerp&v^flKeavdio) he says : 
** The most probable supposition seems to be that the Great 
Bear was the only portion of the arctic sky which in Homer's 
time had been reduced into the form of a constellation " (ib. p. 

^ Of these krSyovoi of Hrfioi Josephus declares that vo^iw r^v ir§p\ rh obpdina 
mi) r^y roCruy Iiuuc6irfi'n(riy iirtyAfjacuf : Ant. Jud. i. 3. Similarly the Rabbinical 
interpretation of the closing words of the fourth chapter of Genesis is, ** then, in 
the days of £nosh the son of Sheth, a beginning was made with calling stars and 
planets by the name of the Lord.*' 

al>). X^nst thew viewa of Sir €r. G. Lewis we muBt a^ t&a 
^cacenunila of an eaciier bat wei<Thty aathori^ apparently av«r- 
Innk^ by luin. Sir William Joiuss infbrmB us that iim 
Bi'41uiiaii» '^ divide a great circle^ as we do, iiito three hundred 
and aixty da^eee, called by them jtmcu or ponioiie, of whiiidi 
thny, like osv allot thirty to each of the twelve aigos in this 
order : JK^i^ the Bam^ VrUha the Ba£L, XU^hana the Pan; 
Carfuvtii the Crab, iSfw^ the lion, Cantfd the TirgixL, Ttfi^ tbs 
Baiaacftr VrMekka the Scorpioa, DAa»tfe the Bow^ Maetam 
the Sea-Mooeter^ CumbAa the Ewer, JCm the Fiak" (AaiafiL 
Kee., voL EL p. 291). Aad again: ^^Tlie Brakmans asBim 
me with one voice that the namee of the Zodiacal stars occur m 
the VMfJtj three of which I fimly beSeve, from internal and 
external evidence, to be more thaa 3000 years old '' (ibw p.. 30q)« 
ITevertheleae that the Indian astrooomers borrowed aomethajp 
from the Greeks ia clear. In each of the twelve Signs thaj- 
reckon three divL^iona called DrMimnm» or DrekoMoa^ Of tMm 
word Colebrooke says : *^ I do aoi sappeee it to be origunlSjr 
Sanekrit, aince in thai language it bears no etymologicai 
ii<^ification '^ (Asial. Bee., voL ix. p. 375). Bat the tttte 
Oreek B^Mcufth^ which Hoet in his Animadversiones ad IM** 
nilifim resrardi ae a Greek numeral with a Latin terminatTOi^ 
fully f^xplaiQs Drikdt^my aa meanix^ a space — but only roughlf 
and approximately^-of ten degrees. For it is easy to- suppose 
r.hat tbi^ roaeJ r was appended to the d to produce a sound 
rf^»embling that of the Greek 8 (namely our aonant th) wh^rk 
wai^ nn known in Sanscrit. 

\\\xt to return to Sir G. C. Lewis. Id supposing that tb» 
Grftfrk.<< Wf^re the first to mark out the constellations^ and that 
t\\t. prrxTf^M had only just begun in Homer's time, he has oat 
(iX\\y dl.^regarded the statements of Sir W. Jones and Cole^ 
\*t(tfMfi^ hut has aliio overlooked the evidence furnished by whtti 
1.4 probably the oldest book in the Hebrew literature^ the book 
'»f Job, There we find (ix. 9) a group of stars, almost uni* 
\^^r«ally idf^ntified with Orion, called by a name that deartj 
n»4i/»r.e« a person, /^3, signifying /oo/ or giant 'j and ^}\ 
rrU.l, a f«w verses, below is taken by Benan to be the aaaie cf 
i^^^ifJiAf cr>njitellation, a monster "enehaine aa ciel avee 

OH 7riK»p, iriXxDpo^, ireXxopup^.^-tL F. WBTMOUTH. 399 

compi^ons/' The Yedas and the book of Job thus con* 
emr in showing that long before Homei^s time the 8tellar 
kavens were peopled with imaginary beings. 

Nor is this all. There is a theory (how ancient it is, or 
with whom it originated, I do not know) that among the old 
Phoenician races the worship of the Sun-god was to some 
txtent based on a recognition of the Signs of the Zodiac : that 
fbe Greek myth of the crooked-counselled Cronos devourin«r 
bis own children (Hes. Theog. 459) is of Phoenician origin, 
and that as originally told of Baal or Molech it signified the 
^sappearance of the Signs of the Zodiac as the 8nn comes 
mmoDg them, and that it was in celebration of this his perpetual 
aehieTcment that Baal or Molech (originally one with one 
SDother and with the Sun) was honoured with the sacrifice of 
children. But such sacrifices were offered eren as early as the 
age of Moses, being alluded to in Lev. xviii. 21. If there- 
fcre that theory is well-founded, and undoubtedly it is very 
plausible, it follows that at least twelve of the most important 
of the constellations were known in the west of Asia some 
centuries before Homer lived. 

But if so, how can we account for the fact that he has 
named so few of them P Possibly thus. 

The Emperor Napoleon was of opinion, contrasting the 
second book of the ^neid with the Iliad, that Homer had a 
practical acquaintance with war, such as Virgil never had : 
"in reading the Iliad," he says, "one feels throughout that 
Homer had been engaged in war." If we accept Napoleon's 
judgment on this point, — and surely he was eminently quali- 
fied to judge, — and suppose that Homer in early life was a 
warrior, and combine with this the statement in the Hymn to 
Apollo, which afterwards was the universal tradition, that in 
later life he was blind — I write as believing in an actual indi- 
vidual Homer, though I take the word Homer itself to be 
rather in its origin a descriptive epithet^ than a strictly 

' The Fitter-together, from Sfio- and op, I take the name to indicate — and 
this IB also substantially Mr. Gladstone's view — that just as our Chaucer, and in a 
later age Shakspere, found raw materials ready to nand which they worked up 
into their tales and dramas, so Homer did not invent all his facte, bat worked np 

400 ON wi\tgp, TT^keopov, irekApM^. — R. F. wbymocth. A 

personal nnme — we can readily understand his having studied ■ 
the stars to a verj' limited extent. And yet he may ban .1 
possessed on this subject, aa on every other, a great amount of j 
knowledr;e whioh there was no suitable opportunity to displaj. 1 

Nevertheless he does mention — besides single stars such M- ; 
the Dogstar and the Evening Star (so called), and groups M : 
the Hyades and the Pleiades — three constellations, the Bear, 
Orion, and the "alow-setting Bootes" Moreover, ho tells db- ' 
that Hephseslus wrought on the Shield of Achilles all those' ; 
reipea with which heaven is crowned.' This surely implies, 
that he was acquainted with other relpta besides those which 
he proceeds to name, " the Pleiades and the Hyades and the 
might of Onon, and the Bear which also they surname the 
Wain, which revolves in the same place and lies in wait for. 
Orion, and alone has no share in Oceau's bath ;" for at least 
one, Bootes, is left out of the list. 

But the question arises, on which with reluctance I must 
dwell awhile, what does this term rtlpea mean P constellations 
or simply stars P Prof. Faley takes it in the latter sense, and 
connects it with the Sanskrit fard 'a star': the Scholiasts, 
Hesychius, and most modern authorities adopt the other view 
and take relpea from ripwi. Prof. Newman renders "all the 
marvels," Mr. Cordery "all the constellations," Lord Derby 
"all the signs." Let us look into this. If we take relpea as 
equivalent to idra, the former of these like the latter has 
apparently lost an initial s ; for the Lat. aslrum and stel'Ui, 
Grk. aarpov and dflrijp, Zend stare, M.G. slairno, 0. H.(S. 
sferro, Pl.D. sleern, O.N. sljarna, A.S. steorra, Gael, ateom, 
Welsh stirenn, Bret, ster. Old Corn, steyr, all confirm the 

trttditioM wTiich till then were eommon property, differing howerer from Chaacar 
and Shnksnere in thnt he wove a scries of traditions into ana consistent and hiT' 
monioua wliolo in the Iliad, and a eecoud seri«e, different from the former thongit 
coubisteat with it, he litt«d together to form the Odjsaey. 

> if filv y£ai/ htvi', h V oiforiv, h Si BiXiuraiw, 
ilihiit t' i«4ia»Tn, ffthiinir rt i-\^floucro», 
iy SI Tik Tifpta tiiTTa ri t' obpwh! iatt^innai, 
n\Tiiiiis ft 'YifEat T« ri tt a6itei 'flpfaivat, 

tt t' auToi iTTp/fitTcu Koi t' 'nplswn tmin 
oTii V ijitiapii iirri korrpeir 'Oichivui. 

183 iwqq! ^H 


at wiXMp, w&Mpoii, weKtapuK. — B. f. wetmouth. 401 

iaion that tdrd was originally stdrd ; but sach an aphieresis 

rely lare if not quite uiilinown in Greek. We may indeed 

I me ar^yot to be an earlier form than reyof and crrryi; than 

|T^ (given by Hesych. and Etym. Magn.); bat tliia notion ia 

dinglj doubtful, cert^nly not supported by the Latin 

F iegOt oar thatch, etc, Tiie comparison of reXXo) with otcXXm 

[ aid Tftkwta with (rrpe^ is equally unsatisfactory. For the 

fenner pair 1 can find do Aryan kindred. With the latter 

Gnrtius considers the Latin torqueo to be connected, as well as 

tbo M.6. threihan (which seems to me very doubtful) and the 

O.H.6. drdj'an. If he is right, as he probably is, as to forqueo 

containing the same root as Tpeirw, this brings us also — which 

Cortias does not perceive — to the A.S. ^rdiean and our tkroto 

which la identical with lorqueo, and primarily conveys the same 

idea of circular motion. But neither threihan, drdjan, torqueo 

or throw has an initial s. In all these pairs of Ureek words 

thero is an 8 prefixed to one of the pair, not one lust by the 

other. In short the supposed vanished sibilant in Telpea 

aeatee a serious difficulty. 

Another difficulty, if we imagine relpea to be the original 
form, ia the change of vowel. The Greek et commonly corre- 
sponds to I in Sanskrit, as in Xe/;^w, tTTeCx<^, x^tf^v, compared 
with lih, stigh, himas. The comparison of the Skt. mas 'a 
month' with Ionic /letV would be simply illusory, the latter 
having evidently undergone a mere euphonic change within 
the hmits of the Greek '""fl'l"c" itself, aud standini; for ^tcf;. 
On the other hand the derivation of relpea from Tepa^ is quite 
easy to account for. The stem of -ripat is in Homer not repar 
M in later Greek, but repa ; just as light in Homer is not ifxoT 
but ^. This repa after the analogy of hundreds of other epic 
forma becomes reipa where the metre demands a long first 
ajllable; and the change of a characteristic a into c before another 
vowel is perfectly familiar in the Ionic dialect : in infinitives in 
-WW from stems in a for example: fo honour m Herodotus is 
Tifiaui, Tifideiv being only a theoretical form invented by the 
graiiimariana, unknown I believe to Greek writers of every age. 
"'>' is tliL're anything very startling in the co-existence in 
^*ttitt ^ two distinct forms, reipea in this passage and repaa 

402 ON iri\Mp, TriXoopo^, irekiipio^. — R. F. WETMOUTir. 3, 

ID Odyss. xii. 394, when we find in ^schylus ek and ^ in s j 
single line — 

Sicu0rjv t'9 otfiov^ ajSpOTOP eh iptifilav,--^ 

and in Homer himself ^Ape^ and *Ap€^ side by side in a reiy 
&miliar line. 

Bat may not ripiv; itself, as Gurtius seems to suppose, mean 
ori^nally star and be akin to tdrd. I think not, partly be^ 
cause of the vanished sibilant, partly because there is no single 
instance in Greek — excepting possibly the very passage under 
discussion — where ripa^ means star. From Homer down* 
wards ripa^ signifies a wonder, a marvel, and then also • 
significant marvel or portent, as in II. xvii. 548 ; never a mere 
star, though of course a star might be used as a portent. Ther 
purely etymological argument seems then strongly adverse to 
the identification of ripa/^ with tdrd. 

It is with some reluctance, as already intimated, that I havar 
thuff fully discussed the meaning of this Teipea^ the reluctanoe 
ht''iu:i based on doubts as to the genuineness of the line. One 
;rroand of suspicion is that urged by Mr. Paley, that the word 
14 found but once in Homer, but is of frequent occurrence in the 
Alexandrine poets; an objection indeed to which a ready reply 
is that they may have borrowed it, parce detortum^ iVom a 
g«fnuine line of the old epic. A graver reason for doubt seeme 
t/i me if} be the fact that the intelligibility and concinnity of 
th«; paxHag^ as a whole are injured by this line. The difficulty 
lifM in the re after 7TXi7ra&z9. Take this ai^ both or as tmd^ 
and r€lp€a as stars or as constclhtiom^ the difficulty still 
n^inairiff. Let it mean Ifoth, so that iTXi;£a&K> etc., are in 
ftppf/MJtion with mama ra reipea^ the apposition is imperfect-— 
'/r fiATafiwcris ei*? rti^a tiip-q^ as Eustathius calls it,— because (ae 
^yi\uU**\ out above; they are not irdvra which are enumerated, 
m f^iib'T •'ffrme of reipea. And in either sense of reipen it 
iM»k«'» nofi^cHMe U) render the re by and^ — to add to the whole 
Wfiiii tii til" partfi which compose that whole. It is as if we 
i'bvi^l'i pi9**:iU of the British Army afid the Rifles and the 
Ho*tP^\i'A'l ('avalrv. 

it )r/w« v«T these arc but futile objections, and we 

ON vikup, iriKcDpo^, irtKcapuy;. — R. F. WKYMOUTH. 403 

die genuineness of the line, I conclude that irdvra rd, relpea 
deifies *' all those constellations," and that Homer was well 
Aware of the existence of many such, though he has named but 
A few of them. And a constellation is a ripai; as being weird 
and maryelloas as well as vast, often also significant in various 
ways, as old Hesiod shows, the marvellous character however 
being the dominant one in this name. 

When therefore Odysseus, who has often gazed on Orion 
weird and marvellous and vast in the heaven, afterwards 
beholds him in the lower world, to call him the ireXtoptov 
'lipiiofpa is to aflSx an appropriate epithet, if this ireKcipio^ 
indicates, as T contend the derivation proves, that that same 
Orion in his supernal sphere of action was one of the ^' revolv- 
ing watchers " of the sky. 

To the explanation here proposed of the terms under dis- 
cussion it is an obvious objection that they are not distinctly 
applied in Homer to any of the constellations; for even in 
veKapiov 'flpuova it is not the constellation Orion of which the 
poet is there speaking. But the Greek language existed long 
ages before Homer, as doubtless did also astronomical observa- 
tion ; and my supposition is that even in Homer s time the 
primary meaning of these words was lost sight of. 

Nor can this be deemed incredible. Many of Buttmann'^s 
etymologies in hisLexilogus may be correct, though Homer 
knew nothing of them. In our own language how many words 
are in common use the true sense of which is imperfectly 
understood or altogether wrongly apprehended. I have my- 
self had to explain to educated people, and with difficulty to 
convince them, that a ^^huxom lass" did not mean one who was 
plump and fat. Very few who speak of Skjonal temper or a 
^turnine disposition or a humorous remark have the least idea 
of the original meaning of those adjectives. Hundreds of well- 
'Dformed men and women use the word iceird without the least 
^'Jspicion of the light that the Voluspa throws on it. Canon 
^arrar affirms, though I have not found the passages he alludes 
^» that ** Byron used English words (' ruth ' for instance, 
*^^ *kibe') in absolutely mistaken senses." And in like 
PMl. Tram. 1882-3-4. 28 

ttl41 jnmnmnsac -:vnvisii». — sum. raaDrtcDE ilhl. wam^^s^anoL, 

tuDiu^' iiien if imiiiher ai -miidk am-V nuttaifttimBiiirr iiii ^i» 
.liyiMitiMiiH' iiax: iin wlmf^ vn iwm- "imsii 'saiaiuerhip tiunR'att -.u 
'tinn euriiortiiut iBimigr it «nE§t -^idL muF ih: iiiff tthfiH iafinir^ 
irua fli^nn. «uui(in -zu* amimiiOfffi iitiiiw Hiinir: iktmva ri&am «ill 
4iiT otnituriM;. Ant. i? fn.. !iz lif aHsuSikr <iaiiiim?^Mb ma> tiiob tfift 
jHirtttft T^iinoimoi ".aSaiaaJfB.. ^i^Hilk' ^iifi!^ ih -ittiiiidf :ii nni|^ anBHii 
.111 niim mUui. *" "uiH^ cirvub xiiiuc <O^Tiiiiu.*'' miwr wm liniii liinpiiift&U' 
iiMHil ¥!liifU. ::uiii !rto*aMkfi!rfifiliiflr t&iuiifi riuiG wsmH ^tdiiiiiG aih- 
(fiwiiw^ liirt Mi mii tfiOTH .-uufl iiffimt^ ijti minft ]f ii»Ns^nIL 

lFlinin> rdiff '^oinitiw :urjr;riniimia> Hmn- r&fi&iumil lis feaenip da* imp 
It Enawtiuiiiiy i^rrtiiiUtitt 'omidhifiifa aiiLntu^t H .{ir aim iimttsiifi 
flAxtti h iiwrufmiitiwiriimilx iinPilbiipii&fFKii&mira ,. oiliiii aili» ^iniuJIl 
'ditttif ttf' wiirrtH-.. vtt liik^ ^flronniiUiir^ mifl Q^ HudiHrni iiHuisr^ iftiiiw„ 
ni^iiiitffil niiudi. miri nSiiixL mtuift wm-^ tdbm iii tdiHiir fflimieiur 
^mMK- nlliex .fimnRrtiiL 'ir isfi IkiiiHi ni^S'fstiiitfi.. mr^i^iiHrauiifr tBicrar -&§ 
4UMtftiniSrtf£ '.viidL diiixR muzft^ Affliiu^ wiiilki T^inii anm^miaiinii 
jifnf Utifl nliit 9:THiiiut lirijuvnom :: dknc tibngiKncIrcr^ aff iff (niinniiiiiflK' 
fdlrt- 'UtuK- -ii^iidk-. til '¥'nrfif» nSbev .ve- Tumfi oii- <nia-^(H^ 'lajlr x nam ^ 

lUitnfwUutv.^ lam -HhirrtV iio; ^vamv wfiii mft diif»«f wtict&. 'iir ^xilii> 

IT Ml 

SELF- Bt H-LH- Pai».ci L-L. BooiAffAaaiB. 

Iff,. Willi'; ?i; Vli.-.rjk i^'l S^-itifeJ fciBfcr V li* ioTHBtuoftJ-iinifc * 


pen X, a sound which they both hear as the low-front-narrow 
Itah'an open e in cappello * hat ' VIII. 

IP. That Vianna agrees with me and disagrees with 
Sweet : 1°. In the very frequent admission of the mid-mixed- 
narrow French second e in rejeter * to throw again ' XIV. 
This sound, although admitted sometimes by Sweet, is far 
too often heard by him either as the high-mixed- narrow 
Welsh u XXII, or else as entirely suppressed. This suppres- 
sion gives rise to the most unlikely groups of consonants, 
quite repulsive, in spite of Mr. Sweet's acceptance, to all Neo- 
Latin ears ; as, for instance, in •ciatea tu ' didst thou see,' pro- 
nounced by him visfsid, instead of risil^f&. The suppression 
of this vowel, although frequently admitted by Vianna, 
never goes so far as to allow such impossible, almost non- 
human, pronunciations; and, as Vianna states, the Portuguese 
tendency is sometimes in an opposite direction, as in observar 
* to observe,' pronounced obosBrvdr, in four syllables ; 2°. In 
the rejection of the above-mentioned high-mixed-narrow 
Welsh sound XXII, of which Mr.Bweet seems to be so fond; 
3°. In the rejection of the nasal modification of the mid- 
mixed-narrow French second e in rejeter XV, the only nasal 
e admitted by Vianna and me (in Lisbon Portuguese) being 
the nasal raid-front-narrow d XII, corresponding to the 
French * e ferm^ ' XI. 

111°. That Vianna disagrees both with Sweet and myself 
in recognizing 29, instead of Sweet's 16 and my 16 vowel 

In a future note I shall speak perhaps of the consonant 
sounds ; but, as far as vowels are concerned, I am unable to 
subscribe to Mr. Sweet's opinion, expressed at p. 233 of the 
"Transactions of the Philological Society for 1882-3-4," 
that, *' in almost every case in which he diflFerS from J. de 
Deus and me, Vianna is on his side." 

With regard to my following J. de Deus, who very 
seldom appreciates the sounds, as I have done, either physio- 
logically or by comparison with those of other languages, I 
have only to say that I have followed my own ears, which 



manner there is nothing to shock one's anderstanding in 
hypothesis that the words we have been considering bore 
time earlier than Homer a sense which was in his time 
from sight, though the associated ideas hung about them 
for centuries. And if so, it is readily conceivable too that 
phrase weXcopiov 'HpUova, while where it stands it may m< 
no more than '^ the dread giant Orion," may yet be a linguu 
fossil which the Fitter- together found and used without si 
pecting the life and force and beauty it once possessed. 

From the various arguments here adduced it seems to 
a reasonably probable conclusion (though I do not pretew 
that it rests on absolutely irrefragable evidence), that this sm^ 
class of words, as alike etymology and the earliest usage showi 
signified much more than mere size; that in their Homer^^ 
sense they denoted, or at least suggested, mysterious terror M 
associated with those mighty beings with whom imagination 
peopled the visible heavens ; that frequently, as is commonly 
the case with all words, they are used to convey only a part rf 
their original sense; but that those late writers and com* 
mentators are simply in error who use these words, or who 
explain them, as normally indicative only of size. 

SELF. By H.I.H. Prince L.-L. Bonaparte. 

Til R accompanying Comparative Table shows : P. That Yianna 
ugrees with Swcot and disagrees with me : 1^. In the admis- 
•ion of the low-mixed-wide a in about IV, in Portuguese 
words whoro I hear the low-front-wide a in fat III ; 2**. lu 
tlio rojociion (in Lisbon Portuguese) of this same a in Jbi 
Iir, which Viatina and Sweet hear as the low-mixed-?ride a 
in ahout IV ; ii". In the rejection of the mid- front- wide in 


I JM X, a sound which they both hear as the low- front-narrow 
fiiKan open e in eappello * hat ' YIII. 

IP. That Vianna agrees with me and disagrees with 
Iveet: 1°. In the very frequent admission of the mid-mixed- 
Mrrow French second e in rejeter * to throw again ' XIV. 
Ibis sound, although admitted sometimes by Sweet, is far 
too often heard by him either as the high-mixed-narrow 
Welih u XXII, or else as entirely suppressed. Tliis suppres- 
ooo gives rise to the most unlikely groups of consonants, 
(aite repulsive, in spite of Mr. Sweet's acceptance, to all Neo- 
Lfttin ears ; as, for instance, in viateH in ' didst thou see,' pro- 
nounced by him visfst&, instead of risflifu. The suppression 
of this vowel, although frequently admitted by Vianna, 
never goes so far as to allow such impossible, almost non- 
human, pronunciations; and, as Vianna states, the Portuguese 
tendency is sometimes in an opposite direction, as in ohnervar 
* to observe,' pronounced obonQrcdr, in four syllables ; 2°. In 
the rejection of the above-mentioned high-mixed-narrow 
"Welsh sound XXII, of which Mr.Bweet seems to bo so fond; 
y. In the rejection of the nasal modification of the mid- 
mixed-narrow French second e in rejeter XV, the only nui^al 
e admitted by Vianna and me (in Lisbon Portuguese) being 
the nusal mid-front-narrow ? XII, corre8|X)nding to the 
French * e ferm^ 'XL 

III'''. That Vianna disagrees both with Sweet and myself 
in recognizing 29, instead of Sweet's 10 and my 15 vowel 

In a future note I shall speak perhaps of the consonant 
sounds ; but, as far as vowels are concerned, I am unable to 
subscribe to Mr. Sweet's opinion, expressed at p. 2*}'3 of the 
"Transactions of the Philological Society for 18H2-'5 4," 
that, " in almost every case in which he differs from J. do 
Deus and me, Vianna is on his side/' 

With regard to my following J. de Deus, who very 
seldom appreciates the sounds, as I have dr>ne, either physio- 
logically or by comparison with those of olh^r languages, I 
have only to say that I have followed my own ears, which 












id., Beminasal 

Low-front- wide 


id., Beminasal 

id., gutturalized 

Low- back -wide- round, 

id., gutturalized 

Mid-front- narrow 

id., seminanal 
id, gutturalized 



-4 |<n]«>|| -^jw CO i^lod 



<a 1 1 '"^ ~° 1 1 ^11 ^ ^ 1 '" 


i ' "tills 1 ' IS— 



Sweet, M.A. 

The following is a description of the sounds and forms of 
Welsh as spoken in the valley of Gwynant in Oamarvon- 
shire, based on personal observations. 



The following ar the elementary vowels and the diph- 
thongs, with the Romic notation I employ : 










(a) bara (bred) ; mab {filius) 

(y) sut {how) ; ty {house) 

(a) yma {here) ; y (the letter) 

(i) dim {not) ; ci {dog) 

(e) pen {hed) ; hen {old) 

(u) cwrw {beer) ; cwn {dogs) 

(o) pont {bridg) ; do {yea) 

(ay) dau {tico) ; cae {feeld) 

(ai) gair {word) 

(au) mawr {great) ; naw {nine) 

(yu) duw {god) 

(oy) deuddeg {twelv) 

(oi) eira {snow) 

(au) clywed {hear) 

(eu) ewch {go ye f) ; tew {thick) 

(uy) blwyddyn {year) ; mwy {mor) 

(oy) coeden {tree) ; coed {trees) 

(oi) troi (^ttrn) 

(ou) dowch {cum ye !) 

bara; maab. 

Byt; tyy. 

araa; asL 

dim; kii. 

pen; been. 

kuru; kuun. 

pont; doo. 

day; kaay. 


maur; naau. 





eux; teeu. 

bluy^yn; muuy. 

koydan; kooyd. 





The ooDsonants ar : 

hanes {histary) 

obweob {iix) 

iaitb (hnfjfuage) 

rbaff (rcpe) 

ei ran (his share) 

gwraig (wf/e) 

Hall (oiher) 

ei law (At> hanff) 

gwlad (cnnirif) 

oath (cnt) 

ineddwl (MiiiJt) 

•iamd (i^)^*) 


8aia (X$^iskman) 

^\ waWh hi (Afr if«eA) 

wetii («>1^^r) 

0orff ( Wji^) 

aft«^ (rf>fr) 

(V i>gh^ (m$f imct) 

driii||o (r)Aiii#A) 

\km\ {§rm^ftm0iktr) 
jfw«k> (*f«r> 

^ Wl^ V^^ ^^ 





























































-i ran. 



-i Ian. 







-i whatshL 












^ iflt dSiitait it wil be deiiiilil 

spoken north welsh. — henk7 sweet, m.a. 411 


The stress of many-syllabld words is regularly on the 
fore-last syllabL 

Many words, however, ar strest on the last. The follow- 
ing ar sum of the mor important of those enumerated in the 

ba*rhay ' shorten,' ]nay glanhau * clenz ' (with dropping 
of the unstrest vowel). 

kanja'taad ' permission ' ; pa'rhays * lasting.' 

par'toi parotoi ' prepare/ gor'doi * press ' ; da'hay * pant.' 

a'mhays ' doutful ' ; ka'froys ' exciting.' 

But 'kavlays * convenient.' 

por'vyy^ porfeydd ' pastures.' 

I hav also noted the following : 

kam'raayg * Welsh ' ; kam'raays ' Welshwoman.' 

pop'taay * ovens,' baydaay, bdaay * cowhouses ' ; ber'vaay 

* wheelbarrows.' 

Sum words taken from modern English, such as raseet 

* receit,' keep the E. stress on the last syllabi. 

Words beginning with unstrest t/ before s-f-cons. dropt the 
y in speech : 

steen j/ntin 'jug,' storm ystorm 'storm.' 

In modem compounds, as opozed to the old traditional 
ones, and in those loose compounds formd of a prepozition 
and a noun, and other groups, there is a tendency to stress 
the last element : 

-dyy^ syyJ* often shortend almost to -dy syyl 'Sunday,' 
etc. -havod rhiisg Hafod Rhisgl^ :betu8 kooyd Beitw-s-y-Coedj 
•pen guryd Pen-y-givryd; so also in -jesy griist 'Jesus Christ,' 
-kry(y) glaas * stork.' 

-yynor ^eeg 'eleven,' etc.; -a myysg yn mysy 'among,' 
heb'lau 'besides.' 

-o ^ar oddiar ' from on ' ; -ty drau ' beyond' ; -il day 'they 
two'; dra'xevn 'again'; ai'ee'oh!' an'tee onide 'is itP'; 
:gora ool ' all the better.' 

Sum prefixes, especialy the negutiv an-^ often take full 
stress : 


•an'amal ' seldom,' 'aii'vo^loii ' discontented,' 'aq'hovjo 
' forget ' ; "dio'valys ' careless ' ; 'ar'^erxog * excellent.' 

The sentence-stress is, on the hole, mor even than in 
English. Prepozitions often seem to hay full stress, especialy 
thoze of markt and definit meaning, such as ar, am^ and 
other particls ar often accented where they would not be 
accented in English. Yerbs, on the other hand, ar often 
subordinated to the substantivs and adverbs, etc., they ar 
joind to, as in -rhoi troo ' giv a turn ' = * take a walk,' -mynd 
alan ' go out.' Other exampls wil be found in the texts givn 
at the end of this paper. 

The syllabi-stress always begins on the consonant, so that 
such a word as Jugur 'sugar' is divided into Ju-gur, not as in 
the E. Jug-o. 


The unstrest vowels of a word ar always short. 

Strest vowels ar long and short in monosyllabls (and final 
syllabls of polysyllabls), always short when an unstrest 
syllabi follows, so that two such words as (ton) * wave ' and 
(toon) 'tune' both hav the same plural (tona). 

The length of the vowels of monosyllabls is greatly deter- 
mined by the nature of the following consonant. If the 
vowel is final it is always long, as in (daa) ' good.' Nearly 
always long before the open conss. (x; ]?, %; s; f, v) and the 
voiced stops (g, d, b). Short before the nazals (g, m), gene- 
raly befor (1), and, according to the grammars, befor the 
voiceless stops (k, t, p), but very few nativ Welsh words end 
in theze three conss. Variabl befor the vowellikes (r, 1), 
and befor ^n). There ar two main classes of exceptions 
to theze rules : 1) the names of the letters of the alfabet 
ending in a cons., which ar always short — (ex, e]?), etc. ; 2) 
monosyllabic words of English origin, which keep their E. 

Polysyllabls of E. origin, accented in the regular Welsh, 
way, shorten their vowels, as in Welsh — (stejon, stabal, 
smokjo) * station,' * stable,' ' smoke.' 


The following ar exampls, with the mor important excep- 
tions : ^ 

aax : baax ' litl,* kuux ' boat.* 

[ox • oh ! '] 
aa]> : maa]? * kind ' sb., ny yj> ' nest.' 

[by]> 'ever']. 
aa^ : ^raa^ ' decree,' boo^ ' contentment.' 
aas : glaas ' blue/ miis * month,' nees ' nearer.* 

[glas * glass,' nes * until ']. 
aaf : rhaaf ' rope,' kloof * lame.' 
aav : braav ' fine ' (of wether), klaav ' il.' 
^^S • gwaag * empty,' kiig ' meat.' 
aad : taad * father,' bood ' be.' 

[nid ' not,' hii=ht/dded * may be ']. 
aab : maab * filius,' neeb ' no-one.' 
[heb 'without,' tub 'tub'], 
ag : loq * ship.' 
am : mam * mother,' dim * nothing.' 

[fraam * frame ']. 
al : gwel * better,' tul * hole.' 

[hool, ool 'all']. 
ak : lak ' slack,'* klok ' clock.' 

[kuuk * cook ']. 
at : at ' to,' het * hat.' 

[plaat 'plate ']. 
ap : top ' top.' 
f aar : aar * ploughd land,* gwiir * true,' paar ' pair.* 
I ar ; ar * on,' byr * short,' sar * sir.' 
( aal : taal ' payment,' meel * huney,' seel ' zeal.* 
I al : tal ' tall,' dal * catch,' vel ' as.' 

f aan : taau ' fire,' hyyn hf/n, hun * older,' * self,' been ' old.' 
1 an : tan * under,' hyn * this,' pen ' bed.' 

Vowels ar short befor two conss., except in monosyllabls 
befor (It) and (8) + stop, where they ar always long : 
aalt : haalt 'salt' adj., gwyylt * wild,' suult 'shilling.' 
[(suit) apears to ocur also]. 

* Words of E. origin ar givn only ocazionaly. Fuller lists for the vowels befor 
r, /, n wil be givn under the separate words further on. 


BBBg : paft^ ' Easter/ gwiisg * dress.' 

aast : gaast * bitch/ Idist * chest.' 

aasp : koosp ' punishment/ 

Towels ar, of coarse^ always shortend in such compoundB 
as ^monra) ' beach ' from (moor) ' sea.' 

Diphthongs ar long (that is, the first el^nent is long) only 
in strest syUabls not followd by an unstrest one. (ai« ^i* oi ; 
ya, ou; oy) ar always short, as also (ay, oy) =iaJiy on resp. 
(auy) is long, as also (aay, ooy) = a^, oe resp. (aau, eeu) ar 
long only when finaL 


The Welsh intonation differs from the English, but not in 
any very markt way, and I hav not been able to investigate 
it in any detaiL The Welsh seem often to uie the rixe in 
plain statements of facts, and they speak altogether in a 
higher key than the English. 


• 3 (a), a * and ' ; kar * car, trap/ bara * bred ' ; lal * other ' ; 
tal ' tall/ dal ' catch ' ; glas ' glass/ basun buaswn ' I would 
be ' ; da vad * sheep ' ; man * place/ glan ' shore,' gwan * weak,' 
tan ' under/ kant ' hundred ' ; mam ' mother/ a'namal anaml 
' s^Jdom ' ; lac * slack ' ; ages ' near ' ; at ' to,' tatus ' pota- 
toes ' ; sad ' firm/ tada tadau * fathers ' ; kap ' cap ' ; babi 
'baby/ daa 'good'; baax 'litl'; aar 'ploughd land '; jaar 
' hen/ paar ' pair'; saal ' il,' taal ' payment'; haalt 'salt' aj\; 
laa^ * kil ' ; kaa]> ' cat ' ; glaas ' blue ' ; rhaaf ' rope ' ; braav 
' good, fine ' ; maan ' fine ' aj. ; glaan ' clean ' ; kaan ' song/ 
taan *fire/ braan 'crow' «^.; fraam 'frame'; gwaag 'empty'; 
plaat ' plate ' ; taad ' father ' ; raaab ' sun.' Differs from the 
E. a \n father only in being utterd with the mouth wide open, 
which givz it a clearer souud. No difference of quality 
between the long and short vowel. 

T" (y) "^" vyan * soon ' ; yxal uchel * lofty ' ; byr * short,' 
tyr 'breaks'; hyj 'ugly'; rhyl 'Rhyl'; by]> 'ever'; gwy^Sal, 







* Irishman * ; bysnas ' business/ lysgo * drag ' ; hyn ' this,' * 
lyn * lake/ syn * surprized/ kyn ' befor, as,' tyn * tight,' bryn 
* hil ' ; pyrap ' five ' ; syt ' how ' ; bydyr budr 'dirty ' ; kany 

* sing/ kefyl ' horse/ davy^ * David/ melys * sweet,' deryn " J 
aderyn * bird.' tyy * house ' ; syyx ' dry ' ; kyyr * pain,' dyyr f 
' steel,' pyyr * pure ' ; -dyy^ syyl * Sunday,' kyyl * narrow ' ; 
nyy)>*nest'; pryy^ 'serious'; kjyyst'ear'; yyn 'one/ -i hyyn 
'himself/ hyyn 'older,' -dyy^ lyyn 'Sunday,' Jyyn 'picture,' 
klyyn 'thigh/ dyyn *man'; kryyg 'hoarse*; stryyd 'street.' 
This is the most difficult of the North Welsh vowels for South 
Welshmen as wel as Englishmen. It is advanced from the 
normal high-mixt pozition towards (i), with which it is com- 
pletely confuzed further South. In the Anglesea dialect it 
is I think even mor removed from (i) than in the Carnarvon 

dialect. When I round the Carnarvon sound I get exactly 
the Swedish u, which is decidedly &. (yy) and (ii) end in a 
very slight voice-glide — they might almost be writn (yyo, 

J (a), a, ar 'the/ sar 'sir'; asgol 'scool'; kanta (;yfi/a/ i 

'first'; ama'here'; matn 'mutton'; adu i^t/^er 'am/ Ocurs j 

long only as the name of the letter y — (aa), in which it « 

sounds deeper than the E. vowel in str, being aparently mor 
retracted, but the difference is very slight. Quite distinct I 

from our vowel in hut. 

I (i). diod 'drink' «6., tori 'break,' meri 'Mary,' pisin 
'piece,' dim 'not,' trigjan 'sixty,' nid 'not.' kii 'dog'; hiir 
*long,' siir 'shire/ gwiir 'true,' kliir 'clear'; miil 'thouzand'; 
hiin 'wether,' liin 'flax,' miin 'edg/ gwiin 'wine/ kriin 
'britl,' triin 'treat,' bliin 'tired'; kiig 'meat/ The wide 
E. («) is forein to North Welsh, and sugests (y) rather than 
(i) to a Welsh ear, but it apears to be gaining ground sum- 
what among those who ar familiar with E., of course, only in 
words taken from E. It is, however, often very difficult to 
distinguish between (t) and (y). 

[ (e). reol 'rule'; ber ' short '/ew.; gwej 'better/ pej 
'far'; hel 'gather,' vel 'as'; pre'ge]>y 'preach'; fres 'fresh,' 
nes ' until ' ; pen ' hed ' ; het ' hat ' ; heb ' without.' Jee 
' place ' ; feer ' ankl,' gweer ' tallow ' ; seel ' zeal/ meal 




' huney,' peel ' ball ' ; nees ' nearer ' ; teen * old,' steen 
' bucket,' kleen ' kiad ' ; deeg ' ten.' Identical with the E. e 

\ (u). kur 'corner,' turn 'noiz,' brus 'brush'; hun 'this,' 
gun ' I know,' ' gun ' ; Ink ' luck.' Juur ' aure,' guur 
'man,' duur 'water'; njuul 'mist'; suun 'sound,' cuun 
' dogs ' ; druug ' bad.' Curiouslj enough, altho the E. (u) is 
forein to the language, I hav always herd cats calld (p'ts) 
with a distinctly wide Towel. 

J {o). bono 'she'; ox 'oh!'; for jforrfrf 'road,' tor 'cut!'; 
kol'loaa*; trol'oart'; k}os' close'; hon 'she,' ton 'wave' 
ib., broD ' brest, nearly ' ; lot o bobol bobl ' lot of peple.' 
doo ' yes ' ; stoor ' store ' ; (h)ool ' all ' ; ool ' track,' fool 
'silly,' nool 'fetch,' dool 'vale'; soon 'sound,' moon 'Angle- 
sea,' toon 'tune,' boon 'stump'; koot 'coat.' E o in boy, 
distinct from that in not. No difference of quality between 
short and long. 

]t (ay), kay eau 'shut,' day 'two'; ayr 'gold,' hayl 'sun' 
[that shines], pa'rhays 'constant.' kaay cue 'field,' maay 
'is'; xwaayr 'sister,' gwaayj' 'wurse,' blaayn 'frunt,' paayoo 
wydyr wydr 'pane of glass,' kam'raayg 'Welsh,' traayd 
' foot.' (aay) ocurs only in monosyllabic words or final street 
syllabls. I used to think that ae and oe wer ]n (aae) and }ti 
resp., and I am stil not certain that their second element 
is not, in rapid speech at least, a vowel between {y) and 


Jr (ai). ai 'with his,' lai ' less ' ; gair ' word,' ail ' secoBd,' 
sais ' Englishman,' main ' slender,' kraig ' rock.' 

31 (au). jauar 'many'; maur 'big,' hau'S 'eazy,' aust 
' August,' jauu ' right,' dauiijjo ' dance,' brand ' brother.' 

Ti (yu). lyu lUw 'culor,' hoylan skryu 'screw,' dyu 'God,' 
byu 'alive'; byux 'cow,'yud 'porridg,' dyuaV 'end,' dynji^ 

"1,1 (ey). gway 'knit,' {ayad 'moon,' kaya ramw ' fieldB*=^J 
tayly 'family,' gwayjta g-xaethaf 'wurst,' doy^ug ' Iwclv,^ 
saysuag Seisoiieg 'English,' poyntjo 'paint' eft., guoyd girnmd 
' do.' ae always has this sound when foltowd by an UBstnot 
syllabi in the s«me word. 


\l (ai). jair 'hens,' oira 'snow,'' kdiljog 'cock,' nais 'nice,' 
taimlo ' feel,' roit ' right.' 

II (au). kjau-ad 'hear,' liiu-yl 'dark,' bau-yd 'life.' 

(^ (eu). neu-y* 'new,' dcu-is 'chooz'; euz 'go ye!' 
-i meun ' within.' rheeu ' frost,' teen ' thick,' bleeu ' hair.' 

tr (uy). muya m/ri/qf 'mosi,' buyal 'ax'; duyran dtcyrain 
'east,' bluy^yn 'year,' luybyr llicyhr 'path.' uuy 'eg,' 
muuy ' mor ' ; uuy]? ' eight,' uuyn ' Iambs,' fruuya ' bridle,' 
luuyd 'grey.' 

Jl (oy). loya lloati ' calvs ' ; hoylan ' nail,' kafroya 
'exciting,' aina'rfao3's 'dilatory,' koydan 'tree,' Sooy 'yester- 
day ' ; ooyr ' cold,' pooyji ' hot,' ooyo ' lam,' kooyts ' coach.' 

Jf (oi). rhoi ' giv,' Iroi ' turn ' ; oil ' oil.' 

}i (ou). ouan Oicaiit; doux 'cum ye!' mour)> 'March/ 
stout ' brave.' 


i (h). hanaa 'history,' hii 'she,' been 'old,' hun 'he.' 
CI (xf). -i xtvn 'her back,' xweex 'six,' axoa 'cauz,' -i xii 
'to you,' huux goes 'a rod bow,' kairx 'oats,' bulx 'gap.' 
The tril is as constant a feature of this sound as it is of the r. 
(iw) ar pronounced quite separately, and the (w) does not 
touad the (x). 

"* (j)- j^'J" ' language,' njuul ' mist,' kirfjo ' fight,' durdjo 
'scold.' Tlio controversy whether this is a cons, or not seems 
to be merely the rczult of its being writn i. It seems to me 
to be as much a cons, as tlie E, ij in yet, altho there is no 
perceptibl friction in it any mor than in the E. sound. Per- 
haps the W. sound is narrow, =consonantal I (i). In (-i 
iijai|>) 'their language' the (h) and (j) seem t« be utterd 
separately. Voiceless n ocura perhaps after (p), etc., in such 
words as (pjuljo) jiirmo ' teaz.' 

Of" (rrh). rhaaf ' rope,' rhesum 'reazon,* rhaa yr An/" 'the 
summer,' rhuq ' between.' The essential character of this 
•ound, as of ti/i, etc., lies in the combination (r) + (h), and 
the breth-Bound of the r is really unessential, altho I 
bdin' it is always breathd at the beginning of a sound- 

418 sF0Ke:4 korth welsh. — hettrt sweet, m.a. 

group.' After a vowel it is, perhaps, voiced. I found that 
both pronunciations seemd to satisfy the ears of the nativs. 
It would, perhaps, be better to write oc, as the (h) seems to 
belong almost as much to the following vowel. 

rh, ngh, nh, mh, which ar now real ' aspirates,' must 
originaly hav been the simpl breths u, J, 7, r; rh must hav 
been parallel to //, which is stil a simpl breth, and the nazal 
mutation ngh- from c- must hav been parallel to ng- from g-. 

The aspiration was no dout the rezuU of the atempt to 
make the sounds mor audibi, for the voiceless nazals, eapecialy, 
ar almost inaudibi, unless utterd with great force. Original 
u (1) was made mor audibi by other means : by being developt 
into a strong unilateral palatalized hiss. 

Unaspirated (r) oours in troo 'turn,' kryy 'strong,' etc. 
See under (k). 

(i)f (rr). -i ran 'his share,' ri-ooyd erioed 'ever,' druug 
' bad,' bara ' bred,' gwiir ' true,' tarn ' turn.' 

WIS (rric). gTicaig gicraig ' wife,' -i riraig ' his wife,' -mi 
rirantai ' I warrant.' The regular sound of rtc [when w is a 
cons.], the two conss. being utterd simultaneously. 

U"^ (IR;)- lal 'other,' kalaj 'knife.' gwe] 'better.' Always 
unilateral (right side) with the tung in the i-pozition, or 
aproximated to it. The unilaterality has hardly any effect 
on the sound, and the Welsh // may be described aa being 
essentialy a French / unvoiced. It is almost identical with 
the Icelandic hi. 

u (I), kloo 'lock,' plyy 'fethers.' Devocalizatton of the 
ordinary /. 

to (1). -i lau ' his hand,' leni efent ' this year,' ledi ' lady,' 
kalad ' hard,' meel ' huney.' Aparently identical in forma- 
tion with the E. /, the front of the tung being hollowd. 

(i» (It), gliraad gitlad 'cuntry,' -i Itraad 'his cuntry.^ 
Compare {tic). 

^ (t*)' 'i I'aad ' her father,' jiaqkju ' thank you,' kaaj) 
' cat,' gwer))son ' they sold.' 


W (^). -i ^avad * his sheep/ me^ul ' think/ kJau'S * hedg/ 
a\Svad * ripe/ 

Z (J). Jarad 'speak/ /op 'shop/ tru/jo *mend'; t/aia 
'chain/ katjjo 'catch/ This sound seems to be essentially 
the same as the E., but I hay herd from older speakers a 
aound mor like zs or z\ — a palatalized /, or sumthing between 
/and (s). 

e (3). inSan 'engine'; -a dSain 'the chain/ d5on 'John/ 
wedSan ' wedg/ (dSon) is stil often pronounced (Joon). 

6 (s). sais 'Englishman/ silf 'shelf/ isal 'low/ miis 
' month/ brus ' brush/ 

S)o (wh). -i whatsbi 'her watch/ Only in ocazional 
mutations of (w) in E. words. 

s (w). -i waas * his servant/ wedi ' after/ wats ' watch/ 
gwers ' lesson/ berwi ' boil/ 

> (f). for (road), -i fen 'her hed,' kofi 'coffee,' korf 'body/ 

> (v). -i vam ' his mother/ voo * he/ avon ' river,' kevn 
' back/ 

JO (qh). qhevn ' my back,' qhaa]> ' my cat/ 

The nazal mutation of c^ ifP+r, I offers sum difficulties. 
nghroen ' skin,' nhroed ' foot ' (from croen^ troed), ar not pro- 
nounced (qhrooyd, nhrooyd), but the aspiration passes on to 
the (r), giving (qrhooyd, nrhooyd), which last seems often 
to becum (rhooyd). The initial (q) and (n) seem, however, 
to be often pronounced with voice. With / the rezult is the 
regular aspirated sound distinct from that of //, as in nghlust, 
mh/enfi/n, from dust * ear ^* plenty n ' child,' = (qlhyyst, mlhen- 
tyn). Here, again, the initial nazals seem to be often voiced. 
Indeed, it is possibl to carry the voice thru the (1) as wel 
without offending an unattentiv ear — (-va mlentyn). 

d (q). qavr ' my goat,' driqo ' climb,' loq * ship/ 

lo (nh). nhaad ' my father/ 

T (n). nain * grandmother/ 

19 (nrr). gnmo gwnio ' sew/ basgjad ntrio ' work-basket.' 

n> (mh). -i mham * her mother.' 

F (m). mam 'mother.' 

a (k). kakan ' cake,' kii ' dog ' ; kryy ' strong,' kloof 
' lame ' ; k}ok ^ clock.' The off-glide of the breth stops is 
PhiL Tram. 1SS24.4. 29 



stronger than in E., and completely devocalizes a following 
(r) or (1), but not an (n), the breth glide being aparently 
kept befor the (n), as in (knund) ' crop/ The breth glide 
is very weak after (s), as in (storm) ^ storm/ and in unstrest 
syllabls. In words of E. origin (k) and (g) generaly becum 
(kj, gj) befor (a), as in (kjastin, kjaf; gjard, gjaat) ^casting 
(in fishing), gafi* ; guard (of a coach), gate/ The same pro- 
nunciation may often be obserrd befor unstrest (a)=writn ^, 
as in (basgjad, baxgjan) 'basket, boy/ Also in (]oygjar) 
Lloegr * England/ In the neighboring Merioneth dialect 
the change is said to be fully carried out in natiy words befor 
strest (a), (k) and (g) ar, as in most languages, mor forward 
befor frunt vowels. 

a (g). -a goog 'the cuckoo,' -i giid 'together,' glaan 
'clean,' asgol 'scool'; dSug 'jug,' rhedag 'run/ Final 
voice stops ar pronounced quite short, and consequently when 
following a short stress vowel (which seldom hapns in nativ 
words) they hav the efect of (k), etc., to an E. ear. They 
hav the same pronunciation when they end the syllabi in 
the midl of a word, as in (gogla%, rhagblaayn) ' north,' ' at 
onse.' Final (g) after (s) is whisperd, as in (gwiisg, kuusg), 
'dress/ 'sleep.' 

x> (t). taad 'father,' trio 'try,' pont 'bridg,' guts 'goods,' 
kastal *as good.' In forming (t) and (d) the point of the 
tung seems to be entirely on the teeth. 

XD (d). -i daad (his father), druug ' bad,' tyd ' cum ! *, sad 
'firm,' parod * redy,' adra adref ' home' adv,y modva^ 'inch.' 

D (p). pen 'hed,' pren 'wud,' top 'top,' cospi 'punish.' 

D (b). -i ben * his hed,' tub * tub,' atab ' answer.' 

Eeprezentation and Oonrrence. 

The following ar the letters and digrafs that make up the 
Welsh alfabet, with their "Welsh names : 

a (aa), b (bii), c (ek), ch (ex), d (dii), dd (e^), e (ee), f (ev), 
ff (ef), g (eg), ng (eq), ngh, h (ait/), i (ii), 1 (el), 11 (e}), ra 
(em), mh, n (en), nh, o (oo), p (pii), ph (ef), r (er), rh, s (es), 
t (tii), th (e>), u (yy), w (uu), y (aa). 


The letters wil be treated of in the following order : a, ti, 
jfy i, e,WfO; au, ae, ai, aw, uw, yw^ iw, eu, et/, ei, etc, wy, ou, 
oe^ 01. A, cA, t, rh, r, li, /, th, dd, «, ^^ ff% f\ ngh^ ng, nh, n^ 
fnhi *» ; Cy g, t, d, p, b. 

Exampls wil be givn only of iregular correspondence. The 
words ar writn foneticaly, the nomic spelling being only 
added wheii the word contains other changes than that givn 
by the heding. 


A) Strest. 

a : a, aa ; e, o. gwer)>ol ' stirrup.' krogan cragen ' sliel.' 

U : y, yy ; i. hi^ig huddygl ' soot,' ti))jo ' trot/ inig 

'alone' [also in (i'nigol) 'lonely'], ninjon yn union *at onse,' 

Btimjei ystumiau 'bends, tricks,' rhigil rhugl 'fluent of speech,' 

brigo barugo ' depozit hoar-frost,' hide ' entice,' stidjo astudio 

* study ' vb. 

y • y> yy» ^ J *> i> ®» o* (y) ^^ monosyllaWs and final 
syllabls, as in ty (tyy) * house,' dyn ' man ' (dyyn), llyn (jyn) 
'lake,' go/t/n 'ask/ (a) in syllabls foUowd by an unstrest 
syllabi, as in dynion 'men,' gqfynodd 'askt' pret., L/ytidy 
(landy) * Lake-house.' Also (a) in y, yr ' the,' fy ' my,' dy 

* thy,' yn, yng ' in,' etc., myn in (-man djaul) ' by the devil ! ' 
For further rules see the grammars. I find c^(^- = (kad) in 
(kadol) 'hole' aj., (kad'wybod) 'conscience,' (kadna'ba^ys) 
cydnabyddus 'acquainted.' 

The dialect has (y) befor an unstrest syllabi in the follow- 
ing words : sylu ' atention,' bry/jo ' hurry,' hyna ' that one,' 
smydi)>, etc., from symyd 'move,' glydar [also (gladar)] 

* Glyder,' glypax, etc., gwlypach ' wetter,' cp. 

(a) in las enwi ' nickname ' vb. 

(i) in dirwin dyrwyn ' wind ' vb., disgwl dysgtcyl ' expect,' 
distau 'silent,' Vimiiit cymmaint 'how much/ ka'nigjad 'ofler' 
sb. [cp. (kanig) vb.], -i giid * together,' gida ' with,' digu% 
dygwydd ' happen.' Sum of these words, as also of those in 
the preceding paragraf, may vary between (i) and (y). 


(e) in desgil dysgl ' dish.' 

(o) in doro dyro 'put!' [also daro]. dyfod 'cum' is 
contracted into (duad) and (dood). 

i : i, ii ; ei. knoij^ar cyfnither * female cuzin/ 

e : e, ee ; a, a, ei, i. ato ' yet,' astyn ' strech,' drany^ 
drenydd 'day after to-morrow,' marljod merlynod 'ponies,' 
banu henyw ' female,' xwadal chwedl * according to.' ge'voil- 
jaid 'twins,' hei^ju, hi'Sju heddyw 'to-day.' xwaigjan chwe 
ugain ' ten shillings.' 

W : u, uu ; y. dyvn ' deep.' 

O : o, 00 ; a, u, a. klagu^ ceiliogwydd ' gander ' (lit, cock- 
goose). mur]?ul morthwyl 'hammer,' gulun gollwng 'let out.' 
gastun gostwng ' lower,* daduy ' lay egs,' naduy^ ' needl.' 

au: ay; ey, a, ai. (c9yad) adj. 'clozed,' (coyo^), etc., pret., 
of (kay) ' cloze,' knoya cynauaf ' harvest.' This seems to be 
the regular sound of au when foUowd by an unstrest syllabi 
in the same word. The prezent of (kay) is (kaa-i)>). a*u 
'and their' (ai), identical with a't 'and his.' 

ae: aay; aa, a, ay, y. (aay) in monosyllabls sumtimes 
seems to drop its (y) in sum words, such as chtcaer ' sister,' 
o'r blaen ' formerly,' traed ' foot ' [in mae * is ' and cael ' get,' 
aparently only when these words ar unstrest]. (a) in the 
dissyllabls (gwarad) gwaered 'descent,' (tany) *spred.' When 
followd by an unstrest syllabi in the same word ae is regularly 
(oy) : koya ca^au ' feelds,' -a ^oyar * the erth,' gwaylod 
' bottom,' gw8y]>a gwaethaf ' worst,' 9y]?ox * ye went,' poyntjo 
'paint.' Even in compounds, such as (bleynlau) 'beforhand.' 
Jfraeo ' quarrel ' [from E. frayl seems to be (fryo) as wel as 

ai : ai ; y, oi, ey. hyarn ' iron.' rhai ' sum,' prai pa rai 
' which ones P ', rhain y rhai hyn * theze.' say saif ' stands.' 

aw : au ; ou, uy. mour]> ' Tuesday, March,' dnouvad 
deunawfed ' eighteenth,' mounan mawnen ' piece of peat,' 
mounog 'place where peat is dug,' soudul satcdl 'heel.' 
deunaw 'eighteen,' and the plur. mawn keep their (au). suyro 
saicfyjrio 'smel, sniff.' 

uw: yu. 

yw : yu, au ; u, o, ay. (au) in such words as clytced 


'hear/ tywydd ' wether' [not = sheep], tytcod * mud ' is pro- 
nounced so quickly that it is often difficult to hear the (a) at 
all=kluad, etc. duad dyfod * cum/ tu^ax, tula tyict/liach, 
tywyllaf * darker, darkest.' tolti tyicalU * pour.' doyd dytoed 

iw: yu. 

eu : ey. deutcc/i ' cum ye ' is (doux). 

ey : yy. lyyn 'Lleyn ' (a part of Carnarvonshire). 

ei : oi ; a, y, i, e, ee. asan einen ' rib.' lya lleiaf ' least.' 
trio * try,' i^au eiddeic * ivy,' ista eistedd * sit.' i/jo eisieu 

* want,' kinjog ceiniog * penny.' gwerglo^ gweirglatodd 
' medow ' [also pronounced gwarglo^ P], ees * I went.* (ei) 
seems to be sumtimes confuzed with (ay), but I hav not been 
able to determin how far this is realy the case. 

ew : eeu, eu ; ou, u. doux dewch or deuwch * cum ye ! ', 
tuxy tewychu 'thicken,' lugy llewygu 'starv.' 

wy : uuy, uy ; y, u, ay. by ta ' eat.' truu ' thru,' puu 
'who.' [also pron. puuy], tru'any 'pierce,' xurny 'growl,* 
tuly tyicyllu ' get dark,' knulbran canwyUbren ' candlestick,' 
di'gu^o^ dygwyddodd ' hapend,' etc., usnos wythnos ' week,* 
xu])y ' blow,' gunjon * white ' pi,, gunuy ' white of eg,' 
guniadyn gwyniedyn 'sea-trout,' tuny tyicynu 'shine/ 
ka'xuno^ * started,' etc., tumo * warm,' rhurao^ ' tied,' etc., 
rhugo ' tear,' gubod ' know.' Many dissyllabic words seem 
to hav only (uy), such as mtcyaf * most,' twyllo ' deceiv,' 
hlwyddyn ' year,' rhwyatro ' hinder,' llwyhyr ' path.' daylo 
dicylaw * hands.' 

(wy) in y Wyddfa 'Snowdon,' gwy'Sal Qwyddel 'Irishman/ 
chwyn ' weeds,' Gicynant, gwynab gwyneh ' face,' owyno * com- 
plain/ etc. (wyy) in chwya 'swet,' gwyllt 'wild,' gwydd 

* plough ' [guuy^ = ' goose '] . 

ou : o*u ' of their' is (oi), like the sg. oU ' of his.* 
oe : ooy ; oo, o, ey, uy. In monosyllabls oe sumtimes 
seems to becura (oo) as in noeth ' naked ' ; shortend in (kog- 
vran) coegfran ' jackdaw.' gl^y-u gloew * transparent,' 
ka-vay]?og * welthy.' puyri ' spit.' 

oi : oi. troiodd ' turnd ' pret. is contracted into (trooS). 


B) Unstrest. 

a beoums (o) in the verb-ending ^asant, as in (gwelson) 
*they saw/ govol *care* sb,, adlo^ 'after-grass/ kroxon 
crochan * pot/ penog pemcag ' herring/ o'vlauan aflawen 

* dismal/ (i) in gan * with/ 

y: a, i. adax 'ye ar/ etc., &dan j/dt/nt 'they ar/ etc., 
edrax ' see,* dinbax ' Denbigh,' kle^a cleddyf ' sword/ 
amba'rel ' umbrella,' las'enwi ' nickname ' vb. 

(i) befor the stress-syllabi ; diar]> dyeithr ' strange/ di'o^a 
dyoddef ' suffer ' ; dis'teui ' be silent/ After the stress- 
syllabi regularly in -yi/, and in many other endings as wel : 
kerig • stones,' tebig * like,' kanig ^ offer/ perig perygl 
' danger ' ; divir ' amuzing,' kalil ' knives/ pistil * spout,' 
bri]>il ' trout,' disgin ' alight,' dirwin dyrvoyn ' wind ' 
vb., di%im 'destitute.' When another syllabi is added, so 
that the y reoeivs the accent, the (i) is sumtimes kept, as 
in (bri]>iljad) brithylliaid plur., but generaly the original (&) 
apears, as in (di'varax) compar., (dis'gano^) pret. hai^ju 
heddyio ' to-day/ 

6 after the stress-syllabi regularly becums (a) : kavla 
' oportunity,' rhula rhywle ' sumwhere,' oy^ax • ye wer,' 
amsar ' time,' robart ' Robert,' ruba)> rywbeth ' sumthing,' 
dodravn * furniture,' gorfan gorphen ' finish,' rhedag 

* run,' sekrat ' secret.' Of course (e) is prezervd in 
less familiar compounds; also in (pope)>) pohpeth 'every- 
thing/ (o) in (o, voo) €, efe (e'vee in the literary Ig.) 

* he,' (gwybod) ' flies ' pi., kariktor ' character.' (i) in 
(naaki) nage ' not.' Sumtimes (a) befor the stress-syllabi : 
da'xroynos ' evening,' -agar %inan y Oerddinen^ pra'gej>ur 
' preacher/ 

O becums (a) in (duad) dyfod 'cum,' and sumtimes in 
{arnax) arnoch ' on you,' etc. 

Diphthongs ar almost always simplified. 

ae : a. madal ymadael ' leav, depart,' gadal ' leav ' trans., 
kara% cyrhaedd ' reach.' Also in sum compounds, such as 
(gwe*nij?van) ' granit,' penman ipaur ' Penmaenmawr.' mae 
*' is,' cael ' get ' becum (maa, ma, kaal) when unstrest. 


ai : a, iy ja. me^a ' said/ kara ' strap/ bygal ' shepherd/ 
manias 'advantage/ damwan 'misfortune,' ou'panad 'cupful/ 
Also in the compound (klama) Calan Mai ' Mayday/ (ai) is 
often kept in plurals, such as (devaid) ' sheep/ aparently for 
the sake of distinctness, (i) in the verb-ending -ais, as in 
(gwelis) 'thou sawest' pret., and in eri} 'others/ lagid 'eyes,' 
kimint 'how much.' (ja) in ygjan 'twenty/ deygjan 'forty/ 
trigjan ' sixty.' 

au : a. lavra ' books/ anta ' he/ pia ' possesses/ para 
parhau [literary parhay] ' last ' vb., kaj^ral ' devil.' (ay) is 
sumtimes kept in the plural of literary words even in common 

aw : o, a. gaSo addaw ' promise/ kinjo ' dinner/ taro 
'strike/ anoS 'difficult/ kraylon 'cruel/ gweTglo^ gweirglawdd 
' medow.' kena * cub.' 

yw : i, u. adi * is.' guru ' male/ banu henyto ' female/ 

eu : a, i, o, ee. bora ' morning/ xwara ' play ' vb., gora 
' best/ gola ' light ' (lucidus), tena ' thin/ ama ammheu 
'dout' vb. The (ay) reapears under stress, as in the com- 
parativs (glayax, tnayax). (i) in eu 'their.' (o) in (oijjo) 
' want.' neu * nor ' is (nee). 

ei : i, a. in ei * his, her.' (a) in eich ' your/ 

ew : au. i'^au luddew ' Jew ' [plur. i*'8euon], iSau eiddew 
'ivy/ paj^au 'dormouse.' 

wy : u. nhuu, nhu htcy 'they,' adu ydwyf 'I am/ anul 
'dear,' kelu'S ^falshood,' eglus 'church/ morun 'maid,' anud 
* cold ' (in bed, etc.) ; lu'odra)? llwyodraeth ' guvemment.' 

oe : o. trooydno]? * bare-legd.' Unstrest oedd ' was ' is 
(oo^, o^). 

Unstrest vowels ar often dropt. 

a. redig aredig * plough ' vb., rhosux arosicch ' stay ye ! ' 
stidjo asfudio * study ' vb., sena ais pi. of asan eisen ' rib ' ; 
vala ajalau * apis ' ; gorjad agoriad * key,' gorux agoncc/i 
' open ye ! ' ; tebux atebwch ' answer ye ! ' ; deryn aderyn 
' bird/ deny^ adenydd * wings.' -mi r^^antai ' I warrant,' 
Jrado^ niaradodd * spoke,' trany taranu ' thunder * vb., trauo'S 
tarawodd * struck,' pruydy^ parwydydd ' walls.' pryyn pa yr 
UHy pa un * which one,' brigo harugo * depozit hoar frost 'f 


kleta caletaf * hardest/ klama Calan Mai * Mayday/ klonog 
calonog * harty/ klona calonan * harts/ plee pa le ' where P ', 
pHso^ palmedd * walls ' ; d])odo'8 dattododd ' undid.' welsox 
fceiasoch 'ye saw/ ^ay tsox dyicedasoch * ye said/ etc. ; kvaylo^ 
cafaclodd ' took hold/ tvarna tafarnau ' taverns ' ; knula 
canicyllau * candls.' kre'dyrjaid creaduriaid * creatures/ furti 
iffwrdd a ti 'away with you/ yanku/an acw 'there/ 

y. sgini aydd genyf ' I hav,' 

a. Of all the vowels this is ofitenest dropt. It is almost 
regularly dropt when initial, especialy befor (s) followd by a 
stop : sgweny ysgrifenu * write/ sgoljon ' scools/ sgavnax 
' lighter ' ; xadig ' litl/ xwanag ' mor ' ; ranud yr aniryd 
' the cold in the hed/ rheeri uur yr hen wr * the old man/ 
etc., radu yr ydwyf ' I am,' etc. ; vory yf(yry ' to-morrow ' ; 
nen'wedig yn enwedig ' especialy,' ninjon yn uniawn ' at onse/ 
nagos yn agoa ' near,' etc., naso% ynysoedd ' ilands ' ; menyn 
' butter,' madal ymadael ' leav * intr. ; molxi * wash ' refl. 
Dissyllabls which stres the initial (a) do not drop it, and 
vice- versa : astyr ' meaning,' asgol ' scool ' ; swil ' shy,' -ur])i 
sgiilo wrth ei yagil ef ^behind him' [riding on the same 
horse], stuur 'noiz.' But there ar sum iregularities. Thus 
I find infin. (asgud) ' shake ' but imper. sg. (sguuyd), and I 
believ that yawil is accented on the first syll. in the literary 

After a vowel : vyyn fy un * my one,* damsar ' thy time/ 
It is often di£5cult to say whether it is dropt or only pro- 
nounced very shortly, as in (beedio) pa beth ydyw ef ' what is 
it P ', (:maan amsar) y mae yn amser * it is time.' 

Where it givs rize to new consonant combinations: a) 
initial, drasy ' entangl,' brheux ' shorten ye ! ', k|ama 
cylymau ' knots,' stlenod eatyll plur. of sta|an estyllen ' plank,' 
kwi'la^ys 'disgraceful,' kfredin 'general' adj., kva^a cufodde^ 
' confess,' dvej?a ' spoil,' cneya cynauaf * harvest,' knigjo^ 
' ofierd,' dmyno ' wish,' Igodan ' mouse.' h) medial, era i 
ya ' sinse,' vanma fan yma ' here,' kam'dogjon eymmydogu 
' neighbors.' 

i. werSon Iwerddon * Ireland,' fur iffiordd * away ' ; dec 
diengyd 'escape'; dreidys direidua 'mischievous'; Sary 




nayd ddarfii i mi wneyd * I did/ etc., -o% ar oddiar * from o£^' « 

-0% ama oddiyma ' from here/ etc. [ 

e. hedag ehedeg * fly ' vb., ri'ooyd erioed * ever/ leni eleni i 

* this year/ lulan e//r/^ ' kidney/ smwyj^ax e^mwythaeh \ 

* smoother/ sgidja esgidiau * boots/ stano^ esiynodd ' strecht,' 
walys ewyllys * wil/ winaS ewinedd ' nails/ foijjo effeithio 
'effect/ vala ef allai 'perhaps,' ni}o% ennillodd 'won' prt., | 
draxox edrychwch 'look ye/ divar ^^^r 'penitent/ pe|ano \ 
%aTa% ^/fen o edafedd ' ball of thred ' ; dranod adar plur. of \ 
(deryn) aderyn 'bird/ kluySog * lying/ gltray gwelyau 'beds/ \ 
pjeni plur. of (pelan) pelen ' ball/ kfala ceffylau ' horses,' n 
knaylyn, knaylod cnewullyn, cnewull ^kernel, kernels,' tnayax 1 
ieneuaeh ' thinner ' ; kradur creadur ' creature ' ; isla kelaf 
' lowest.' An (e) which is strest in the literary language is 
dropt in (daalt) deallt ' understand/ The pron. (dealt) seems \ 
to ocur in the dialect also. \ 

U- '8aryn=^arynhu ddarfu hwy 'they did.' 
O. 'Sayty oddeutu ' about/ sgweluxan '8aa oa gwelweh yn 
dda ' if you pleaz/ ' ndooys onid oes ' is there not P ' ; streyon J 

pi. of (stori) * story/ kloraan colonien ' pigeon/ gleyni goleuni 
'light/ etc., gvanoS gofynodd 'askt'; par'toi jt^aro/oi * prepare.' 
ai. lond llonaid * fulness.' > 

ey. bdaay heudai ' cowhouses/ sglyso esgeuluso ' neglect ' 
vb. Strest in the lit. lang. in (blodyn) blodeuyn ' flower.' ^ 

ei. steSoS eiaieddodd ' sat ' etc., probably thru (iste'80'8). 
The repetition of the same vowel is avoided by running 
them into one, which is often shortend, as in tyxa ty uchaf ^ 

* abuv.' 1 

Parazitic unstrest vowels often develop befor a vowellike ■ 

(r, 1) or nazal (n, m) with another cons, befor them. \ 

a. amal ami 'often,' abal 'able.' egar 'sharp, cruel,' [ 

ledar ' lether,' kledar ' palm of hand,' lestar ' vessel, dish ' ; | 

loidar 'thief,' loygar 'England.' xwadal chwedl 'accord- ^^ 

ing to,' seqal ' singl, unmarried,' keqal ' girth/ hegal ' limb, 

y. bystyl buHtl 'gall,' bydyr 'dirty.' rhuystyr 'hind- 
ranee/ gwydyr 'glass,' bruydyr ' batl/ Juybyr 'path/ 
gwydyn ' tough,' dygyn ' toilsum.' 




i. aikir ' sure.' rhigil rhugl ' flaent.' desgil dytgl 
' dish.' 

U- /ugur »\igr 'sugar.' bukul 'buckl,' 'pendra'munugul 
' hedloug,' trusgul ' clumzy ' ; soudul mwdl ' beel ' ; kupul 
' cupl ' ; kubul ' bole ' aj., trubul ' trubl.' ludun ' wether ' 
(sheep), -ars talum er y» talm ' ainse long, for sum time.' 

O- oxor ' side.' gogor ' siv.' sobop ' sober.' koqol 
' corner.' pobol 'peple.' 

It wil be seen that the preceding cons, is general^ a stop, 
mor rarely a nazal (sengi, cengl, congl ; ami) and very rarely^ 
any other conss. {ochr, talm). 

Also that the inserted vowel is g^neraly a repetition of the 
root one, the diphthong (ny) repeating its last element, as 
also in aatcdl. (m) develops an (u) in falm. (e) is not re- 
peated, (a) being developt after it, as also after several 

In sum words there is no insertion : gavr ' goat,' gwobr 
'reward,' lyvr 'book.' dadl 'dispute,' hatl 'batl,* xwedl 
' story,' nobl ' noble,' syml ' simpl.' kavn ' trough,' doga 
' dose,' lyvn ' smooth.' 


ll. Often dropt in unstrest syllabls, as in kiiraS ctfrhaedd 
' reach,' aui:^ anhawdd ' difficult,' anos amltawg ' mor difficult,' 
karoar cytHhar ' partner ' ; ama amntheu ' dout ' vb., para 
parhau 'last' vb. In the last two the stress is on the last 
syllubl in the literary language. Often added after (r) and 
nazals followd by a strest vowel : rbosuz arosuoh ' stay ye,' 
ka-qhena cangenau ' branchea,' daqhosoS daagoaodd ' showd.' 
(x) in (xwadan) htcyaden ' duck.' 

i( = j). Dropt in itau luddeui 'Jew,' prodi/>rtod( 'marry.* 
In sum words the second element of a diphthong apears to 
be identified with (j) and then transposed : ygjan ugam 
' twenty,' trigjan trigain * sixty,' oijjos ekoei ' alredy.' 

r. Often dropt in unstrest syllabls, especialy before n : 
trafa)> (rajferlh 'truhl,' but/asan 'top-boot' [from 131ucher?J, 
fenast ffviie«tr ' window ' ; gariSun arddicrn ' wrist,' sadwn 



'ftterdbiy,' nran * soiaaora/ gub'neVig gwrhoneddig * genil- 
■tfou^ In most of these words the r is restord in strest 
qfOmbls, •• in (fe*nestri, si-sarna) plurals. Not in the plaral 
(garVana). Strest r is dropt in (kulid) < cayerlet' Inserted 
in (poaltris) * poultioe/ (ger}ig) ffellaig * pears/ Transposed 
in (ewyr]>) ewyihr ' unci/ diar]) dyeithr ' strange.' In (kerad 
mesyl day) * walk two and two/ (mesyl) aparentlj stands for 
wmiMr * mesure.' 

1. Often dropt in nnstrest syllabls : hiVig hudd^l 'soot,' 
peaib ' poflsibl/ perig perygl * danger/ Also in '(rhiisg) rhi^gl 
'bark.' Not in banadl 'broom/ anadl 'breth/ and snm others. 
th. Dropt in (bee) pa beth ' what P ' (s) in usnos wylhno% 
'week/ In old-fashiond pronunciation (taqkja) is said insted 
of Omqkju) * thank you.' 

dd. Often dropt : ista eistedd * sit/ syy sydd * is ' ; for 
ffordd * road ' [kept in the plur. fft/rdd], -i fur ' away/ 
bar ' table ' ; boo bydch ' wil be/ ood oeddwn * I was/ 
tIkh rkoddi * giv ' ; kerad eerdded * walk.' ( v) in yano% y \ 

ddannodd ' toothache/ aivil ' slender.' (d) in (difod) * go out ' 

8« Dropt sum times in baat buasU 'wouldst be/ sy beoums 
(J), thru (sj), in (Jarnai) sydd arnafji * I owe/ lit. • is on me,' 
(J) also in the expletiv (Jort ora) 'best sort' [also (sort ora)]. 
In older words (s) reprezents E. «A, as in (fres) ' fresh/ 

W. Dropt in xi chwi 'ye'; gnoyd gwneyd 'do/ glyyb 
gwlyb « wet ' ; penog penteag ' herrings/ gwatar gtratwar 
' mock/ (v) in brivo ' hurt/ gorvaS garwedd * He.' diiceddqf 

* last 'is (dw9y>a). 

f- Often dropt finaly : haa 'summer/ lii 'flood/ kryy 
cnjf ' strong/ sloo ' slow ' (of clock), pluuy ' parish ' ; kanta 
'first/ pentrajt?^/i^r^/' village/ kavri 'acounts/ gwelh gwe/laif 

* pair of shears.' Reapears when a vowel is added : kravax 
' stronger/ slovax ' slower/ gwelaivja gwelkifiau plur. 
Medialyin dary darfu 'finisht/ duur dtcfr 'water/ kees eefai% 
'I got/ Developt out of vowels in ivaqk ieuanc 'yung' 
[comp. jeqax], levy« Ikoedd ' places.' (w, u) in (sgweny) 
y^nfenu 'write' [sgrivan ysgrifen 'writing'], sgwarnog 
^fW^rnog ' hare/ cwarvod cyfarfod ' meet/ tauly taflu 






' throw,' gu^^u gwddf ' neck/ E. (f ) has becum (w) in (brek- 
wast) 'brekfast.' 

ng. (n) in gulun goHwng 'let out,' gastun gosttcng 'lower/ 

nil. nhr becums (rh) in (rhuuyn) ' my noze/ 

n. Dropt in (-meu mynyd) mewn munyd * in a minute/ 
Added in neplas eplea ' leven/ nt dropt in niaent * they ar,' 
namor Nant-y-mor, (m) in rhesum ' reazon/ 

m. (n) in verbal endings : adan ydym * we ar/' oy^lSan 
oeddem ' we wer,' etc. 

C. (qk) in hecian * limp.' (f) in (faind) * kind/ by con- 
fusion with (fond) 'fond/ 

g. Dropt in (wiqo) gwingo 'strugl,' Inaay glanhau 'clean* 
vb. Added in gonast 'honest,' garSun ardducrn 'elbow/ 
gaSo addaw 'promise/ (k) in (naaki, naake) nage *no,* 
(drakin) dryghin 'bad wether.' (d) in havod-tandrag Ha/ad" 

t. Dropt in -nt in verb-endings : adan ydynt ' they ar/ 
welson tcelasant ' they saw/ etc. Added in daa}t deall 
' understand.' (d) in stryyd ' street.' sut seems to be sum- 
times (syd) [befor a vowel ?]. E. ch is regularly reprezented 
by (ts), as in (wats) 'wach.' tl- seems to be (k|-) in tlwB 
(kluus) 'pretty.' 

d. (d3) is reprezented by (J) in the older pronunciation 
(Jon) ' John,' etc., by (d) in (dest) ' just ' adv. 

Initial consonants ar often lost by the dropping of the 
vowel of an unstrest syllabi, which often makes the cons 
almost inaudibl : 

h.. genod hogenod 'girls,' naku hvon acw 'that one/ df 
hyd at ' as far as.' 

rh.. samol rheaymol ' reazonabl.' 

f. stinjog Ffestiniog, 

n. duni Sim nid ten % ddiin ' I don^t know,' etc., do 
nadolig ' Christmas/ 

m. moga mamogau 'ewes,' Saljun meddyliim 'I she 
think,' vii myfi * I. 

p. BgotSL pysgoia ' fish ' vb., t&tixs pytatws ' potatoes/ 

Other cases ar : 

uabod adnabod 'recognize.' (nai) the unstrest for 


(ainai) amaf fi *onme.' (ta) ynte 'therefor, then,' always 

pnaun prydnatcn 'evening,' knarvon Caernarfon ' Carnar- 
von/ klanai canlynaf fi * I wil follow,' klaguS ceiliogicydd 
'gander/ sglaig yngolhaig 'scolar' [pi. sgleigjon ysgolheigion^ 
kooy'8 eyhoedd ' public' 

pryyd/)a bryd 'when? *, lee y mha le 'where?', blee o ba k 

* whense/ ndooys onid ocb ' is not P ', pam paham ' why P ' 

oona oddiyna 'from there,' vanma ^on yma 'here,' \QXio fan 
yno 'there/ gwaa'S gwahodd 'invite,' xweigjan chice ngain 

* ten shillings/ rhain y rhai hyn ' theze,' dood [also duad] 
dyfod 'cum' inf., tyd tyred 'cum thou!', trooS troiodd 'turnd' 
prei., dee deheii 'south,' herob hannerob 'flich of bacon.' 

dol*%elan Doltcyddelati, oSyd oddiarhyd ' from oflF,' ka'vino 
cynnefino ' get used to,' dotux dattodtcch ' untie ye ! ', 
gwani'oy]>a gwahaniaeihau 'differences,' wedyn wedi hyn 
'afterwards/ knaij^ar cyfnither ' female cuzin.' 

In sum cases a syllabi which is strest in the literary lang. 
has been dropt, pointing, of course, to an erlier stress-shift 
in the dialect : kamyd cymmeryd ' take,' gadoS gadatoodd 

* left,' malwan tnalwoden ' snail,' marljod merlynod ' ponies.' 

Strong contraction in the peculiar hybrid expletivs rotjun 
= (ri'ooyd fajun) erioed fashion ' ever the like,' ' ever/ 
novnatsan = (-anov naduy faJun) yn qfnadicy (terribly) 
fashion^ ' in terribl fashion,' * terribly.' 

Also in ogla arogl ' odor.' 

Sum miscellaneous irregularities may now be noticed. 

Transpozitions (generaly with other changes) in: kavnas 
cynfas ' canvas, sheet,' kenslys cenllyag ' hail,' sluan llysthen 

* eel,' swigan chwysigen ' bladder,' traux tancch ' strike ye ! ' 
(ruan) ' now ' seems not to be conected with the literary yn 
atcr, but to be yr aicr hon ' this hour.' 

miga moga igam ogam ' zigzag ' is an interesting parallel 
to our (njickname. 

nos'daux nos dda i chtci ' good night (to you) ! ' 
-pe tasa pe buasai ' if it wer,' etc. 
kad'mary cymharu ' compare.' 





For convenience of reference I giv here a table of the 
regular mutations. 


MiDL (voice) 
ei h%9 




ei A«r 















gair irord 
bara bred 
dillad clothes 
























































wats i 





x*fote that the aspirate mutations of m and n ar not 
admitted in the literary language. In the dialect (m, n) ar 
regularly aspirated after (i) ei 'her/ eu ' their ^ : i mham^ ei 


m(h)amy eu m(h)am * her mother,' ' their mother.' (w) ia 
£. woixU generaly follows this analogy, but aparently not 
always: bood ari w(h)at8 bod ar ei (eu) gwt/liadwraeth ' to be 
on her (their) guard/ -i w(h)at8hiy -i w(h)at8nhu, ei, eu 
oriawr * her, their wach.' 

The laws of mutation ar carried out with the same strict- 
ness iu the dialect as in the literary language, and follow, in 
the main, the principls laid down in the grammars, tho there 
ia divergence in detail. Forein words, even of the latest 
introduction, ar as much subject to them as nativ ones : -i 
kootnhu ' their coat,' -i gooto ' his coat,' qhooti ' my coat,' 
-i xoothi * her coat,' lego fatn ' leg of mutton,' etc. (tj) is 
regularly mutated to (d3) : tjain ' a chain,' -a dSain ' the 

When an initial vowel is dropt in the dialect, so that a 
mutabl cons, becums initial, it is liabl to mutation, as in 
(menyn) ymenyn : printano venyn * pat [' print '] of butter.' 
In the dialect sum of the particls which cauz mutation ar 
regularly dropt, which givs the mutation generaly a mor 
abstract character, and makes it mor difficult to master. The 
affirmativ particl y which does not mutate, and the affirmatiy 
and interrogativ a which cauzes voice mutation, ar dropt. y 
apears as yr befor vowels, which is often kept in the dialect 
in the form of (r). The dialect often uzes an affirmativ 
particl of its own (mi), which takes voice mutation. The 
different affirmativ forms of two such verbs as oedd 'was' and 
cymnierodd ' he took,' when standing at the hed of the 
sentence ar : roo)S, -mi roo%, kamo%, gamo%, -mi gamo%. I 
hav not been able to investigate the laws which govern these 
variations. Numerous exam pis may be seen in the texts. 
The voice- mutation of the initial verb in questions seems 
constant : gamuxi a gyrnmerwch chtci * wil you take ? ', welo'So 
a welodd ef ' did he see ? ' The negativ particls na and ni 
govern the aspirate of c, t, p, the voice-mutation of the 
others ; in the dialect these particls ar simply dropt, ddim 
being added, unless the sentence alredy contains sum negativ 
word besides the dropt initial particls : xamai %im tee ' I wil 
not take tea,' welisi monoxi ' I did not see you,' gayj^oxi 


hee]> * did you get sum ? ' If the verb begins with a vowel 
(d)=znid is prefixt, and if it begins with radical g, (d) is 
substituted : dadio ^inian barod * he is not redy/ dalai ^im 
doad ' I cannot cum.' 

Sum verbs in frequent use, such as the auxiliary 05ary) 
(d)darfu^ ^ala, ^alsa dylai, dylasni * he ought/ show a great 
preponderance of the voice-mutated over the radical form, 
which latter only ocurs after sum words which do not allow 
the voice- mutation after them, such as (vel) *how,' (a) *and, 
as.' The same is the case with sum other words, such as 
(^ooy) * yesterday,' which only takes the radical form in the 
same special cases, as in (ryyn faa}>a dooy) Hhe same as 
yesterday.' Sum words, such as wedi^ never apear at all in 
any but the voice form, (gan, gin) gnn * with,' and its pro- 
nominal compounds, never apear in the radical form, tho 
they take the aspirate mutation after a 'and/ etc.: -a xanovo 
' and with him,' etc. 

In sum cases there is a real or aparent neglect of mutation 
in the dialect. 

Feminin nouns ar not mutated after un * one ' : yyn karag 
un garrag ' one stone,' yyn mat/an * one mach.' 

The want of mutation in (-nos daux) ' good night ! * and 
(usnos dw9y)?a) tcythnos dditceddaf ' last week/ seems to be 
due to an avoiding of the combination (sS). 

The absence of mutation in such a sentence as (-maayoan 
gold) * he is a guide ' is only aparent, for the radical of this 
word is (kaid). Forein words beginning with (g, d, b) seem 
generaly to form new radicals in this way : pelan, -a belan 
*ball/ 'the ball/ trol, -a drol 'cart.' Many adjectivs, such 
as parod * redy ' hardly ever ocur except with the predicativ 
particl yn befor them, and it is therfor difficult to tel whether 
the radical of braf in (-maar tauy^an braav) ' the wether is 
fine,' etc., is (praav) or not. I hav never herd the radical of 
these two words in speech, (g), etc., seem to be left un- 
mutated sumtimes even in nativ words, as in (gnoydi gora) 
gtcneyd ei oreu * do his best/ (beemaayoan daa) i ba beth y 
mae ef yn dda ? * what is it good for P ' As (v) is the 
mutation both of (b) and (m), it sumtimes happens that 


mfhjam, eu m(h)am ' her mother/ ' their mother.' (w) 
E. words generaly follows this analogy, but aparently .not 
always : bood ari w(h)ats bod ar ei (eu) gwyttadwraeth * to bo 
on her (their) guard/ -i w(h)atshi9 -i w(h)atsnha, ei^ mt 
oriator ' her, their wach.' 

The laws of mutation ar carried out with the same strict* 
ness in the dialect as in the literary lang^ge, and follow, in 
the main, the principls laid down in the grammars, tho there 
is divergence in detail. Forein words, even of the latest 
introduction, ar as much subject to them as nativ ones : -i 
kootnhu ' their coat,' -i gooto ' his coat,' qhooti * my coat,' 
-i xoothi ' her coat,' lego f atn ' leg of mutton,' etc. (tj) is 
regularly mutated to (d3) : tjain ' a chain,' -a dSain ' the 

When an initial vowel is dropt in the dialect, so that a 
mutabl cons, becums initial, it is liabl to mutation, as in 
(menyn) ymenyn : printano venyn ' pat [* print '] of butter.* 
In the dialect sum of the particls which cauz mutation ar 
regularly dropt, which givs the mutation generaly a mor 
abstract character, and makes it mor di£5cult to master. The 
affirmativ particl y which does not mutate, and the affirmativ 
and interrogativ a which cauzes voice mutation,- ar dropt. y 
apears as yr befor vowels, which is often kept in the dialect 
in the form of (r). The dialect often uzes an affirmativ 
particl of its own (mi), which takes voice mutation. The 
diflferent affirmativ forms of two such verbs as oedd 'was' and 
cyinmerodd ' he took,' when standing at the bed of the 
sentence ar : roo>S, -mi roo^, kamo'S, gamo%, -mi gamo%. I 
hav not been able to investigate the laws which govern these 
variations. Numerous exampls may be seen in the texts. 
Tho voice-mutation of the initial verb in questions seems 
constant: giimuxi a gymmericch chtci 'wil you takeP', welo^o 
a welodd cf * did he see P ' The negativ particls na and ni 
govern the aspirate of c, t, p, the voice-mutation of the 
others ; in the dialect these particls ar simply dropt, ddim 
being added, unless the sentence alredy contains sum negativ 
word besides the dropt initial particls : xamai %im tee ' I wil 
not take tea/ welisi monoxi 'I did not see you,' g9y)>oxi 


stabal * stable/ stejon ' railway station/ step * step ' (of cart, 
etc.), stool 'stall,' stori 'story,' stymog * stumac,' stryyd 
street ' ; tempar * temper ' (good, bad), tem'tajun * tempta- 
tion,' tresal ^ kitchen dresser ' ; wats ' wach.' 


The use of the different plural endings is, on the hole, the 
same in the dialect as in the literary language, allowing for 
the vowel-changes of the latter (both in the words themselvs 
and the endings), and its dropping of the unstrest initial 
vowels, etc., by which such pairs as llyriy llynau ' lake ' ; cae, 
caeau ' field ' ; afal, qfalau ' apl ' apear as (lyn, lana ; kaay, 
kaya; aval, vala). The following ar exampls (taken from 
the most frequent words) of the different ways of forming 
the plural, as clast in the grammars, many words of E. origin 
being given : 

1) Iregular. kii, kuun *dog.' guur, gwyyr 'husband.* 
tyy, tai 'house'; popty, pop'taay 'oven ' ; beydy, baydaay, 
bdaay ' cow-house.' krooyn, kruuyn ' skin • ; ooyn, uuyn 
' lam.' trooyd, traayd ' foot.' brand, brodyr ' brother.' 

2) Vowel-change, braan, brain 'crow'; lafant, lafa(i)nt 
' frog.' jaar, joir ' hen ' ; kar ' trap ' (carriage), kair ; gaast, 
goist *bich.' bystax, bystyx ' bullock.' kalal, kalil 'knife.' 
kom, kyrn ' horn.' for, fyrS ' road.' karag, kerig ' stone,* 
kasag, kesig 'mare,' parxa], perxi| ^yung pig.' davad, devaid 
' sheep.' lagad, lagid ' eye.' 

-a. The original ending is prezervd only in (glirau) 
gwelyau from (gwely) ' bed,* thru having the stress, and 
ocazionaly in plurals of words of a mor or less literary 
character, such as (doi'sebay) 'petitions.' kupan, ku'pana 
' cup ' ; usnos, us'nosa ' week ' ; enu, enwa ' name ' ; kaay, 
koiia ' field ' ; oxor, oxra ' side ' ; la)>yr, la'J?ara ' letter ' ; 
kaqan, ka'qhena ' branch.' stabal, stabla ' stable ' ; Jop, Jopa 
'shop ' ; gwasgod, gwas'goda ' waistcoat ' ; paayn, payna 
'pane of glass.' The following hav vowel-change (in addition 
to changes required by the laws of the dialect), druus, drasa 
'do ' ; bur, barSa ' table ' \ gun, gana ' gun ' ; butum, 
. ' button.' sim^a, sim'Saya ' chinmey.' 



-Ja. ]dyy%t, klyst ja clustiau * ear ' ; eegtd, sgidja * shoe ' ; 
liogyn, hogja ' boy/ kap, kapja * cap ' ; koot^ kotja * coat ' ; 
frind, ' frindja ' friend ' ; het, hetja ' hat ' ; p}aat> platja 
'|date'; poulan, poulja ^bowL' With vowel-chiange : kadar, 
ks'daiija 'chair'; aur, orja 'hour'; ketyn, katja 'short pipe/ 
pump, pampja ' pump/ tjain, t/ainja ' chain.' 

•on. aaisy sayson 'Englishman'; kaan, knoyon 'song/ 
atori, ttreyon 'story.' 

-Jon. ka'madog, kam'dogjon 'neighbor'; asgol, sgoljon 
''soool'; polyn, poljon 'pole'; stool, stoljon 'stalL' With 
Towel-ohadge : bargan, bar'gainjon ' bargain.' 

•-ad. merx, -ad ' daughter ' ; di'ai]>rjad ' strangers ' ; 
kfadyr, kre'dyrjad 'creature.' With vowel-change: a'niyal, 
aoi'Tailjad ' animal, catl.' 

-ycL kevndar, kevndryd ' male cuzin.* ' 

«a%- dant, dana% ' tooth ' ; ewin, wina%^ ' nail ' (of 

-L |estar, Jestri 'vessel' ; kakan, ka'keni 'cake' ; sospan> 
•os'peni ' saucepan ' ; fenast, fe'nestri ^ window ' ; haqkas, 
kaq'ket/i ' handkerchief ; lantar, lan'temi ' lantern.' With 
vowel*change: kroxon, kro'xeni 'pot'; maayn^maini 'stone'; 
taas, taisi ' rick.' 

-od. kloman, klo'menod 'pigeon'; hefar, hefrod 'heifer'; 
deryn, dranod 'bird.' The literary plur. of aderyn ocurs 
only in the lake-name (lyn radar) Llyn yr adar. knaij^ar, 
knai'J>erod female ' cuzin ' ; hogan, genod ' girl.' With 
vowel-change : byux, byxod ' cow ' ; kuux, kaxod ' boat ' ; 
Jama, /urniod 'journey ' ; merlyn, marljod 'poney.' 

-O^. blany'S, bla'na'SoS hlynyddoedd ' year ' ; many*^, 
ma'na%o% 'mountain'; anys, naso^ 'iland'; stryyd, strado^ 
• street.' 

-y^. farm, fermy'S 'farm'; adan, deny'S 'wing'; pentra, 
pen'trevy^ '•village''; tresal, tre*8ely'8 '(kitchen) dresser.^ 
Contracted in (porva, por'vyy^) porfeydd * pasture.' 

-B, -jrs. babi, babis * baby ' ; ham, hams ' ham ' ; stejon, 
stejons ^railway-station,' krikjad, krikjats 'cricket' (insect), 
wats, watsys ' wach'; kooyts, koytsys 'coach.' Sumtimes 
added even to Welsh words, after the Welsh plural ending, 


as is (milgiaiiB) ' greyhounda,* (sgoturs) 'fiBhermen,' (hyrns) 

(BOu)>niRn, pUsman) 'South Welehman,' 'policeman ' form 
their plur. (Bool^niyii, plismyn), showing an older stage of E. 
then our preEent spoken language, in which sg. and plur. 
both hav the same obscure voweL ' 

Sum words hav a different (often a longer) stem in the 
plur. : kavia, kavlays'dera 'opportunity*; Jii, li'vogy^ 'flood,' 
gwer)>ol, gur')>aTlja ' stirrup.* The last has also the regular 
plur. {gwer'Jiolja). 

The following ar further exampls of the formation of fem. 
singulars in (-an) from E. plurals taken in a oollectiv sense : 
kabaits, ka'baitsan ' cabbage ' ; tatws, tasan [=ta'tasan] 
' potato * ; sweeds, swetsan ' swede, Swedish turnip ' ; alipars, 
slipan ' slipper ' ; but/as, bu'tjasan ' top boot ' [from 
'Biucher'F], bardls, hardlan 'hurdl*; spooks, spoksaa 
' spoke of wheel ' ; sklaits, skleitsan ' slate ' ; woirs, woiran 
' wire.' The colectiv sense givn to the E. plurals is clearly 
shown in such collocations as (fena wairs) ' wire fence.* It 
wil be ohservd that the (s) of the plur. is snmtimes presserrd 
in the sg., sumtimes not. 


The following vowel-changes take place in the fem. of 
adjectivs. Many adjj., however, which change their vowels 
in the literary language, remain unchanged in the dialect. 

u : o. lum ' bare,' krun ' round,' trum ' hevy.' 

[No change: k}uu8 'pretty,' pudur 'rotn,' brant 'rude.' 
The literary liwfh : dofn is (dyfn) in the dialect.] 

y: e. hyysp, beeap 'dry' (of cows); syyx, seex 'dry'; 
kryy, kree ' strong ' ; glyyb, gleeb ' wet ' ; gwyn, gwen 
' white ' ; byr, her ' short ' ; bryyx, breex ' brindid ' ; basan, 
bexan ' litl.' baax ' litl ' is unchanged in the fem., not even 
mutating its cons. [No change : jym ' sharp,' melyn 
'yellow,' trady^ ' third,' pe'dwery"S ' fourth.'] 

li: ai. [No change: briij) ' apeckld.'] 



In the literary language many adjj. take a plural ending. 
In the dialect their number is reduced, and many of those 
left hair also the plur. the same as the sg. These ar markt 
(as &T as my knowledg goes) with a star in the following 

^bazan, baxin; kadam, kedym * strong'; ^kalad, kelyd 

* hard * ; lal, Jail * other ' ; aral, eril * other/ 

•dyy, dyon * black ' ; ♦budur, budron * dirty/ ^maru, 
mairwon ' ded/ 

rhyyS, rha^jon * free * ; *koox, koxjon ' red * ; gwyn, 
gwynjon * white/ •teeu, teujon * fat/ •Jaays, loijjon * trail- 
ing * ; saal, sailjon ' bad * ; main, mainjon ' thin ' ; kam, 
ksimjon * crooked ' ; •gwaag, gweigjon * empty ' ; kyyy, 
kravjon * strong'; k]uu8y klajjon 'pretty'; kjaud, kjodjon 

* poor ' ; trum, tramjon * hevy ' ; braas, braijjon * thick ' ; 
hyysp, hespjon ' dry/ 

The following (among others) remain unchanged : chtcerw, 
Ut/dan, biian, truan, ivaqk teuanc * yung/ bi/ddar, hardd. 


The regular endings ar, of the equal degpree (-ad) »ed, the 
coraparativ (-ax), the superlativ (-a) -af. 

Adjj. ending in {^, d, b) unvoice these conss. before 
the endings: tebig, te'bakad *like'; diog, di'okad *lftzy '; 
rhaad, rhatax 'cheap'; glyyb, glypax 'wet'; kalad, kleta 

' hard/ 

The vowel-changes of the literary language reapear to sum 
extent in the dialect: main, mainad 'thin'; kjaud, klotad 

* poor ' ; lum, liimad * bare/ 

The insertion of (j) ocurs also in words of E. origin : braav, 
bravjax ' fine ' ; kleen, klenja ' kind ' [our clean]. 

Other changes ar the necessary rezult of the laws of the 
dialect : kalad. kletax * hard ' ; esmuj?, smuyjjax ' smooth/ 



The following 


daa (good) 
agos {near) 
baax {litl) 

druug {had) 

hau% {eazy) 
ano^ {dijficuU) 

been {old) 

hiir {long) 

ivaqk {yung) 

lauar {many) 
xnaur (^rea^) 

ladan {broad) 
isal (/otr) 
yxal {^»>A) 

ar iregular : 


t gw9y>ad 


> kimint 




I gwaay> 


f hyyn 

( hanax 

f huuy 
( hirax 



( islax 
\ ii8 adv. 

















day, duuy {fern.) 

trii, tair {/em.) 

pedwar, pedar {/em.) 







yynor ^eeg 


triiar (tairar) ^eeg 

pedwarar (pedarar) ^eeg 


yynar bamj^ag 

( ynvad 


trady^ {also fern.) 

ped'wery^ {also fern,) 




ynvadar ^eeg 

trady^ar %eeg 
ped'wery^ar %eeg 
yn-' iT I 



17 dayar (duuyar) bam]>ag 
( triia 


railar bamj^ag 

. •... /4. • •• \ 1.. 1 > dnouvad 

triiar (tairar) bampag J 

pedwarar (pedarar) bamj^ag ped'wery^ar bam]?ag 


ynvadar hygjan 
degvadar hygjan 
ynvadar^eegar hygjan 


yynar hygjan 
deegar hygjan 
pamj'agar hygjan 

50 1 ?^^^^ hygjan 
( hanar kant 

60 trigjan 

70 deega ]?rigjan 

80 pedwar ygjan 

90 deega fed war ygjan 

100 kant 

120 xwaigjan chice ugain 

1000 miil 

The clumziness of the higher Welsh numerals leads to the 

frequent use of the £• numerals, which, curiously enuf, ar 

always uzed in speaking of a street : nambar faiv, etc., wan 

J'ousand eet handradn eti wan = 1881. When the use of the 

E. numerals is avoided, as in giving out the number of a 

hymn in chapel, such a numeral as 70 is called * seven ten,' 

etc. Thus (emyn pym kant saith deeg trii) *hymn 673,' 

(da}Tiau kant uuyj? deeg jyn) = 1881. 

The higher ordinal numerals ar not much uzed except in 

stating the day of the month. 


The personal pronouns ar : 

ShnpL Antithetic, Cor^junctiv. 

ina, vina 


anta, vanta 




1 mi, vi, i 

• • 


2 ti, di 


g / vo, 

( hi fern. 



pL 1 ni 

a • 


2 xi 

• • 


3 nhu, n 




(vi, vina,vo, vanta) ar often uzed insted of (i), etc., after a 
vowel: -^aryvi orfan *I finisht,' -na vina xwai]> *nor I either/ 
hevovo * with him.' (i) is chiefly uzed after the verb in the 
nom. : welisi * I saw.' (nhu) is often contracted to (n) after 
a verb ending in a vowel : -'Saryn gweld * they saw.' 

The reflexiv pronouns ar : 

1. -va hyyn, -va hynan. 2. -da hyyn, etc. 3. -i hyyn. 

j?/. 1. -oin hynan, -n hynan, -n hyyn. 2. (a)x(h)ynan etc. 
3. -i hynan. 

The reciprocal : 

1. .(ai)n gily«. -(a)x gily*?, -i gily*. 

The possessiv : 

1. v(a). 2. d(a). 3. i. pL 1. (8i)n. 2. (a)x. 3. i. 
The personal pronoun is generaly added after the noun, the 
repetition not necessarily conveying any idea of emfazis. fy 
is generaly only prezervd befor a vowel ; befor a consonant 
it is dropt, leaving however the nazal mutation of mutabl 
consonants behind : vamsar * my time,' -ur]> nruusi * at my 
door,' -an Jee-i *in my place.' The three (i)s ar distinguisht 
by their mutations when they cum befor certain sounds. 

The following special combinations dezerv notice : 

a) with (a) * and ' ; exemplified in 

-va nhaada mam=a'm mam 'my father and mother,' -da 

daad \ i ! • -i daadai vam. -i baadai mham 'her.' 

( -aap vara ) '^ 

-n taadaan mam. -ax taadaax mam. -i taadai mham ai 


b) with (i) ' to.' 

-iim taad. -ida daad. -yu daad fw. -yu ])aad t'tr. -i 
taad. -iix taad. -yu taad {*w, 

c) with (o) ' of.' 

-oom taad. -oda daad. -oi daad. -oi J'aad. -oon ta 
-oox taad. -oi taad (?*w. 

So also (welisi moom taad) ^I did not see my fat) 
(mooda daad), etc. 

d) -ar vooli 'after me.' -ar dooldi. -ari oolo. 
hoolhi. -ar nhoolni. -arx oolxi. -ari hoolnhu. 

e) -o mlaayni '.befor me.' -oda vlaayndi. -oi yIi 



I rhaina 


-oi blaayn-hi. -oon blaaynni. -oox blaaynxi. -oi blaa- 

/) -ar vinjon ar fy untawn * I at onse/ -ar dinjon. -ari 
injoD. -ari hinjon. -ar nhinjon. -ar xinjon. -ari hinjon. 
An exampl of this construction is (aunni nuanar nhinjon) 
' let us go now at onse.' 

eiddo does not apear to be uzed in speech, but yr Eiddoch 
yn gywir is the regular equivalent of ' yours truly ' in letter- 

The demonstrativs ar : 

singuUir, pluraL 

masc, hun 
fern, hon 
neut, hyn 

nmnc. buna 
Jem, bona 
neut hyna 

masc, hunu ) i . 

/em, bono j ^ 

neut, hany 

The distinction of meaning of these three groups corre- 
sponds to that of the Scoch this, that, yon. They ar all (at 
least, the personal ones) uzed both as substantivs, and as 
adjectivs following the noun, (hun), etc., seem, however, to 
be uzed as adjectivs only when they dezignate an object of 
thought, or refer to sumthing that has been mentiond alredy : 
dyj'nvel wiljamshunu, *a man like that Williams' (of whom 
we wer just speaking). Otherwize the adverbs (iiraa, ana, 
aku) ar added to the noun with the def. articl prefixt to 
denote the three degrees respectivly : -a dyyn(a)ma, -a 
dyyn(a)na, -a dyyn aku, 'this man/ 'that man' (within 
cognizance), *that man' (not within cognizance). 

(naku) = //<rn acw subst., is uzed to denote a distant object 
within sight or hearing. 


The normal inflections may be exemplified by the verb 
(gweld) ' see.' As the second future ocurs only in a few 



verbs it is exemplified by (gn^yd) *do.' The pluperf. and 
2Qd fut. pass, seem hardly ever to ocur in speech, and the 
plup. act. is not very common. 

The letters added in parentheses show the form assumed 
by the verb when (as is ozualy the case) the personal pro- 
nouns ar added : 


Prezent (Future). 


1 gwela(i) 

2 gweli(di) 

3 gweel{o), gweHJ>(o) 


gwelan(i), gwelun(i) 



1 gwelun(i) 

2 gwelat(i) 

3 gwela(vo) 

1 gwelis(i) 

2 gwelist(i) 

3 gwelo^(o) 

1 gwel8un(i) 

2 gwelsat(i) 

3 gwelsa(vo) 

1 gnelo(i) 

2 gnelot(i) 

3 gnelo(vo) 

2 gweel, gwela 

3 gwelad 







Second Future. 





• ! • • • • 

• • • » 

spoken north welsh. hekrt sweet^ m.a. 445 


Prezent gwelir. 

Imperfect gwelid. 

Preterit gwelud. 

Pluperfect gwelsid (P). 

Second Future gweler. 

The second future also ocurs of the verb (manu) in the 
fraze (amsar vanoxi) 'whenever you like/ mixt, however, 
with prezent forms in the 1st sg. and 2nd plur. : (vanai, 
vanux) as wel as (vanoi, vanox). I hav generaly herd (vanox). 

The preterit is often exprest by (^ary) ddarfu * finisht ' the 
pret. of (darvod) with the infin., and this circumlocution is 
regularly employed in the plural of verbs ending in a cons, 
which would not join eazily to the inflectional (s). Thus 
(berwi, dexra) *boil,' 'begin,' hav their prets. 3 sg. and plur. 
respectivly (berwo^, dexro^ ; -^aryn verwi, -^aryn ^exra). 
There is, however, considerabl latitude. As a general rule, 
the longer and less frequent verbs prefer the circumlocution. 

The shorter form of the pres. 3 sg. is generaly less fre- 
quently uzed than that in (i]>), which is the only one that 
many verbs hav. 

The various changes of the verb-stems ar the rezult partly 
of the older laws detailed in the grammars, partly of those of 
the dialect. The following ar the typical forms of many of 
the mor important ' regular ' verbs (most of which would be 
considered highly iregular in any other language), nl. infin., 
pres. 3rd sing., pret. 1 and 3 sg. and 3 plur., imper. 2 sg., as 
far as I hav been able to determin them. 

ay. kay cau * shut.' kaa-i]>, kayi}). kayo^. kay I 

Inaay glanhau * clean.' -^ary Inaay. Inaa 1 Ineux ! 
ba'rhaay * shorten.' bii'rhoi]?. ba'rhao^. ba*rhaa ! ; 
ba'rheux ! 
oL kloi ^ cloze.' k}oo-i]>. klois, kloio% ; kloison. kloo ! 
troi 'turn.' tryy^, troi, troij?. trois; troio^, troo^; 

troison. troo I Pret, pass, troud. 
par'toi parot-oi * prepare.' par'too*?, par'toison. par'too ! 
par'toux I 


a. dal ' each ' AM, dali]>. daljo^, dalson. dal ! 
, laa^ * kil.' laa^, la^i]>. la^o^, la^son. laa^ ! 

daalt(3^a// 'understand.' dalti]>. dalto%, daltson. daalt. 
i. triin, trinjo trin ' treat.* trinij?. trinjo^. 
e. hel* gather.' hel(j)o^, helson. hel!; heljux! 
uy. duuyn 'take, steal.* duuyn, duyni]?. duyno^;duyn- 

son. duuyn ! ; duyna ! 
-a. byta 6?ry^fl *eat.' byto^. bytson. bytal 
-i. lenwi * fil.' lenwo^. lenwa ! ; lenux ! 

teui ^ be silent."* tau, teui]>. tauo%, tauson. tau! teux! 
berwi * boil.* berwo^. berwa ! berux ! 
tori * cut.' tyr, tori]>. toro^, toraon. tor ! 
koli * loze.' kol, kolij?. kolo^, kolson. kol ! kola ! 
rhoi rhoddi 'put, giv.' rhyy^, rho^iJ>. Imperf. rhoun; 
rhoot; rhooy; rhoun; rhoux; rhoyJ>an, rhoon. Pret. 
rhois ; rhoist ; rho^o^, rhoo}>, rhoos [rhooys P ] ; 
Thomson, rhoijjon, rhoison. daro ! , doro ! ; dorux ! , 
rhoux ! [the first three aparently only in the sense of 
* put ! ']. Pret, pass, rhoud. I am not certain about 
the forms of this verb, especialy as regards the ocur- 
rence of (oy) and (oi). 
kodi ' raiz.' kood, kodi)>. kodo%, kodson. kood ! 
logi * borrow.' loog ! 
holti ' split.' hoolt ! 
tolti tywallt * pour.' too|t ! 
provi ' try.' prova ! 

puyri poeri * spit.' puyro^, puyrson. puyra ! 
kroysi croesi * cross.' kroyso^, kroyson. kroysa I 
-o. driqo * climb.' driqo^, driqson. driqa ! 
kyro * strike.' kyro^, kyrson. kyra ! 
godro * milk.' godra ! 
gor'fuyso * rest.' gorfus ! gor'fuysux ! 
gn2rio gwn'io ' sew.' gn/ri-ij?. gn^ri-is, gntm^. 
-jo. karjo 'carry.' kari)?. kuris, karjo^, karson. karja ! 
pajjo * pass.' pasis, pajjo^. 
8ar]?jo * fall.* 6ar)?is, sarjjjo^. 
trujjo ' mend.' trusis, triijjp^. trujja ! 
kaijjo'try.* kais!; koijjux! 


pdidjo ' abstain/ paid, p9idi]>. peidjo^. paid ! 
-U. bum, 'throw.' buri]>. burjo^. burja I 

kadu ' keep.' kadi]>. kadwo%, kadson. kadu ! 
galu ' call.' g^ilu, gali]?. galwo^, galson. galu ! 
-y. kaiy 'luv.' karo^,. -^aryn gary [(kar8on)=* they 

carried ']. kaar ! 
galy ' be able/ Free, ng, 1. galai ; 2. geli ; 3. geil, 

gal ; pL 2. gelux, galux. galo% ; galson. 
taly ' pay.' taal, tali]>. talo%, talson. tala ! 
maly ^ grind.' malo%, malson. maal ! mala ! 
tawly, tavly tafia ' throw.' tawlo^, tawlson. taul ! 

kany ' sing.' kano%, kanson. kana ! 
gwerjjy ' sel.' gwer]?o^, gwer]>son. gwer]>a 1 
helpy ' help.' helped, helpson. helpa I 
sgweny ysgrifenu * write.' sgweno^. sgwena ! . 
medry * know how.' medar, medri]>. medro^. 
dasgy ' lem.' dasgo^, dasgson. dasga ! 
many * wish.' mjm, manij?. mano^ ; manson. myn ! 

mana ! 2ndfut, manoi, manai. 
tavy * grow.' tyy v, tavi)>. tavo^, tavson. tyyv ! 

tany ' pull.' tyn, tani]>. tano%, tanson. tyn ! tana I 
prany * buy ' [like tany.] 

sayjjy saetliu ' shoot.' sayjo^, say]>son. seyj>a I 
-0=atc. ga%o addaw 'promise.' gaa%, ga^i]'- ga^o^, 

ga%son. ga%a ! ; ga^ux ! 
grtrando gwrandaw * hear/ grirando^, gnrandson. 

grtranda ! ; grtrandux ! 
taro * strike.' taar, tari]>. taro^, tarson. tar ! , tara ! 
-a=^M. xwara * play.' xwari]>. xwaro^, xwarson (P). 

xwara ! xwarux ! 
kana ' kindl/ kano%, kanson. kana ! , kanux ! 
dexra * begin.' dexri)>. dexro^. dexra ! , dexrux ! 
-X. edrax^r/rycA *look.' draxi]>. driixo^, draxson. edrax! 
-r. agor ' open.' gori]>. goro^, gorson. agor I 
-1. me^ul* think/ me*^ali]>. me'^aljo^. me^ul!,me*^- 

alja ! 


madal ymadael ' depart, leave.' ma*dauo%. madal I ; 

ma'deux ! 
gadal gadael 'leav.' gaad, gadi]?. gadis, gado%, gadsoo. 

gaad ! ; gadux ! , ga'deux ! 
gaval gafaelu * grasp.' g(a)"v9ylij>. gveylo^. gaval ! 

gvayla ! 
-1. enil * gain.' nilij?. nilo^, nilson. enil ! 

sevyl ' stand.' say, savi)>, 8evi]>. sayo% ; savson. saa ! ; 

savux ! 
-^. ista eistedd 'sit.' ste^ij). ste^o^, isto^ ; stepson, ista ! ; 

ste^ux ! , istux ! 
gorwa^, gorva^ ^onr^c^ 'lie.' gorwe^iJ>. gorwe^o^; 

gor'we^son. gorwa^ ! 
gwaa^ gicahodd * invite.' gwa^i)>. gwa^o^ ; gwa^son. 

gwaa% ! 
kara^ cyrhaedd * reach.' kray^o^, kray^son. kara% ! 
-S. aros * stay.' rhosi]>. rhoso^. aros ! 

daqos ' show.' deqys, da*qhoei]>. da'qhoso^ ; da'qhoJ>- 

son. • daqos ! 
-V. kva^a cyfaddef ' confess.' kva^i]?. kva^o^ ; kva^son. 

kva^a ! 
-q. golun, gulun golhcng 'let go.' go'laqi]?. go*|aqo%, 

go'laqson. golun ! 
gostun, gustun gosticng * let down ' [like golun]. 
-n. gorfan gorphen * finish.' gor*feni]>. gor'feno^ ; gor- 

•fenson. gorfan ! 
xwer]?in * laugh.' xwer]>i]>. xwer)>o^ ; xwer}>80B. 

xwerjja ! 
estyn, aatyn 'strech.' stani]>. stano%, stanson. estyn ! 
kanlyn * follow.' klanij?. kliino^ ; klanson. kanlyn ! 
govyn'ask.' go'vanij?. go'vano^; go'vanson. govynl 

go'vana ! 
derbyn * receiv.' der*bani]>. der'banjo^. derbyn I 
disgin disgyn * descend.* dis'ganij?. dis*gano% ; dis- 

*ganson. disgin ! 
arwan arwain ' lead.' ar*waini]>. ar'wainjo^. arwan 1 
kaxun cychwyn ' start.' ka*xuni)>. ka'xano^ ; ka*xan- 

son. kaxun ! kaxuna ! 


-g. ThedsLgrhedeg'runJ rheed, rhedi}>. rhedo^; rhedson. 

rheed ! 
hedag ehedeg ' fly ' [^like rhedag]. 
kaaig, cynnyg ' offer.' knigij?. knigjo%. kanig ! 
-d. Jarad ' speak/ /radi]>. /rado^ ; /radson. Jarad I 

kerSad 'walk/ ker8, kerSi)?. kerSo'S; kerson. kerad! 

ker ! ker^a ! 
klauad clywed * hear.' klaui]>. klauo% ; k|auson. klyu ! , 

klaua ! 
gweld, gwelad 'see.' gweel, gweH]>. gwelo^; gwelson. 

gweel ! gwela ! ; gwelux, (g)ulux ! 
starjad ystyried * consider.' starjoS. starja ! 
da)?od dattod ' untie.' dJjodo'S, dj^odsoo. da}>od ! ; 

da'J^odux ! , dotux ! 
kamyd cymmeryd * take.' kym, kami]>. kmero%, kamo^, 

kamson. kamar ! ; kmerux ! , kamux ! 
deqid diengyd, dianc * escape.' deq, deqij>. deqo% ; 

deqson. deqid ! 
dayd dywedyd * say.' dweed, davyd, d9ydij>. daydo'S ; 

doydson, dwedson. dauad ! , dayd ! ; dwedux ! , daydux ! 
samyd ' move.' smydij?. smydo'S ; smydson. 
asgud yf<gicyd * shake.* sguuyd, sgadi]?. sgadwo^. 

asgud ! ; sgadux ! 
-b. atab ' answer.' etyb, teeb, tebi]>. tebo^ ; tebson. 

atab ! 

The following ar the iregular verbs : 

bood ' be.' Prez. adu, dwy, du ; uuyt, uut ; adi, di, 
(y)yu (?), niaay, ma, ooys, syy^, sy; adan; adax ; adyn. 
Imperf, 1. oy^un, oon ; oySat ; ooy^, oo'S ; oySan, oySax, 
oy^an. Imperf, 2. ba^un ; baSat ; baSa; ba^an, ba^ax, 
ba''6an. Pret. byom byym; byost; byo, byy; byom; byox; 
byon. Plup, basun, baun, tasun ; basat, baat, tasat ; basa, 
baay, baa, tasa, taay, taa ; basan, baan, tasan, taan ; basax, 
baax, tasax, taax ; basan, baan, tasan, taan. Fut. ba^ai ; 
ba^i ; byy^ ; bii^an, baSun ; ba%ux ; ba^an. 2nd FuL 
bii^o, boo ; ba^ot, boot ; baSo, boo ; ba'8on, boon ; ba'8ox, 
boox(?); bii^on, boon. Imper. byy^!; ba^ad!, booyd!, bid!; 
ba^ux ! Infill, bood. 


The Bhorter and undiphthongic forms ar, of ooorse, the 
unstrest ones. The pluperfects in (t-) seem to be generalv 
nzed hypotheticaly. 

mynd myned * go/ Prez, aav, ai; 9i; 9i]>, eif; aun; 
eux; aan. Imperf. aun, eun, 9y]>un(P) aat; aay ; ey]>an, 
aan(?); oyjjax, 9y]>an. Pret 9i8, ees; 9ist, eest; aa]?; oyj^on, 
eyson ; 9yJ?ox ; oyjjon. Imper. does ! ; eux I , kenix I 

duad, dood di/fod * cum.' Prez. doov, doi ; doi ; dau ; 
doun ; doux, doon. Imperf. doun, doy]>un(?) ; doot ; dooy ; 
doyj^an, doon ; doy]>ax, doox ; doy]?an. Pret. dois, does ; 
doist, d9y])08t ; doo]> ; d9yJ>on ; deyjjox ; doyjjon. Imper. 
tyd ! ; doux ! 

I am doutful about the (9y)s and (oi)8« 

gnQyd gwneud^ gtcneuthur *do.' Prez, gnaay, gnai; gnoi ; 
gnai]? ; gnaun ; gneux ; gnaan. Imperf. gnaun, gnayjjun ; 
gnaat, gn9y>at ; gnaay, gnaa, gn9y>a ; gn9y>an ; gn9y>ax, 
gnayjjan. Pret. gnais ; gnaist ; gnaa]? ; gn9y]>on, gnayson, 
etc. ; gn9y]>ox ; gnayj^on. 2nd fut. gneloi, etc. Imper, 
gnaa ! ; gneux ! Pew«. prez. gnair. Pret. gnaayd, gnaud. 

gubod gwyhod * know.' Prez. gun ; gu^ost, (g)u8t ; 
guuyr ; gu^on, gu^ox, gu^on. Imperf gwy^un, gu^un, 
etc. ; gwy^at ; gwy^a ; gwy^an, gwy^ax, gwy^an. Imper. 
gwyby^ ! ; gwyba^ux ! 

kaayl, kaal cael * get.' Prez. kaav, kaai ; kdi ; kai]) ; 
kaun, keux, kaan. Imperf kaun ; kay)>at ; kaay ; kay]>an, 
koy]?ax, kayj^at. Pret. kevis, kees ; keest ; kavo^, kaa%, 
kaa]? ; kay)?on, cayson, etc. ; kay))ox ; kay]>on. Paw. prez. 
kair. Pret. kaud. 

I hay found it quite irapossibl to determin the imperfects 
of theze verbs with certainty. 

Pronominal Prepozitions. 

ar * on.' arna(i), nai ; amat(i) ; amo(vo) ; ami(hi) ; 
arnoni ; arnax(i), arnox(i) ; arnynhu. 

So also atai * to rae/ iinai * in me,' urthai ' to me,' trostai 
'across me/ truv^ai 'thru me.' 

gan ' with.' gini ; ginti ; ganovo, ginoTO : ganoni ; 
ganoxi ; ganynhu. 


i 'to.' -i mil, -i vii; -i tii; iSovo: -i nli; -i xii; i=5yiihu. 

rhuq' between.' rhuqvi; rhaqBoti; rha<j«ovo: rhaqlSoni; 
rbtiqVoxi ; rhuqxi ; rhiiqHSynhu, 

heb ' without.' hebSai ; heb¥oti ; beb'SoTo ; hebSoni ; 
hebSoxi ; beb%ynbu, bebnhu. 

The fuller forms ar the most frequent 


The following texts hav been very carefuly cbozen from 
the much larger mass cf material I bav colect«d, so as, within 
a small compass, to giv a tolerably varied stock of words, 
frazes, and constructiana in the uneofiaticated speech of 
every-day life in an adequate fonetic notation. I need 
scarcely say that every sentence here givn has been writn 
down directly from the mouths of the peple, and repeatedly 

The transcription into literary Welsh aims merely at 
giving the written fomis of each separate word, the construc- 
tions of the spoken language being left uualterd. Words 
dropt in speech ar added in { ). Words takeii directly from 
English ar in italics. The mutated letters g, rf, 6 ar markt 
by italics, to distinguish them from the radical g, il, /> ; italic 
/ denotes the mutatioti of m, the mutation of h being left 
unmai'kt; the dropping of t/ in the voice- mul-ation is markt 

by ('). 

In order to m^e tie translation as useful as possibl, and 
to giv beginners and outsiders an insight into the mysteries 
of Welsh syntax and morfology, I hav made it a word-ibr- 
word one, as far as poasibl. The rezult is, of course, not 
elegiint, but it is, I hope, iiitelligibl. 

Coloqnial Senteacea. 

Tbcze ar groupt rufly in paragrafs acording to the ideas 
they express — existence, quality, quantity, etc. 

PhU. Trant. 1SS2-3-4. 


1. rbeedir inatar'arnoxi P rbeesyywedi digu'S P dim byyd 
•rhava'?'. losdi gu'SiJjruba)?, sgwenux, :gaaylimigaal gubod. 
:bee syyna P : -ooniin me'Sul boodiin (or moodiin) klauadryu 
duru. -doo'Sna '8im byyd -end gwyntan xu]?yr kooyd. 

2. welsoxi •'Syynan pajjo forma P syt '8yynoy''8axiin 
ve^ul P debigiibee maahi P syt 'wynabsy ganihi P -dadio 
%iman edrax(an) debigi berson neebre ge]>ur. maa-i waa| 
towedi'mynd rait wyn ; -onddoos dim byyd 'aral -wedi newid 
anovota. ryyn stejonadi honag'oySanin kuxuno'honi bora P 
-fasuni %iman naydo, :os*ba8un iianx leexi. xwadal dyyn. 
aku -mi'roo'Sooii gefyl nobl. welisi rotjun bee]>ri ooyd 
rvelmaa pej?awedi newid, xwadal'roySanhu ramsaraay]? 
heibjo. :dadio 'Siman vaxgan kryy, -ka sidro-i vainto. 

3. Taintadaxiin godian rusnosama %uuy ruummaP kamux 
hanar qhakani ! doosgini %im xwanago dee. :maagini 
'Sigoni niioon day. -duywedi byta gormodo ginjo; :duuy'am 
gasgydipin baax. muyan byyd 'gwela-i-o, lian byydduyn 
•likjovo. -maan kiig fr.esniwedi darvodi giid ; doos ganoni 
^imond biif haaltan tyy. oy^axiin -lyyb 'Sooy P dim 

1. What thing is the matter on you P What thing is 
after happening (=ha8 happened) P Nothing in the world 
strange (=remarkabl). If happens anything, write-you, to 
get (=in order that) to me getting knowing. What thing 
is there P : was I thinking being I hearing sum noiz. Not 
was there anything in the world but wind shaking the trees. 

2. Saw you man passing road here ( = thi8 r.) P What 
kind man wer you thinking him P Like to what is she P 
What face is with her (=ha8 she) P Not is he anything looking 
like to parson or preacher. Is his hair after going quite white ; 
but not is-there anything other after changing in-him how- 
ever. The one (=8ame) (railway-) station is this as wer we 
starting from-her (this) morning? Not would-be I anything 
doing it, if wer I in your place of-you. After story man there 


1. (pa) beth ydy w y matter amoch chwi P 6eth sydd wedi 
dygpirydd P dim (yn y) byd rhyfedd. oe dygwydd rywbeth, 
ysgrifenwchy (i) ^ael i mi ^ael gwybod. beth aydd ynaP.: 
oeddwn i yn meddwl bod i yn clywed ryw dwrw. nid oedd 
yna ddim byd ond gwynt yn chwythu yr coed. 

2. (a) welasoch chwi ddyn yn pasio fford yma P (pa) sat 
ddyn oeddech chwi yn ei ^/eddwl P debyg i ieth mae hi P 
sut wyneb sydd ganddi hi P nid ydy w ef ddim yn edrych 
(yn) ^ebyg i hereon neu ^regethwr. (y) mae ei wallt ef wedi 
myned yn right wyn ; ond nid oes dim byd arall wedi newid 
ynddo ef ynte. yr un station ydy w hon ag oeddym ni yn 
cychwyn o honddi boreu P (ni) fuaswn i ddim yn (ei) wneyd 
efy 08 buaswn i yn eich lie chwi. (yn ol) chwedl dyn acw 
mi yr oedd ef yn ^effyl twble. (ni) welais i erioed fashion 
beth erioed fel roae pethau wedi newid, chwedl yr oeddynt 
hwy yr amser aeth heibio. nid ydyw ef ddim yn faohgen 
cryf, ct/sitiro ei /aint ef. 

3. (pa) /aint ydych chwi yn codi yn yr wythnos am y 
, ddwy room yma P cymerwch haner (fy) nghacen il nid oes 

genyf ddim ychwaneg o d^. (y) mae genyf ddigon i ni o ein 
dau. yr ydwyf wedi bwyta gormod o^niaw; (yr) ydwyf am 
^ysgu dlpyn bach, mwyaf yn (y) byd gwelaf fi ef, Ueiaf yn 
byd ydwyf yn ei licio ef. mae ein cig ffrea wedi darfod i 
gyd ; nid oes genyin ni ddim ond beef hallt yn (y) ty. 
oeddych chwi yn wlyb ddoe P dim gwerth. 

(= according to that m.) was he horse fine. Not saw I ever 
fashion thing ever (=saw the like) as ar things after change 
ing, story ( = compared with) wer they the time went past 
(= formerly). Not is he boy strong, considering his size of-him. 
3. What quantity ar you raizing (=what do you charge) 
in the week for the two room here P Take-you half my cake 
of-me ! Not is-there with-me anything mor of tea. Is 
with-me enuf for us of our two (=for us two). I am after 
eating too-much of dinner; am-I for sleeping piece litl. 
Most in (the) world ( = the more) see I him, least in (the) 
world am I liking him. Is our meat fresh after finishing 
together ( = all) ; not is-there with us anything but beef salt 
in (the) house. Wer you wet yesterday (=did you get w.) P 
Nothing worth (mentioning). 


4. -maan bravjaxi'vjmdi sgotaana noos'heYokum poininag 
-ar beni hyyn. -may lauaroba sgotursan (or sgotwyran) likjo 
bood urthyni hjman. :rhyu huuyli nigol jaunadir sgotaroa. 
waay]>*giiii*hevo hany; irait hauSginigaayl ru-yni ^uadhe- 
vomi, 08*ba%aian dewis . 

6. -byy'Soanpre ge]>y booban aildyyfS) syyL troo puuy 
:adihi ruan P -a kanta'iir felin gai]> faly. -ar xoolxi, 
sgweluxan %a ! 

6. pryydneuxi sgweny P -kyn gantadak medrai. :va^ai 
noolgidar noos. -baSunwedi gorfan bytan kinjo rerbyn 
rba^uxwedi'duad nool. vainto amsar gami]>i raii ^^asgykam 
raayg? -ruuyn disgula ba^aiaa lyndan ramsarma drany'S. 
xeesi 'Sim kiminto wookers deeq mlanaS. -adi sgidja-iwedi 
trujjo P rva'Sanhu %iman barodam usnosato. glau-isiir 
babian krio. pryyd P d3est ruan. -mayo'wedi stopjcruan. 
gwai]> saul d(j)urnod8y ganoxi ate P tridja. rhaidi'Dii 
fynd ano rhag blaayn. -a kubulvj^omian arosa qhamryoo^ 
pedwar mils, beedir amsar P -maayn 'Say^agoor gloox. 
-duuy %iman me'^ulibood atoan hanar aurwedi xweez. 
-maayn xwartari uuy]>. -dooni 'Siman me'SuHbood moor 
ganar. -radaxi %uuy aur rhyy huuyr. -kamai deemeun trii 

4. Is better to go to fish in the night with company than 
on his bed of himself (=by oneself). Is many of fishers 
liking being with themselvs (=alone). Sum amuzement 
solitary very is the fishing here (=this fishing). Not wur80 
with-me with that (=1 do not mind that) ; very eazy with- 
me getting sumone to cum with me, if shal-be I choozing. 

5. Is he preaching every second Sunday. Turn who ( =of 
whom) is she (=it) nowP The first to the mil gets grind* 
ing. On your track of-you, if see-you wel (= after yon 
pleaz) ! 

6. What time make-you writing (wil you write) P Ae 
soon as can I. Shal-be I back with the night. We-shal-be 
after finishing eating our dinner against you-shal-be after 
cuming back. What quantity of time will-take to me leming 


4, mae yn hrafiach i fyned i frysgota yn y nos hefo ewmpeini 
nag ar (ei) ten ei bun. mae Ilawer o frysgotwyr yn lido bod 
wrtbynt eu bunain. rbyw bwyl unigol iawn ydyw yr 
pysgota yma. (ni) waeth genyf hefo byny ; right bawdd 
genyf ^ael rywun i ddyfod befo mi, os byddaf fi yn dewis* 

6. bydd ef yn pregetbu bob yn ail dydd suL tro pwy 
ydyw bi ynawr P y cyntaf i*r ./felin ^iff /Hvl ar eicb ol 
cbwi, 08 gwelwch yn dda ! 

6. pa Aryd wneweb chwi ysgrifena P cyn ^nied ag 
medraf fi. fyddaf fi yn ol gyda 'r nos. byddwn wedi 
gorpben bwyta ein ciniaw erbyn byddwcb wedi dyfod yn ol. 
(pa) /ttint o amser ^raer i mi ddysgu cymraeg P yr wyf yn 
iy^g^J^ y byddaf fi yn llundain yr amser yma rfrenydi 
(ni) cbefais i ddim gymaint o walk er ys deng mlynedd* 
ydyw esgidiau i wedi trwsio P (ni) fyddant bwy ddim yn 
iarod am wytbnos eto. ^y wais i yr babjf yn cHo. pa Jryd P 
fust ynawr. mae ef wedi stopio ynawr. gwaitb sawl diwmod 
sydd genycb chwi eto P tridiau. rbaid i ni fjned yno rbag 
blaen. y cwbl fum i yn aros yn Nghymry oedd pedwar mis. 
Jeth ydyw yr amser P mae yn ddeuddeg o'r ^locb. nid 
yd wyf ddim yn meddwl ei bod eto yn baner awr wedi 
cbwech. mae yn chwarter i wytb. nid oeddwn i ddim yn 
meddwl ei bod raor ^ynar. yr ydycb cbwi ddwy awr rby 
hwyr. cynieraf fi d^ mewn tri chwarter awr. mae fy watch 

Welsh ? I am expecting shal-be I in London the time here 
the-day-after- tomorrow. Not got I anything so-much of 
walk siiise ten year (=1 hav not bad such a long walk for 
ten years). Is shoes mine after mending P Not wil-be they 
at-all redy for week yet. Herd I the baby crying. What 
time ? Just now. Is he after stopping now. Work bow 
many dny is with you yet ? Three-days. Need to us going 
there at onse. The hole was I staying in Wales was four 
month. What thing is the time P Is twelve of the clock. 
Not am-I anything thinking her being yet half hour after 
six. Is quarter to eight. Not was I anything thinking her 
being so erly. Ar you two hour too late. Take-wil I tea in 
three quarter hour. Is my wach of-me after stopping: 
tinisht I forgetting (=1 forgot) winding her. Is the. clock 


xwartar aar. -maa watsi'wedi stopjo ; r^aryfi. aq hoirjo 
"irindjobi. -maar kick dipinan sloo. paa %yy%*oor miisadihiP 
rail:aar baiD]>ag'adibi. pryydradaxiin disgulnhu P :iiieun 
iisnos neeba ]>eyiio8 van be}a. keruxi'nara deeg ; -va^aian 
Juurox dalxian vyan. 

7. -adiowedi setlio boodnii-i'vynd ano P adi, -kyn bela- 
dagma'nelo *viiaar peej>. -vaSai by]>aii bryjjo'ryu lauar, os 
galai *belpy bany. 

8. lee maay-o P rulatyasiir ^inbax, -duayn inc^ul ; -i 
vano raa]>obee]> banag, :arool gadal'bee% gelart. puu barto 
gamryradaxiin duadP -oo'siir gnarvon. blee anoP -o beeS 
gelart. ano g8y]>oxiix geniP ia. neuxi adal d3oii %uad 
hevoniP naanai. pamP -nai dijjovo vyndi negasimiigidar 
noos. for auni ganta-i port raadog P aunihyda for. gerSis 
boob kamilan beris, -ond gees qharjo hanar forur]> %uad(a) 
nool'. paidjuxa xer(*)ad moor Jarp ; vedrai moox 'kanlynxi. 
plee belavyoxiini %anvono P dat rasgol. euxaar lestri teeo% 
ar bur ; -maanhuaar fori. -maana'vrus diladan loft ; 
douxag'oo-i laur. kolisa treen nau. rbouxa kavruyara 
kefyl ! -au ena kravjonadi rhain. rbouxa kefylana drol ! 
-niaar kuuxan golun duur ; welini spadyo. -maar rbuy vaan 
dramjon jaun. 

piece (rather) slow. What day of the month is she P The 
second on fifteen (=17th) is she. What time ar you expect- 
ing them P In week or fortnight place furthest. Walk- 
you slow fine (= slowly) ; shal-be I sure of your caching of- 
you soon. 

7. Is after settling being us to go there ? Is, as far as do 
I with the thing. Am I never hurrying sum much, if can I 
help that. 

8. In what place is heP Sum-place towards Shire Denbigh, 
am I thinking; to place there went he anyhow, after leaving 
Beddgelert. What part of Wales ar you cuming P From 
Shire Carnarvon. From what place there ? From Bedd- 
gelert. There got you your being-born P Yes. Make 


i wedi stopio; ddarfu fi angho6o wiarlio hi. mae yr clock 
difin yn iiow, pa ddydd o'r inis ydyw hi P yr ail-ar^ 
iymtheg ydi hi, pa iryd yr ydych chwi yo eu dyegwyl 
hwyP me<ivii wythnos iieu Jytliefaos /an ftellaf. cerddwch 
chwi yn araf rfeg ; fyddaf fi yn sure o eich dal chwi yii fuan. 

7. ydyw ef wedi selfo bod ni i /yned yno ? ydyw, cyn 
ielled 8g mae (a) wnelwyf fi aV peth. fyddaf fi byth yn 
brysio ryw lawer, os gallaf fi he/pii hyny. 

8. yn mbtt le mae ef j* rywle tua «i> Ddinbych, ydwyf yn 
meddwl; i/an yno yr aelh ef fiethbynag, ar ol gadael fiedd- 
gelert. pwy harl o <?yniry yr ydych chwi yn dyfod ? o sir 
Oaemarfon. (o}6a le ynor' o lieddgelert. {ai} yno ^awsoch 
chwi eioh geni ? ie. wnewch chwi 'adael (i) John ddyfod 
hefo mi ? na wnaf fi, paham ? ai'uaf fi eisieu efe /yned i 
neges i mi gyda'r nos. (pu) fFordd awn ni ^yntaf i Port 
Uadoc ? awn ni hyd y ifordd. .i/erddaia tob cam i Lanberia, 
ond pefaia (fy) nghario haner tfordd with ddyfod yn ol, 
peidiwch a cherdded mor n/iarp; /edrat fi mo eich canlya 
chwi. pa le Jellaf fuoch chwi yn ei ddanfon ef P hyd at yr 
yagol. ewch a'r lleatri fe oddiar y bwidd ; maent hwy ar 
(fy) flbrdd i. mae yna fncs dillad yn (y) lloft ; dowch ag ef 
ilawr. collais y trfiin naw. rhoddwch y cyfrwy ar y cetiyi I 
awfcnau crj'fion ydyw (j) rhai hyn. rhoddwch y cefiyl yn y 
rfrol ! mae yr cwch yn gollwng dwfr ; (y mae yn) well i ui 
yapydu ef. mae yr rhwvfau yn rfrymion iawn, 

(=:wil) you let to John cum with me P Not make I. What 
cauzP On me want him going to errand for me with the 
night (=tou.}. What road go we firat (=which is the direct 
way) to Port Madoc? Go-we along the road. I-walkt every 
step to Llanberia, but got my carrying half road at cuming 
back. Abalaiuwithwalkiiigso vigorously; can I not you follow 
you. What place furlhest wer you conveying (=;acom- 
panying) him P Until the Bcool. Go with (=take) the 
vessels tea from on the liible : ar they on ray road. Is there 
bruah clothes in the loft ( = up stairs): cum with him to-floor 
(bring it down). I-lost the train nine. Put the saddl on the 
horse! Reins strong ar the sum theze. Put the horse in 
the cart ! Is the boat letting water : is better to us haling 
him. Is the oara h'evy very. 


9. -wedi blinoar qlinja'vel hyn ; wel'gini'gaayl sevyVdipin 
baax. istuxi laur nagosiir taan ! -neuxi gara^a mur))ulna 
-syyara silf ur]>ax penxi P 

10. kloiuxa druus -a rhouxa gorjadanx pokad I lapjuxa 
^ay bapyr newy^^ ma-ani gily^S, -a dorux stamp dima arnovo. 
-maa yynoma tama-iwedi ko}i ; -nai oi/jo kaayli nmovo, 
welixi roix top koot am danox. -mior ve^ai aar sofa heb 
dany nilad. 

11. -va'Sai byj?an molxi'meun duur pooy)>. -mKary miia 
ritjard laxy datn kruuyn. :doro prenaar taan, os oij^an isal. 
-maar taan desta difod ; raidimi roi pe)>a amoYO, kyn i^ovo 
noyd. -va^uxin smokjo ? ooys ganoxi vatjys P doos gini 
^imond yyn mat/an. nai]>hi%im gola; -maayhiwedi tampio. 

12. rhava% jaunadihi -bood glasan kodi, -aar tauy% beb 
wela dim. -nai ovna burij^hi. -maayn braav. -maar haylaa 
duad alan. doux aku vory-i gaaylku panad ; douxsyt banag 
byy^hi, gltceux nee him%a. -mivasunan likjo-i xiivood 
amaana gaya, :gaalixigaal golugaar rheenva ua^o^amaan 
wynjoDgan eira, -a rheeu kalad drosa jana. 

13. -radu iiwedi kaayl ranud. beedir'peej? gora at vano^P 
rinig bee])noi]) mendjo-i -adi newid raayr. -maax taadan 

9. I am after tiring on my knees like this; better with 
me (=1 would rather) getting standing piece littl. Sit 
down near to the fire ! Make (wil) you reach the hammer 
there is on the shelf at your bed P 

10. Lock the door, and put the key in your pocket ! 
"Wrap the two paper news here in themselvs, and put stamp 
halfpenny on him. Is one of my buttons after lozing (=ha8 
been lost) ; on-me want getting his sewing. Better to you 
put your topcoat around you. Will-lie I on the sofa without 
pulling (=taking off) my clothes. 

11. Am I never washing in water hot. Finisht to me and 
Richard getting- wet (=we got wet) until our skins. Put 
wood on the fire, if goes low. Is the fire just with .going- 
put ; need to me putting things on him, befor to him doing. 


9. (yr ydwyf) wedi blino ar (fy) ngliniau fel hyn ; well 
genyf ^ael sefyll dipiu bach, eisteddwoh ilawr yn agos i'r 
tan ! wnewch chwi ^yrhaedd y morthwyl yna sydd ar y silff 
wrth eich pen chwi ? 

10. cloiwch y drws, a rhoddwch yr agoriad yn eich pocket 1 
lapiwch y ddau hapur newydd yma yn eu gilydd, a dorwch 
ystamp dimai arno ef. y mae un o raf/tymau i wedi colli ; 
arnaf fi eisieu cael ei wnio ef. well i chwi roddi eich topcoat 
am danoch. mi 'orweddaf fi ar y sofa heb e/ynu nillad. 

11. fyddaf fi byth yn ymolchi mewn dwfr poeth. mi 
ddarfu (i) mi a Richard wlychu hyd at ein crwyn. dyro 
iren ar y tan, os eiff yn isel. mae yr tan just a diffodd ; 
raid i mi roddi pethau arno ef, cyn iddo ef wneyd. fyddwch 
chwi yn nmocio ? oes genych chwi iatches ? nid oes genyf 
ddim ond un niatchen, (ni) wnaiff hi ddim goleuo ; mae hi 
wedi tampio, 

12. rhyfedd iawn ydyw hi, bod (y) gl^sa yn codi, a'r 
tywydd heb wella dim. arnaf fi ofn y bwrw hi. mae yn 
braf. mae yr haul yn dyfod allan. dowch acw yfory i yael 
C2rj!>anaid ; dowch sut iynag bydd hi, gwlaw neu hindda. 
mi fuaswn iicio i chwi fod yma yn y gauaf, (i) ^ael i chwi 
<7ael golwg ar yr hen /ynyddoedd yma yn wynion gan eira, a 
rhew caled dros y llynau. 

13. yr ydwyf wedi cael yr anwyd. Jeth ydyw yr peth 
goreu at ddannodd ? yr unig Jeth wna metulw i ydyw newid 

Ar you smoking (=do you s.)? Ar-there with you machesP 
Not is- there with-me anything but one mach. Not makes 
she anything lighting (=it will not light) ; is she after 

12. Strange very is she (=it), being the glass rizing, and 
the wether without improving anything. On me fear wil- 
rain she. . It-is fine. Is the sun cuming out. Gum here 
tomorrow to get cupful (=cup of tea) ; cum what quality 
ever is she, rain or wether-fine. I- would-be liking to you 
being here in the winter, to get to you get looking on the old 
mountains here white with snow, and frost hard over the 

13. I am after getting the cold (=1 have caught c). 
What thing is thing best to toothake? The only thing 


edraxan 'Saa jaun. -maayoan myndan waayj> waayj>. coys 
arnoxi eijjo kasgy ? dooysamai ^im eijjo .buuyd. bee 
gauni-i ginjo h9i%ju P neuxi dori dipino vara menyni mii, 
sgweluxan ^aa. neuxi ^im arosigaaylku panado dee'hevomiP 
-mi glauis ogla gwair truur fenast. welisi monoxiana kapal 
hei^ju. -mi ^arymi vi/jo fendjoxi nynja. xlauisi monihian 
duadi meun. 

14. vel daryxi naxryni ! -maayoan rhava'8 jaun eijjo 
gweld bee'syyn parsal. gwelganovo xiina neeb aral. pryyn 
-adaxiin likjo era, viianta mraud P -adioan fondo vagyn P 
tldi ; maayoan goblin am smokjo. -maayn edraxvel tasa-i am 
vuru. ^ruug jaungini glauad. -dadynhu by))an kwarvod 
heb fryo. byti garuoo'Si ouan golir samon, -panoo^owedi-i 

15. os'basuniin gubod pryyd'roy^axiin duad, -basunan 
edrax-am danoxi panoo^ gooytsan pajjo. duni Sim pryynadi 
watsian jaunai paid jo. vedridi 'novjo ? Siman Saajaun. 
vedri 'dii novjo ? :oo medra. ruanduyan kovjo moodi'wedi 

16. pamna tebux rpanvyyS ru-ynan Jara4urJ>axi P -mi 
glauisax maman doydi'voodoan saal. welisi rotjun bee])ri 

wil-make mending me is changing the air. Is your father 
looking wel very. Is he going wurse wurse (zzgetting w. 
and w.). Is-there on you want sleeping P Not is-there on 
me anything want food. What thing shal-get we to dinner 
today P Make ( = wil) you cut piece of bred butter to me, if 
see-you wel (=if you pieaz). Make you not stay to get 
cupful of tea with me P Herd-I (=perceivd) smel hay thru 
the window. Saw I nothing of you in the chapel today. 
Finisht to me missing finding you in one place (=1 coud not 
find you anywhere). Herd I nothing of her cuming within. 
14. How finisht you frightening me (=h. y. did startl 
me) ! Is he wundrously very want seeing what is in the paroeU 
lietter with him (=he likes better) you than anyone other. 
Which the one ar you liking best, me or my brother P Is 


yr air. mae eich tad yn edrych yn dda iawn. mae ef yn 
myned yn waeth waeth. oes arnoch chwi eisieu cysgu ? 
nid oes arnaf fi ddim eisieu bwyd. heih ^awn ni i ^iniaw 
heddyw ? wnewch chwi ^ori e/ipyn o fara ymenyn i mi, os 
gwelwch yn dda. wnewch chwi ddim arcs i ^ael c//7?anaid o 
Ae hefo mi? mi ^lywais arogi gwair trwy'r flTenestr. (ni) 
welais i rao honoch chwi yn y capel heddyw. mi ddarfu(i) 
mi iisiojfendio chwi yn unlle. (ni) chlywais i mo honi hi yn 
dyfod imewn. 

14. fel darfu chwi wychryn i ! mae ef yn rhyfedd iawn 
eisieu gweled 6eth sydd yn (y) parcel, gwell ganddo ef chwi 
na neb arall. pa yr un ydych chwi yn licio 'oreu, myfi ynte 
mrawd ? ydy w ef yn fond o fygyxi ? ydyw ; mae ef yn 
goblin am smocio. mae yn edrych fel pe buasai hi am fwrw. 
(y mae yn) ddrwg iawn genyf f/ly wed. nid ydynt hwy byth 
yn cyfarfod heb ffraeo, hity garw oedd i Owain goWi yr 
salmon, pan oedd ef wedi ei fachu ef. 

15. OS buaswn i yn gwybod pa ftryd yr oeddych chwi yn 
dyfod, buaswn yn edrych am danoch chwi pan oedd (y) goach 
yn pnsio, nid wn i ddim pa yr un ydyw fy tcatch yn iawn ai 
peidio. /edri di noKo ? ddim yn dda iawn. /edri di nofio ? 
o, medraf. ynawr ydwyf yn cofio wod i wedi ei weled ef. 

16. piiham na atebvvch pan fydd rywun yn siarad wrthych 
chwi? mi </lywais eich mam yn dyweyd ei fod ef yn sal 

he fond of smoke ? He-is ; is he goblin about smoking. Is 
looking as if wer she about raining. Is bad very with me 
hearing ( = 1 am sorry to hear it). Not ar they ever meeting 
without quarreling. Pity ruf was to Owen lozing the salmon, 
when was he after his hooking of-him ! 

15. Jf wer I knowing what time wer you cuming, I-had- 
been looking about you when was the coach passing. Not 
know I anything what the one is my wach right or abstain- 
ing (rrr whether my w. is r. or not). Canst thou swim ? Not 
wel very. Canst thou swim P 0, I-can. Now I-am 
reniombcring my being after his seeing (=that I hav seen 

10. Why not you-answer when is sumone speaking to 
you ? I herd your mother saying his being il. Not saw I 


Doyd, -velmaay paubwedimyndi b!l8Jo-igily%. danaadi gwai]> 
rfadi, -adi taulyryu snaipsat hunar la}, -a xarjo strdyono 
i^U dyy ill* W* -maay hynaan %igono vrekwast'ganynhu. 
-mi glau-isda banasdiana fair, -vela me^wisti, -a lauaro 
bej>a druug. -neuxi Saydur))a-i, -osba^aiaa me)>yur]^ Jarad ! 
paidjuxa Jarad moor vyan : dalai moox daaltxi. :oos 
giiuoxila ])ara-i vyndiir poost ? ooys ; :dama nbu. 

17. .-raidini w8i)>joan galad, :traa byy'Sbian dauyS braav. 
kletan byyd w8i)>juui ruan, kantan byydvyy^hi droso^. 
-vasan'bee)? daa, -peebasa pauban edrax arooli vysnasi 
hynau, -a faidjo medljohevo bysnas pobol eril. ulux vel'maa 
naku myndiir avon drosi sgidja! yyn "kej^inadio. waayj> 
deydur)) garaga )>ulanibi muuyna deydur))ovo am bdidjo. 
-maar hogynnaan gandyn jauno neyd beemaa-i vamoan 
gaijjoganovo. nai)? ruba)>ii bobol erilmeu mynyd. rhesum 
•daa pam. xaij^o 'Sim kainjoggini vam ; -ak vala k9i]>o 
gainjojggin rhainy -nee glapo Jugur gwyn ; -ak velmaay 
paubau gubod, -maay plan tan fond jawno Jugur. 

18. branis baaro egidja-iir ena)) aku. rbeeoo^i briiso ? 
dveijjux. xwee suit. am xwee xaiujogan yux keesi-o ; 
-roySanhuan govyn sai]? suit am danovo. vaintadir menig(a)- 

ever fusbiou what ever, how is everyone after going to-giv- 
pils-to (=chaf ) each other. There is occupation sum ( =of sum 
peple), is throwing sum cuts at this-one and the other, and 
carrying stories from one house to the other. Is that enuf 
of brekfast with ( = for) them. I herd thy history in the 
fair, how gottest-drunk tliou, and many of things bad. 
Make you tel to me, if shuU-be I failing (make mistakes) at 
speaking ! Abstain with speaking so quick : not can I an}'- 
thing you understand. Is- there with you letters to go to the 
post ? There is ; here they. 

17. Need to us working hard, whilst wil-be she wether fine. 
Hardest in world (=the harder) work w^e now, soonest in world 
wil-be she over. Would-be thing good, if would-be every- 
one looking after his buziness of-himself, and abstain meddl- 


(ni) welaia i erioed faihion fcelh erioed, fel mae pawb wedi 
myned i hi'/gro en gilydd. dyna ydyw gwailh rhai, ydyw 
toflu ryw utiipft at hwii a'r Hall, a chin'o ifreaon o naill t/y i'r 
Halt, mite liyiiy ya ddigon o freakfmt ganddynt hwy, mi 
(7lywaia dy banes di yn y ,/faiV, fel y meddwaist li, a llawcr O 
fiethau drwg. wuowch chwi ddyweyd wrthyf fi, oa byddaf 
fi yn metliu with siarad ! peidiwcli a siarad mor fiian : nid 
allaf fi mo eich deall chwi. oes genych chwi lythyniu i 
fjned i'r /lOK^? oes; dyma hwy, 

17. raid i ni weitliio yn paled, tra bydd hi yn rfywydd 
braf. caletftf yn byd weithiwn ni ynawr, cyntaf yn byd fydd 
hi rfrosodd. fiiasai yn teth da, pe buaaai pawb yn edrych ar 
ol i/uiiness ei hun, a pheidio medlio hefo businrg» pobol ereill. 
welwcb fel mae hwn acw myned i'r afon tfroa ei esgidiail ! 
Tin cetbin ydyw o. (ni) waeth dyweyd wrlh pareg a thwU 
ynddi bi mwy na dyweyd wrlho of am ieidio. mae yr bogyij 
yna yn i/yndyu iawn o wneyd fiotb mae ei /am ef yn (ei) 
^feisio ganddo ef. wna rywbetb i 6obI ereiil mewn minute, 
rhc-vnn da pahara. cbuiff ef ddim ceiniog gan ei^m ; ac fe 
allai caiff ef peiniog gan (y) rhai hyny neu g/«p o sugar 
gwyn ; ac fel mae pawb yn gwybod, mae plant yn fond iawu 
o utigar. 

18, firynais bnr o esgidiau i'r 'eneth acw. beth oedd ei 
bri's ef? ilyfekiicch. cbwe BwUt. am cbwe cheiniog yn 
uwch cefaia i ef ; yr oeddynt bwy yn gofyn saitb swlIl am 

ing with buziness peple other. See bow is tbis-one there going 
into the river over his boots ! One ugly (=a bad nn) is be. 
Not wurse saying to stone and (=wilh) bole in her mor than 
Baying to him about abstaining. la the boy there obstinate 
very of doing what is his mother requesting with him. 
Wil-do Bumthing to (=for) peple other within minute. 
Keazon good what-canz (=why). Gets he not penny with 
(=:from) bis mother; but it can ( = perhaps) gets be penny 
with the sum tboze (—them) or lump sugar whit«; and as is 
everyone knowing, is children fond very of sugar. 

IK, I-bogbtpairof boots to the girl there (=^ for my daughter 
at home). What was his price P Gess. Six shilling. For 
six penny higher got I him ; wer they asking seven shilling 
for him. AVIiut quantity ar the gloves theze costing? Three 


inaan kostjo P trii sulta duya diraa. os kamuxi %ay $usin, 
keuxnhuan laio root, daraar arjan ; -adynfauaQ jaun P ool 
rait, vedruxi newid hanar sovran hevomiP; doosgini ^iiu 
arjan gwynjon hevomi ruan. naa'vedrav. 

19. -08 ooysarnoxi eijjoruba)?, dimond deyd. -adi ruuniian 
barodP; -nai oijjo myndi qwely. -nai ovnbood qwely heb 

20. :bora daa ! :pnaun dtia! syt radaxi heKju P rait 
•^aa )>aqkju; -ada 'xiinoo leeu hoi'SjuP byyr •'8aa, ])ankju. 
douxi edrax am danoni ynryu adag likjuxi. -mi %oov, 
-nos daux I 

Dialogs and Descriptions. 

21. iradaniinkaayl tau-y^ "braav ruan. adan: tau-y'S daa 
jaun, ondboodhiwedimynda mhelaar vluy'Syn kyni gaaylo: 
-dadir hanasyyn vyu ^imwedi gweld tauy'S debig. -byy'S 
kooydma-an buru-i dail ninjon deeg : -maa'ryu xadigo %aila 
kooyd bedu wedi 6ar))jo-an barod. 

22. pryydadaxi am ^exrahevor gwair leni P wel Sexrun 
mhenryu usnos ato. -maar knayaan gorvodboodan 'he\ 
leni, axosdoo^ gwair ^iraan tavy tanan^i we^ar. -maahiia 
tavyan 'jaun ruan. -maanhuwedi dexra arnovo ers ty-apa 
))evnosi laurna, -ond xadig jaunmaanbuwedigaayli meun 

shilling and two {/em.) and halfpenny. If take you two 
duzn, you-wil-get them less of fourpense. Here the silver 
(=muuey); ar they right? All right. Can you change half 
sovrein with me ? ; not is there with me anything muney 
white (= silver) with me now. Not I-ean. 

19. If there-is on you want anything, nothing but saying 
(=:only say so). Is my room of-me redyp; on me want 
going to my bed. On me fear being my bed without making yet. 

20. Morning good I Evening good! What quality ar 
you today P Right wel, thank you ; ar you rather lively to- 
day P Tolerably wel, thank you. Cum to see about us any 
time like you. I-wil-cum. Night good to you ! 



dano ef. /aint ydyw yr menyg yma jrn castiof tri swUt a 
dwy a dimai. os cymerwch ohwi ddau ddozen^ oewoh hwy 
yn llai o Wot dyma' r arian ; ydynt hwy yn iawn P all 
right, /edrwch chwi newid haner sovereign hefo mi P ; nid 
oes genyf ddim arian gwynion hefo mi jmawr. na Jedrat. 

19. 03 oes arnoch chwi eisieu rywbeth, dim ond dyweyd, 
ydyw room i yn iarod P ; amaf fi eisieu myned i (fy) ngwely. 
amaf fi ofn bod ngwely heb wneyd eto. 

20. boreu da I prydnawn da ! (pa) sat yr ydyoh ohwi 
heddy w ? right dda, thank you ; ydyoh chwi yn *o 'lew 
heddy w P &ur dda, fhaiik you. dowch i edrybh am danom 
ni unry w adeg liciwcA ohwi. mi ddofl nos da i chwi ! 

21. yr ydym ni yn cael tywydd brqf ynawr. ydym : 
tywydd da iawn, ond bod hi wedi myned yn mhell ar y 
flwyddyn cyn ei ^ael ef : nid ydyw yr hynaf sydd yn fyw 
ddim wedi gweled tywydd dehig. bydd (y) coed yma yn 
bwrw eu dail yn union rfeg : (y) mae ry w ychydig o ddail y 
coed bedw wedi syrthio yn darod. 

22. pa ^ryd ydych chwi am ddechreu hefo *r gwair eleni P 
tceii, ddechreu wn yn mhen ryw wythnos eto. (y) mae y 
cynauaf yn gorfod bod yn bell eleni, achos nid oedd y gwair 
ddim yn tyfu tan yn ddiweddar. mae hi yn tyfu yn iawn 
ynawr. (y) maent hwy wedi dechreu arno ef er ys tua 

21. Ar we getting wether fine now. We-ar : wether fine 
very, except being her after going far on the year before his 
getting (=except that we ar late in getting it) : not is the 
oldest is alive anything after seeing wether similar. Wil-be 
the trees here casting their leavs at onse : is sum few of leavs 
the trees birch after falling alredy. 

22. What time ar you about beginning with the hay this- 
year ? Wei, we-shal-begin in hed sum week yet (=in 
about a w.). Is the harvest being-obliged to-be far (=late) 
this-year, cauz not was the hay anything growing wel until 
lately. Is she growing wel now. Ar they after beginning 
on him siuse towards (=about) fortnight down there, but liU 


iito. -duyiin me'lSiiIma huna bunadir tnuya ar oolfaevor 
gwairi vaiiyma. sanuDJ ronyn :-raa famtoEn vaur iaun. 
damar Tarmwyr muy-awedi dexra aar yydan barod, -akwedi 
kaayl jau-aro hunui nieun. -ak o8 dail xadig ato, -byylS 
knsya-i giid droso^ am leai. ran hany dooB dim rhava% 
-bood tern par moor 'Saa amynhu. 

23. syt fair iiaa)>hi hai^juP fair^aajaun; mynd jaanar 
warjiag, bee'Saryxi brany hai^ju ? branis uuyjiorai beapjon, 
-a duuy vyux. -adu ioaan nie^ul ama fair neaa, -akan me^iil 
gwer)>yryu lotavyginii, OB kaa-i briisgo 'Sua am danynbu. 
-raa honoan byr vyan ato. paa ^yySoor miia raaahi, daydux? 
railar bamjiag. kojaoxi naruiia vasuxiwedi duadanhu bsifiju, 
-doo^ dim posib : -ooniia rhyy brasyrhevor gwair, -s bi^a- 
wedi gnoyd durnod moor braav, -axiti ina dipino wai)>, 
fiytoo^ 'mooxan gwer]<y hai^ju P xiidig jauno ovynoo'S 
arnyiibu. vainta puuyaadynhu ruan ari traayd ? -ryu 
roota farliqnee roota dima, waijija boob ayt. welis yynaB 
kaayl groota "Jiair farliq baiBju. 

24. -maar dyySiinba rbny naru ruan. adi; maay-o : -maa 
-biiin dexra nosi tya saij) ; tok iaun belaxraivyy^ noos 
kyyiluar dyy15. -byj-^iiin amear ^igon an ivir ; -ond welgin 
lauariSi voodvcly. -maan amsar bejax troir byxod iir 

very nr tbey after his getting in yet. Am I thinking that 
this and this (=bo and so) is the most behind with hay up 
here. Not would-be-surprized I grain (=:at all): is his tiirm 
big very. Here farmers biggest utter beginning on the eora 
alrody, and after getting much of him in. And if [the 
wether] holds litl stil, wil-be harvest together (=all) over fop 
this-year. Share of-that ( = 8o) not is-there any wnnder 
being temper so good on them. 

2'j. What-qualily fair made she to dayP Fair good very; 
going mueh on call, Wliat finisht to you buying today f 
1-boght eiglit of sum dry, and two cow. Am I thinking 
about the liiir next, and thinking selling sum lot i« with-ne^ 
if get I price rather good for them. Is afae rather aoun 

aoun yet ] 


pythefaos ilawr yna, ond yohydig iawn maent hwy wedi (ei) 
^ael imewQ eto. (yr) ydwyf fi yn meddwl nud hwn a hwn 
ydy w y mwyaf ar ol hefo *r gwair ilyny yma. (ni) synwn i 
'ronyn : (y) mae fferm ef yn ^wr lawn, dyma ffemvwjx 
mwyaf wedi dechreu ar yr yd yn iarod, ac wedi oael llaww 
o hwnw imewn. ac os deil ychydig eto, bydd cynanaf igyd 
drosodd am eleni. ran hyny nid oes dim rhyfedd bod temper 
mor dda amynt hwy. 

23. sut J^air wnaeth hi heddyw P ffiiir dda iawn ; myned 
iawn ar wartheg. (pa) beth. ddarfu i chwi iryna heddyw P 
irynais wyth o rai heepion, a dwy fuwclL (yr) ydwyf ina 
yn meddwl am y ffair nesaf, aq yn meddwl gwerthn rjrw M 
sydd genyf , os caf fi hris go dda am danynt hwy. (y) mae 
hono yn bur fuan eto. pa ddydd o^r mis mae hi, dywedwohP 
yr ail-ar-6ymtheg. collasoch chwi yn 'arw na foasech wedi 
dyfod a hwy heddyw. nid oedd ddim hoseibk : oeddwn i yn 
rhy irysur hefo 'r gwair, a hithau wedi gwneyd diwmod mor 
brqf, a chan innau ^ipin o waith. sat oedd mooh yn gwerthu 
heddyw ? ychydig iawn o *olyn oedd arnynt hwy. (pa) 
/aint y pwys ydynt hwy ynawr ar eu traed P ry w *roai a . 
ffyrling neu Woat a dimai, weithiau 6ob sut. welais un yn 
cael groat a thair ffyrling heddyw. 

24. mae y dydd yn byrhau yn 'arw ynawr. ydyw ; (y) 
mae ef : (y) mae hi yn dechreu nosi tua saith ; too iawn 
iellach mi fydd nos cyd a'r dydd. bydd yn amser ddigon 
annifyr ; ond well gan lawer iddi fod felly, (y) mae jrn 

(=:now). What day of the month is she (=:the fair), say- 
you ! The second on fifteen. Lost you mfly (=:greatly) 
that-not wer-you after cuming with (=bring) them today. 
Not was anything possibl : was I too buzy with the hay, and 
she after making day so fine, and with me (=1 had) piece 
of work. What quality was pigs selling today P Litl very 
of asking was on them. What the pound ar they now on 
their feet P Sum fourpense (= about f.) and farthing or four- 
pense and halfpenny, times each how (sumtimes the one, s. the 
other). I-saw one getting fourpense and three farthing today. 
24. Is the day shortning rufly now. He-is; is he: is she 
beginning being-night towards seven ; soon very further 
(=:now) wil-be night equal with the day. Wil-be time ennf 

Fhil. Trans. lS8a.84. 32 



adlo^ ; -maar borvawedila mhay, -akmaanhuan myndar 
xadigo laay)). 

25. ooysamoxi ^ira oijjo kii devaid P -maayma ormodo 
honynhu. -mi vyy^ tpal kuuna qhapal kerig usnosi 'Sooy. 
-maa day-o guun oor nantmaan mynd ano. -mi gdi]>a gora 
lauaro wobr. 

26. -maa bee% gelartan lee da jauni sgota, ond kaayl 
taklapur pasol at hany. -byy^ sesnbri ))iljadan dexra-o 
vlaayn sesn samon. panbyy% 'samonsan dexra duadiir avon, 
-byy'S muuy-o sgota-ani hiinagiina lana, -abyyS sport jauni 
gaayl ambali 'Surnod. yyn djynan sgota yyn bora ar lan'Uyn 
dinas arooli%i livo noson gynt, -ag anta ano ar dorjada dyy% 
erbyn ty-a deegoor gloox bora ; -roo'S ganovo 'bedwaro 
saraons, boob yyn ty-a ))rii fuuysar 'Seeg. danar sport ora 
gavud leni ato ati gily'S. -maan govyn kaayl takla kravjon 
jauni drio dalnhu-an yynoor lana. -dadi %iman drast 
sgota heban ganta gaayl gen war samon, -a xan }aa))o lain 
ur))a riil, -ganpan vyy^'S yyngo vaurwedi baxy, -maan Juuro 
vyndago 'Soygjani bedwar ygjano lainalanar ynwa)) heb 
stop jo. 

27. -radu iiwedi tori blaayn qenwar, -ond urj> luk -maa 
gini yyn arali roiani leevo. welinii gamyd kjafan ]ee 
rbuyd. golis samon ur)>nag oo%na neeb nagos atai-i 

unplezant ; but better with many to her being so Is time 
now to turn the cows to the aftergrass ; is the pasture after 
gettiDg-sharp, and ar they going on litl of milk. 

2o. Is-there on you nothing want dog sheep (piur.)? Is 
here too many of them. Wil-be trial dogs in Capel Cerig 
week to yesterday. Is two of dogs of the valley here going 
there. Wil-get the best much of reward. 

26. Is Beddgelert place good very to fishing, but getting 
(=if only you get) tackls suitabl to that. Is seazon trouts 
beginning befor seazon salmon. When is salmons beginning 
cuming to the river, is mor of fishing in her than in the 
lakes, and is sport good to get sum to day. One man fishing 
one morning on shore lake Dinas after to her flooding night 
befor, and he there on break the day towards ten (=til about) 


amser iellach troi y buchod i'r adladd ; (y) mae y iorfa wedi 
Uymfaau, ac (y) maent fawy yn myned ar ycbydig o laethu 

25. (a) oes arnoch chwi ddim eisieu ci defaid P (y) mae 
yma 'ormod o honynt hwj. -mi fydd trial own yn Nghapel 
Gerig wythnos i ddoe. (y) mae dau o gwa, o'r nant yma yn 
myned yno. mi gdiS y goreu lawer o wobr. 

26. (y) mae Beddgelert yn lie da iawn i iysgota, ond ca^l 
tachu pwrpasol at hyny. (y) bydd season brithylliaid yn 
dechreu oflaen season samon. pan bydd samons yn decbreu 
dyfod i'r afon, bydd mwy o iysgota ynddi hi nag yn y 
llynau, a bydd sport iawn i ^ael ambell i ddiwrnod* un dyn 
yn pysgota un boreu ar Uan Uyn Dinas ar ol iddi life noson 
^ynt, ac yntau yno ar (Jbri^d y dydd erbyn tua deg o'r ^locb 
boreu ; yr oedd ganddo ef iedwar o samons^ boh an tua thrii 
phwys ar ddeg. dyna sport 'ora ^afwyd eleni eto at ei gilydd. 
(y) mae yn gofyn eael taclau cryfion iawn i drib dal hwy yn 
un o'r Ilynau. nid ydyw ddim yn drti«t pysgota heb yn 
^yntaf (/ael genwair samon^ a cban llath o line wrth y reel^ 
gan pan fydd un go /awr wedi bachu, (y) mae yn svre o 
,/yned ag o ddeugain i iedwar ugain o line allan ar unwaith 
heb stopio, 

27. yr ydwyf wedi tori blaen (fy) ngenwair, ond wrth Itcc 
(y) mae genyf un arall i roddi yn ei le ef. well i ni ^meryd 
caf yn lie rhwyd. ^oUais sanwn wrth nag oedd yna neb yn 

of the clock morning ; was with him four of salmons, each 
one towards three pounds on ten . (=thirteen pounds). There 
sport best was-got this-year yet to one-another (=at onse). 
Is asking (=it is required) getting tackls strong very to try 
caching them in one of the lakes. •Not is anything reliabl 
fishing without first getting rod salmon, and hundred yard 
of line at the winch, with (=becauz) when is one rather 
big after hooking, is sure of going with from forty to four 
twenty (= eighty) [yards] of line out on one-time without 

27. I am after breaking point my rod, but thru luck is 
with- me one other to put in his place, fietter to us taking 
gaff in place [landing-] net. I- lost salmon thru that-not waa 
there anyone near to me to gaff him to me. On me need get 


•gjafjovo-i mil. -nai oijjo kaayl •kjastin : yynga tiolig, heb 
vood rhyy deeunee ryy vain, -maar blyan rait '8aa, ond 
-maar gatan'byyr wanani bon : -maawedi sigoan barod. syt 
bljryadir goraP -rhai |uydjontarbai koxjonsy^an tare ora. 
-maa lauarwedi deydur)>a-i -vooda blyan -maanhuani aluan 
-gooxa von'Syan yyn '8aa jaun : syt yynadi bono P -maan- 
huan debigvelmaanhuankaali galu — blainanhuan goxjon, -ai 
bonanhuan %yon. 

28. paidjuxa foa]>idim, -neemi drauxan rhyy sadyn, nes tyr 
raval. -mivyy8 ambal yynan iididjoata blyan, -ond 'Simani 
xamydhi, -ak velybaSan namal jaun -kaayli baxyo^i ajan 
rula. -ond panba^anhuwedi baxyo%i a]an, -maanhuan 
stouto vlau-an : -ba%anan huuyoor hanarbee]' banag kyni 
kaaylnhuiir Ian, -naafee'basanhuwedi baxyani kega. pam P 
08 by'Sanhuwedi baxyani kega, -byyS raidi'Synhu gadu-i 
kegaan gorad, -ak wedynbyyS duuranmyndi meun, -akani 
bo'Sinhuan vy-an. 

29. leemaar en war ganoxi P : welishi moni ganoxiers 'troo 
ruan. wel, naavyorai ^im ar lynan sgota-ars talum jaun : 
-dadir kuux, -vaSunian arvar gamyd, 'Simyu gaayl ruan, 
-adadi 'Sim gwerj? heb guux ar lyn, -os naavyy8hian wynt 
kryyjaun. sgotaan ravon dipyn woi)>ja, traa by-ohinoo 
launo %uur ; -ond ruandoos dim duuran bono ; -a dunian 
byyd bee naa-i, -os naa sgota-i 'noos W9i)>ja hevo 'piyy. 

cast : one medium, without being too thick nor too slender. 
Is the fether [ = fly] right good, but is the gut rather weak 
in her stump: she-is after bruizing alredy. What quality 
fethers ar the bestP Sum brown or sum red ar striking 
(=take) best. Is many after saying to me being the fether 
ar they calling * cochybondu ' one good very : what quality 
one is she P Ar they like as ar they getting their calling — 
their points red, and their stumps black. 

28. Abstain with getting-hot anything (= getting excited), 
or you-wil-stvike too sudden, until (=so that) breaks the 
hold. Is sura one jumping at the fether, but not takinj^ 
her, and so ar often very getting their hooking outside 
sum where. But when ar they alter hooking outside, ar 


agos ataf fi i gaffi-o ef i mi arnof fi eisiea oSiel casting : un 
(/anolig, heb fod rby dew neu ly^kin. (y) mae j 61uen righi 
dda, ond (y) mae j gyien bar wan yu ei bon : (y) mae wedi 
sigo yn iarod. (pa) sut bin ydyw y goreu P rhai llwydion 
ynte rhai cochion sydd yn taro ^oreo. (y) mae Uawer wedi 
dyweyd wrthyf fifod y Aluen maent hwy yn ei 'alw yn ^och- 
y-fon-ddu yn un dda iawn : (pa) sut un ydyw bono P (y) 
maent hwy yn ofobig fel (y) maent bwy yn cael eu galw — (eu) 
blaenau hwy yn ^^ochion, a'u bonau bwy yn dduon. 

28. peidiwcb a pboetbi dim, neu mi darawcb yn rby 
sudden, nes tyr yr 'afael. mi fydd ambell an yn neidio at y 
Muen, ond ddim yn ei ebymeryd hi, ac felly byddan yn ami 
iawn yn cael eu bachu oddiallan rywle. ond pan byddant 
hwy wedi bachu oddiallan, (y) maent hwy yn stout oflawan : 
(y) byddant yn hwy o'r haner ietbiynag cyn eu cael hwy i*r 
'Ian, na phe buasent hwy wedi bachu yn eu cegau. pabam P 
OS byddant hwy wedi bachu yn eu cegau, bydd (yn) raid 
iddynt hwy ^adw eu eegau yn agored, ae wedi hyny (y) bydd 
dwfr yn myned imewn, ac yn eu boddi hwy yn fuan. 

29. (yn) mha le (y) mae yr 'enwair genych chwiP: (ni) 
welais hi mo honi genych chwi er ys tro ynawr. fcell^ na 
fum i ddim ar y llyn 301 pysgota er ys talm iawn : nid ydyw 
y cwch, fyddwn i yn arfer (ei) gymeryd, ddim iV ^ael 
ynawr, a nid ydyw ddim gwerth heb ^ch ar y llyn, os na 
fydd hi yn wynt cryf iawn. pysgota yn yr afon rfipyn 
weithiauy tra bu hi yn 'o lawn o ddwfr; ond ynawr nid oes 

they brave exceedingly : ar longer of the half anyhow (=:at 
least) befor their getting (=they ar got) to the shore, than 
if wer they after hooking in their mouths. Wbat-cauzP 
If ar they after hooking in their mouths, is want to them 
keeping their mouths open, and after that is water going 
inside, and drowning them soon. 

29. In what place is the rod with you (=:your rod) P: not 
I-saw her anything of-her with you since turn (=for sum 
time) now. Wei, not was I anything on the lake fishing 
sinse while very (=for a long time) : not is the boat, was 1 
being-in-the-habit his taking anything to his getting (=to 
be got) now, and not is anything worth without boat on the 
lake, if not is she wind strong very. Fishing in the river 


rsgota noosmaar sgotwvr ama-i giid roan, paubanmyndi 
laurama kaota-i &r8tjo-i bal. wedynan Tano am %aajnee 
dair aur heb sarlyd rryii ber. -an sgota-ari hista W9i)ija» 
-nes'ba^anhuwedi stifjo. usnos *%niagadir usnoama hevyd : 
-maahi moor olahevor lavad. goran byrdpo da]aboobi, 
osbyy^ duuraa isaljaun. -bYY% moor daa-vl amba}i droo, 
-nes'ba^Sanhuan gldvo knola ur}> %uad adra, nieemi*Ya%anari 
truyna namal jaun, -ari penameon tumpa)>o %rain droo ara}, 
-nee drosiyu glogun nee gily*^, -nee-i traaydmennrhTU dul. 
sar}Jo¥ y3m ynwaj'o benryu gloguni lauri ganol pnl drosi 
benai glystja, -a danaleeroo^oan *xweT}>in wedyo. 

-a goog. 

30. -Too¥ poboldol ^elanan Talx jaonoor *goog, -pan 
glausonhuhi troo kantari ooyd» -ak *>^iman Iikjo-i%i Tyndo^i 
ano-i stinjog. -akmi ndy|*on glau^ ^'TT^ ^^^ draua 
bulxgar ^inanyu xaduno, -akay]H>ni watj'ohi. -and bedo%a 
googdros dopa klau¥. -akroo¥ pauban gtr^y^i : ** dasa "yyn 
rirasganan rhagor, •Tasahi '^iman niynd." -maanhuan gala 
poboMol ¥elanan 'gogjad arool hany. 

piece times (=a litl SQmtimet»\ whilst was she rather fill 
of water ; but now not is-ther^ any water in her ; and not 
know I in the world what thing shal-do I, if not fish I 
night times ^=sumtimes) with worm. Fishing night ar the 
fishermen here together (=all) now. All going down for 
the first to take-first the pool. After that in the place there 
for two or three hours without moving the one leg. Fiahiiiff 
on their seat tiroes, til ar they after stiffening. Week bad 
is the week here also : is she so light with moon. Beat in 
^the^ world the darkest is she, if is the water low Teiy. Is 
so dark sum to turn ^=sumtimes), until (=that) ar they 
lighting caiidts at cuming hoau\ or ar on their noaea often 
verv» on their hods within bush of thorns tarn other 



dim dwfr 301 bono ; a nid wn i yn (y) byd (pa) beth wnaf fi, 
08 na pysgotaf fi nos weithiau hefo pryf. pysgota noa (y) 
mae y pysgotwyr yma igyd ynawr. pawb yn myned ilawr 
am y cyntaf i ffiratio ei hwlL wedi byny yn (y) Jka yno am 
ddwy neu daxT awr beb syflyd yr un fer. yn pysgota ar ea 
beistedd weitbiau, nes byddant bwy wedi Btifflo. wytbnos 
ddrwg ydy w yr wytbnos yma befyd : (y) mae bi mor 'oleu 
hefo Ueuad. goreu yn (y) byd po rfywyllaf byddo bi, os 
bydd (y) dwfr yn isel iawn. (y) bydd mor rfywyll ambell i 
rfro, nes byddant bwy yn goleuo canwyllau wrtb ddyfod 
adref, neu mi fyddant ar eu trwynaa yn ami iawn, ar eu penau 
mewn twmpatb o ddrain dro arall, neu (Aros ryw ^logwyn neu 
gilydd, neu eu traed mewn rbyw d\9VL syrtbiodd un 
unwaitb o 6en ryw ^logwyn ilawr i ^anol pwU droB ei ben a'i 
^lustiau, a dyna lie yr oedd ef 301 cbwertbin wedi byn. 

y ^og- 

30. yr oedd pobl Dolwyddelan yn falcb iawn o'r ^og, 
pan ^lywsant bwy bi tro cyntaf erioed, ac ddim yn licio iddi 
fyned oddiyno i Ffestiniog, ac mi wnaetbant jrlawdd gwrysg 
ar (/raws bwlcb (y) (?erddinen iw cbadw yno, ac aetbant i 
icatcho hi. ond ebedodd y ^og rfros diop y clawdd. ao yr 
oedd pawb yn gwaeddi : '' pe buasai un wrysgen yn rhagor, 
fuasai hi ddim yn myned." maent bwy yn galw pobl 
Dolwyddelan yn ^ogiaid ar ol byny, 

(= another time), or across sum steep-rock or otberi or 
their feet within sum hole. Fel one onse from bed sum 
steep-rock down to midl pool over bis bed and bis eara^ 
and there place was be laughing after this. 

The cuckoo. 

30. Was peple Dolyddelan glad very of tbe cuckoo, when 
herd they her turn first ever, but not liking to-ber going 
f rom-there to Festiniog. And made fence branches across gap 
the Gerddinen to her keeping there, and went to wach her. 
B u t fle w the cuckoo across top tbe fence. And was everyone ex- 
cluiming : '4f bad-been one branchmor, bad-been sbenotsoing.^ 
Ar they calling peple Dolwyddelan cuckoo-men after Uiis, 


-a %ay heen laqk. 

31. -roo% day heen laqkan byuan koytmordol %elan, -a 
dayjjonii gooyd'bavod rhiisgi dori polyn presab. -ak erbyni- 
'Synhu vyndagoo adra, -roo^an rhyy hiir, -a day]jonagooani 
ooli gooyd'havod rhiisgi'dori damohono. -akmaa heen 
*?jarab ar ool hany : *^ -vyyri ooydrhyy hiiro gooydond 
yowaJ>an*dol 'Selan." 

kadu kavriandol %elan. 

32. lauaro amsara nool, -roo% Jopuran'dol %elan na}a 
sgweny. ve)y', pan*ya%a axos kadu kavri am bej^a ga'merid 
oor Jop heb daly am danynhu, -roo% ganovo for ho)ol 
r^raKjoli noydhany , seev, :rhoi lyyna nuy'Sa werj>id meun 
lyfr. ynwaJjroo'S farmur, •a'xanovo gavri'hevovo. -ak 
ur\> setlio -rooSa Jopuran enwir peJ^aoo'Sa farmurwedi kaayl. 
" kayjjox buuyso Jugur," me^avo, gan buyntjoati lyyn (-vel 
hyn t>). " doo/* me'Sar farmur. " keyj^ox xwartaro dee," 
gan bwyntjoata Jyyndra xevn (-vel hyn D). " doo," me%ar 
farmur. " kay]?ox 'gosyn hevyd/' me'Sar Jopur, gan buynt- 
joata lyyn (-vel hyn O). "naaSo," me%ar farmur, **-radu 
iin gnoyd kausva hyyn, -ak ii bee pf anun li gausgano xii P " 
"wel, -radaxwedi gaaylo," me^ar Jopur, ''dama-i lyyno ar 

The two old youth (= bachelors). 

31. There was two old youth living in Coetmor Dolwyddelan, 
and came to wood Hafod Khisgl to cut pole cow-stall. And 
towards to them going with him (=taking it) home, was too 
long, and came with him in his track (=buck) to wood Hafod 
llhisgl to cut piece from him. And is old saying after that. : 
"not was ever too loDg of wood but onse in Dolwyddelan.' 


Keeping acount in Dolwyddelan. 

32. Much of time back was shopman (=8hopkeeper) in 
Dolwyddelan not coud write. So, when was cauz keeping 
acount about things wer- taken from the shop without paying- 


y ddiiu ben lane. 

31. yr oedd dau hen lane yn byw yn Coetmor Dolwyddelan, 
a daethant i tjoed Hafod Rhisgl i iloii polyn preseb. ac 
erbyn iddynt hwy fyned ag ef adrcf, yr oedd yn rhy hir, a 
daethant ag ef yn ei ol i goed Hafod Rhisgl i rfori dam o 
hono. ac mae hen ddiareb ar ol hyny : "' (ui) fu erioed rhy 
hir o goed ond unwaith yn Dolwyddelan." 

cadw cyfrif yn Dolvryddelan, 

32. Uawer o amaer yool yr oedd shopvr yn Dolwyddelan 
na 'allai yagrifenu. felly, pan fyddai achoa cndw cyfrif am 
Aethaa a i/yniorid o'r »hop heb (/alu am danynt hwy, yr oedd 
gonddo ef ffordd hollol wreJddiol i wneud hyny, sef, rhoddi 
llun y nwyddau a werthid inewn llyfr. unwaitb yr oedd 
JfermviT, a chauddo ef cyfrif hefo ef. ac wrth ncth yr oedd 
y shopvir yn enwi y pethau oedd y Jfermvir wedi cael, 
"cawaoch ftwya o Hxicgr," meddai ef, gan iwyntio at ei lun 
{fel hyn C). "do," meddai y Jfvrmvir. "cawBoch chwarler 
o de," gan Swj-ntio at y llun i/rachefn (fel hyn D). "do," 
meddai y ffennirr. " cawsoch i/oaya hefyd," meddai y 
ahopwT, gan 6wj-ntio at y llun {fel hyn O)- "na ddo," 
meddai y Jfermwr, " yr ydwyf yn gwneyd caws fy hun, ac i 
Acth prynwn i i/aws geiiych chwi p " " wel, yr ydych wedi 
gael ef," meddai y shopwr, " dyma ei lun ef ar lawr." " tccii. 

for them, was with him way holely original to do that, that-is, 
putting picture the goods wer-so!d in book. One-time was 
farmman (=farmer), and with him acount with him. And 
at setliug was the shopman naming the things was the 
farmman after getting. "You-got pound of augar," said 
he, with pointing at his picture (as this r>)- " Vee," said 
the fanuinan. "You-got quarter [of a pound] of tea," with 
pointing at the pictura again (as this nj. " Yea," said the 
farmman. "You-got cheez also," said the shopman, with 
pointing at the picture (aa this O)- " No," said the i'armmen, 
"I-am making chetz myself, and to what-thing wer-bnying 
I eheez with you P " " Wel, you ar after getting him," said 
the shopman, "here his picture of-him on floor (=^down [in 


laur." "wel, -pryyn banagadio ar laurai peidjo," me^ar 
farmur, "xeesi monovo, ond kees vaayn Jivo'." "oo," me'Sar 
Jopur, " maayn livo adi-o', ond moodiwedi aq hovjo rhoia 
tulani ganolo " (-vel hyn 0). 

-a farmur an vo^lon. 

33. ar oxor many^hi rayjjog -roo'8 *farmuran byu meun 
ta'Syn baxaQ ; -ak er vood pope}>oi gumpas naijjaka syrys, 
atobaSa boob amsaran an vo'Slon, -nen wedighevoi 'rf^jaig: 
-vaSa dima naa-ani blejjo. vely, yyn durnod, :panoo%aa 
:kadu suun am rubaJ>oo%aii*mynda mlaaynan tyy, me%a-i 
reraig urj^o : '' buna bun, rhosu 'xiian tyy, -mi ai ina 
alan'hevor gwaijjon, -i nii'gaayl gwelda vedruxi blejjo 
xyoan." velyka tynudiir rimig'vynd alana durnod wedyn, 
-akiir guur arosan tyy. -a durnod hunu -oo'8 oijjo "korSi. 
vely, rhooJ?a laay}>ana vy'Sa, -a dexroS ami. pan ar ganol 
korSi, taimla saxad, -ame ^aljabasa draxtoor kuruoo% 
ganovoan selaran gastal dioda dim ala gaayl. vely, -i laura 
goo, -a d5ugani lau. panoo^a kuru ar ganol rhedag, klaua 
-ryu suunan gegin, -ak ar ynwa]?me Saljo'Sbood ruba]> ajano 
lee hevor vySa. rhedoSi vany, -a danaleeroo'8 rhuux wedi 
troir vySa, -akan avada laaj']? o'Syd laur. -auiwyl tinab 

the book])." "Wei, what the one ever is he on floor or 
abstaining (=whether it is down or not)," said the farmman, 
" not got I anything of him, but I-got stone grinding," 
" Oh ! " said the shopman, " stone grinding is he, but mv 
being of -me after forgetting putting the hole in his mial 
of-him " (as this O). 

The farmman discontented. 

33. On side mountain Hiraethog was farmman living in 
farm litl ; and altho being everything of his compass ( = around 
him) exceedingly comfortabl, stil he- was all time discon- 
tented, especialy with his wife : was nothing she-did pleazing 


pa yr un byoag Tdyw ef ar lawr ai pddioy" meddai j 
jffermwT, " (ni) chefais i mo bono ef, ooA oefais ^beo Uifik" 
**Oj" meddai y tkcpwr^ *'maen llifo ydyw ef, end (fy) Mod i 
wedi anghofio rhoddi j twU yn ei gtaiok ef " (M hyn 0). 

X ffermwT anfoddlawn. 

33. ar ochr mynydd Hiraethog yr oedd Jftrmwt jn byw 
mown tyddyn bychao; ac er for pob petb o'i ^wmpas yn 
eithaf cysorus, eto byddai bob amser yn anfoddlawn, yn 
enwedig hefo'i wraig : fyddai dim a wnai yn ei bfetio. Mly, 
mi diwmody pan oedd yn cadw swn am lywbetb oedd yn 
mynd yn mlaen yn y ty, meddai ei wraig wrtho: ''bwn a 
bwn, aroeweb chwi yn (y) ty, mi af fi innan allan befo y 
gweision, i ni ffsel gweled a^edrwch cbwi bfeno ^ch bunan." 
felly, cytanwyd i'r wraig fyned allan y diwmod wedi byny, 
ao i'r gwr aros yn (y) ty. y diwmod bwnw oedd daien 
corddi. felly, rboddodd y Uaetb yn y fuddai, a deebreaodd 
arm. pan ar ^nol corddi, teimlai syched, a meddyliai (y) 
buasai dracht o'r cwrw oedd ganddo ef yn y cellar jn gy^XdX 
diod a dim 'allai ^aeL felly, i lawr ag ef, 9k jug yn ei law. pan 
oedd y cwrw ar ^anol rhedeg, elywodd ryw swn yn y ^egin, 
ac ar unwaith meddyliodd bod rywbetb allan o le befo y 
fbddai. rhedodd i fyny, a dyna lie yr oedd yr bwcb wedi 
troi y fuddai, ac yn yfed y llaetb oddibyd lawr. yn ei 

bim. So, one day, when he-was holding noiz about samtbing 
was going abed (=on) in the house, said bis wife to-him: 
''This and this (=8o and so), stay you in the house, I-wil-go 
I out with the servants, to us getting seeing can you pleas 
yourself." So, was-agreed to the wife going out the day 
after that, and to the husband staying in the bouse. The 
day that (=that day) was want churning. So, he-put the 
milk in the churn, and began on-her. When on midl 
churning, he- felt dryness, and thoght would-be draft of 
the beer was with him in the cellar as-good drink as any- 
thing he-could get. So, to floor (=down) with him, and 
{'ag in his hand. When was the beer on midl running, he* 
lerd sum noiz in the kichen, and on one-time (=:at onae) 


kipjo^a Tuya]a Jrauo^ rhuuxani fea nesoo^an varu. :ar 
hyn', kovjo%vooda kuruan rhedagi laurana selar. -i laura 
gooy -ak erbyn bany -roo%a kuruwedi rhedag boob t^'opyn 
byd laura selar. 

34. arool hany -aa]>i vany iir gegin, -a gwela-ibood 
destaQ amsariir gwdiJjon'%uadi ginjo, - akanta heb ^